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MB. G. BEEWIS'S ENGLISH SETTER " DASH II. 



THE 





T* YV CZ\ 4 Y* Y 

nf tte Intel 



A SERIES OF ARTICLES 



THE POINTS OF THEIR VARIOUS BREEDS, 



THE TREATMENT OF THE DISEASES TO WHICH 
THEY ARE SUBJECT. 



BY J. H. WALSH 

("STONEHENGE"), 
Editor of "The inield" 

(WITH THE AID OF SEVERAL EXPERIENCED BREEDERS). 



IF 1 o TJ :B T n 



LONDON: 

HORACE COX, 

"THE FIELD" OFFICE, 346, STRAND, W.C. 

1882. 






LONDON : 
PRINTED BY HORACE COX, 346, STRAND, W.C. 



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION. 




INGE the third edition of this book was published so short a 
time has elapsed that very little change in, or addition to, the 

'> 

" Dogs of the British Islands " is to be noticed. In the sporting 
division a warm controversy has for some time been going on 
with regard to the breeding of the Laverack setter, one party alleging 
that all of this breed are descended from one pair mentioned by Mr. 
Laverack as the sole progenitors of his strain, while the other maintain 
(1st) that Mr. Laverack himself admitted, both orally and in writing, that 
he had used importations from other kennels ; and (2nd) that it is incredible 
that the average age (9) necessary to show the truth of the Adam and 
Eve theory is within the bounds of possibility. My own opinion is that 
the second of these objections is enough to dispose of this theory to the 
satisfaction of any person of average powers, but that the first is not by 
any means proved. In any case the question is of no importance, for the 
breed is now to be regarded from actual results, and not from theoretical 
grounds which ought entirely to give way before our experience of its 
merits or demerits, whichever may be in excess. Now, on the show bench, 
the Laveracks (so called) have held their own both in this country and 
abroad, but in the field they have stood no chance against the crosses 
with other strains, and especially with those used by Mr. Purcell Llewellin, 
whose breed, now called " Llewellin's," should therefore be preferred. With 
this exception there has been little or no novelty in any class of sporting 
dogs described by me in the previous editions, but I have added an article 
on the French Basset, now extensively bred in this country, written by 
Mr. Krehl, which will be read with especial interest by the admirers of 
that dog, and also by hound men in general. 

29858ti 



PEEFACE. 



In the second division I have added articles on the Scotch and Airedale 
terriers, and have also substituted for Mr. Kidgway's original article on 
the Irish terrier another written by the President of the Club instituted 
for the improvement of that breed, embodying their most recent views, 
and for which, as well as for the article on the Basset, I have to thank 
that gentleman most sincerely. 

I trust that with these alterations and additions the fourth edition of 
" Dogs of the British Islands " will be considered worthy of continued 
support. 

" STONEHENGE." 

PUTNEY, July 12, 1882. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



BOOK I. 
MANAGEMENT OF DOGS IN HEALTH. 

CHAPTER I. PA&B 

Kennel Management of Large Dogs ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

CHAPTER II. 
House Management of Pet Dogs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 



BOOK II. 

DRUGS COMMONLY USED FOR THE DISEASES OF DOGS, AND 
THEIR MODES OF ADMINISTRATION. 

CHAPTER I. 

The Action of Medicines, and the Forms in which they are generally 

Prescribed ... " 8 

CHAPTER II. 
Administration of Remedies... 14 



BOOK III. 
THE ORDINARY DISEASES OF THE DOG AND THEIR TREATMENT. 

CHAPTER I. 
Fevers 16 

CHAPTER II. 
Inflammations, &c 24 



BOOK IV. 
JUDGING AT DOG SHOWS AND FIELD TRIALS. 

CHAPTER I. 
Judging at Shows ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 49 



i v CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER II. PAGE 

On Judging at Field Trials 58 



PART II. 

S IF O IR, T I 1ST O- IDOO-S 



BOOK I. 
DOGS USED WITH THE GUN. 

CHAPTER I. SETTERS. 

General Remarks ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

The English Setter 69 

The Black -tan Setter (sometimes called Gordon) ... ... ... ... ... 78 

The Irish Setter 81 

CHAPTER II. THE POINTER. 

The Modern Pointer 86 

The Dropper 92 

CHAPTER III. SPANIELS. 

The Modern Field Spaniel 93 

The Modern Cocker ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 94 

The Sussex Spaniel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 96 

The Clumber Spaniel 99 

The Irish Water Spaniel ... 101 

The English Water Spaniel ... ... 103 

CHAPTER IV. RETRIEVERS. 

The Retriever Proper ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 104 

The Wavy-coated Retriever 106 

The Black Curly-coated Retriever ... 109 

Retrievers other than Black ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 110 

Wildfowl Retrievers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Ill 

The Deerhound 111 



BOOK II. 
HOUNDS AND THEIR ALLIES. 

CHAPTER I. 
The Greyhound ... 115 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER II. MODERN HOUNDS HUNTING BY NOSE. 

PAGE 

General Remarks 121 

The Bloodhound ... ... ... : 122 

The Foxhound ... 127 

The Harrier ... ... ... 130 

The Beagle ... ... ... ... ... 131 

The Otter Hound ... 132 

CHAPTER III. THE Fox TERRIER THE DACHSHUND THE BASSET. 

The Smooth Fox Terrier 134 

The Eough Fox Terrier ... ... ... 140 

The Dachshund, or German Badger Dog ... ... ... ... ... ... 142 

The Basset Hound 157 



PART III. 

}- 3DOG-S. 



BOOK I. 
WATCH-DOGS. 

CHAPTER I. THE BULLDOG AND MASTIFF. 

The Bulldog \.. 163 

The English Mastiff 170 

CHAPTER II. THE NEWFOUNDLAND, LABRADOR, ST. BERNARD, AND 

DALMATIAN DOGS. 

The Newfoundland Dog ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 179 

The Labrador or lesser Newfoundland Dog 183 

The St. Bernard Dog ... 183 

The Dalmatian Dog .. ... 188 



BOOK II. 
SHEEP AND CATTLE DOGS. 

CHAPTER I. THE COLLEY AND OTHER SHEEPDOGS. 

TheColleyDog 191 

The Bob-tailed Sheepdog ... 198 

CHAPTER II. 
The Pomeranian or Spitz Dog ; also called Loup-loup 198 



CONTENTS. 



BOOK III. 
TERRIERS (OTHER THAN FOX AND TOY). 

CHAPTER I. PAGE 

Nondescript Terriers... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 201 

CHAPTER II. SPECIAL BREEDS OF ROUGH TERRIERS. 

The Skye Terrier 203 

The Dandie Dinmont Terrier 206 

The Bedlington Terrier 214 

The Yorkshire Terrier 217 

The Irish Terrier * 219 

CHAPTER III. SMOOTH TERRIERS (OTHER THAN TOYS). 

The Black and Tan Terrier (sometimes called the Manchester Terrier) . . . 224 

The White English Terrier 228 

The Bull Terrier 228 

The Scotch Terrier ... ... ... 232 

The Airedale Terrier... ... 235 



BOOK IV. 

TOY DOGS. 

CHAPTER I. ROUGH-COATED TOY DOGS. 

The King Charles and Blenheim Spaniels... ... ... ... ... ... 238 

The Maltese Dog 241 

CHAPTER II. SMOOTH TOY DOGS. 

The Pug ... 243 

The Italian Greyhound 247 

The Smooth Toy Terrier , 250 



APPENDIX. 

POODLES, FRENCH AND RUSSIAN-THE TRUFFLE DOG-THE 
CHINESE CRESTED DOG-THE GREAT DANE. 

The Poodle 254 

The Truffle Dog 260 

The Chinese Crested Dog 263 

The Great Dane 264 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



TO FACE PAGE 

Mr. G. Brewis's English Setter " Dash II." frontispiece 

Mr. Purcell Llewellin's English Setter " Countess " 69 

Mr. Coath's Black and Tan Setter " Lang " 78 

Mr. Macdona's Irish Setter " Eover " 81 

Mr. E. J. Lloyd Pi-ice's Pointers " Drake " and " Belle " 86 

Mr. Smith's Pointer " Major " 88 

Mr. W. Gillett's "Brush" and "Nellie," and Mr. W. Langdale's " Ladybird" 

(Cockers) 93 

Mr. Soames's Sussex Spaniel " George " Bred by Mr. Fuller 96 

Mr. Price's Clumber Spaniel " Bruce " 99 

Mr. Lindoe's Irish Water Spaniels " Eake " and " Blarney "... ... 101 

Mr. G. Brewis's Wavy-coated Eetrievers " Paris " and " Melody " 105 

Curly-coated Eetrievers. Mr. Thorpe Bartram's " Nell " and Mr. Morris's 

"True" 109 

Mr. Field's Deerhound " Bran" Ill 

Greyhounds. Mr. W. Long's " David " and Mr. C. Eandall's " Eiot " ... 115 

Mr. Eay's Bloodhounds " St. Hubert " and " Baroness " 122 

Lord Poltimore's Foxhound " Lexicon " 127 

The North Warwickshire Foxhound " Eosy " 128 

Mr. Evans's Harrier " Clamorous " 130 

Mr. Crane's Beagles " Giant " and " Einglet " 131 

Mr. Carrick's Otter Hound " Stanley " 132 

Mr. Murchison's Fox Terrier " Olive," and Mr. Burbidge's Fox Terrier 

"Bitters" 134 

Eough Fox Terriers. Mr. G. F. Eichardson's " Bramble " and Mr. Lindsay 

Hogg's "Topper" 140 

Mr. Barclay Hanbury's Dachshunds " Fritz " and " Dina " 142 

Basset Hounds 157 

Mr. Vero Shaw's Bull-Dogs "Smasher" and "Sugar" 163 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



TO FACE PAGE 

Mr. Lukey's Mastiff " Governor " ...... ... ... 1 70 

Mr. Mapplebeck's Newfoundland Dog "Leo" ... ... 179 

The Rev. J. C. Macdona's St. Bernard "Tell" ... ... 183 

The Rev. J. C. Macdona's Smooth St. Bernard "Monarque" ... ... ... 185 

Mr. Tawdry's Dalmatian Dog " Captain " ......... ... 189 

Colleys. Mr. M. Skinner's " Vero," and Mr. H. Mapplebeck's " Fan" ... 191 

Mrs. M. E. Prosser's Pomeranian Dog "Joe" ... ... ... ... ... 198 

Nondescript Terriers. Mr. Spink's " Bounce," Mr. Pearce's " Venture," Mr. 

Radclyffe's " Rough," Mr. Fitter's " Dandy " ... ...... 201 

Mr. Martin's Prick-eared Skye Terrier, and Mr. Russell England's Drop-eared 

Skye Terrier " Laddie " ......... ... 202 

Mr. J. Locke's Dandie Dinmonts " Doctor " and " Tib Mumps " ...... 207 

Bedlington Terriers. Mr. F. Armstrong's "Rosebud" and Mr. A. Armstrong's 

"Nailor" ..................... ...... 214 

Yorkshire Terriers. Mrs. Foster's " Huddersfield. Ben" and Lady Giffard's 

"Katie"... ... ...... 217 

Mr. G. Jamison's Irish Terrier " Spuds " ......... ...... ... 219 

Mr. H. Lacy's Black-tan Terrier " Belcher " ... ... 224 

Mr. Vero Shaw's White English Terriers " Sylvio " and " Sylph " ... 228 

Mr. Vero Shaw's Bull Terriers " Tarquin " and " Napper " ... 231 

Scotch Terriers. Miss Mary Laing's " Foxie " and Mr J. A. Adamson's 

"Roger Rough" ... ......... 232 

Mr. L. P. C. Astley's Airedale Terrier Bitch " Fracture " ... 235 

Toy Spaniels. Mr. J. W. Berrie's Modern Blenheim " The Earl," Mr. Julius's 

Old Blenheim " Spot," Mr. Forder's King Charles " Young Jumbo " ... 238 

Mr. R. Mandeville's Maltese Dog " Fido " ............ ... 241 

The late Mr. H. Gilbert's Pug Dog "Prince"; "Mops" and "Nell," the 

Parent Stock of the Willoughby Pugs ............... 243 

Italian Greyhounds. Mr. Pirn's " Bismark " and Mr. J. Day's " Crucifix " ... 247 
Mr. Howard Mapplebeck's Toy Terrier " Belle," contrasted with his Man- 

chester Terrier " Queen II." ...... ...... ... 250 

Poodles and Whippet. Group of Mr. Walton's Performing Dogs ... ... 253 

Mrs, Malcolm's Truffle Dog " Judy " . . 260 

The Chinese Crested Dog ... ... 263 



INDEX TO PART I. 



A. 

Acute bronchitis page 

Acute pleurisy 

Acute pneumonia 

Alteratives 

Amaurosis, treatment of 

Anasarca, or general dropsy 

Anasarca, treatment of 

Anodynes 

Anti-spasmodics 

Aperients 

Ascaris lumbricoides 

Asthma, spasmodic, in pet dogs 

Asthma, spasmodic, symptoms of 

Asthma, spasmodic, treatment of 

Astringents 



B. 



Bala, scale of points used at 

Bedford, scale of points used at 

Belly distemper, causes of 

Belly distemper, treatment of 

Bishop's mange lotion 

Bitch devouring her young 

Bitch foster mother, treatment of . . 

Bites in dogs , treatment of 

Bladder, inflammation of the 

Bleeding from the lungs, styptic for 

Blisters 

Bloody urine, styptic for 

Blotch, treatment of 

Bolus, how to administer 

Bones necessary for dogs 

Brailsford's, Mr., scale of points 

Bronchitis, symptoms of acute 

Bronchitis, symptoms of chronic 



32 

31 

32 

8 

27 

39 

40 

9 

9 

9 

40 
33 
33 
34 
10 



59 
59 
18 
21 
14 
44 
44 
44 
37 
13 
10 
13 
30 
14 
5 

59 
32 
32 



Bronchitis, treatment of page 33 

Butler and M'Cullooa's insect destroyer 6 

C. 

Calvert's carbolic acid wash 4 

Cancer, treatment of 43 

Canker of the ear, treatment of 28 

Cataract 27 

Caustics '..... 11 

Chest distemper, nature of 18 

Chest distemper, treatment of 21 

Chest founder 23 

Chorea, a sequel of distemper 19 

Chorea, treatment of 22, 38 

Chronic bronchitis 32 

Chronic pleurisy 31 

Chronic pneumonia 32 

Colic, symptoms and treatment of 36 

Consumption 34 

Cordials 11 

Costiveness 37 

Cough mixtures for the dog 12 

Cuts, treatment of 44 

D. 

Deafness, causes of 27 

Diabetes, bolus for 10 

Diarrhoea, treatment of 36 

Digestive ointment 13 

Dislocations, treatment of 46 

Distemper, chest, nature of 18 

Distemper, chest, treatment of 21 

Distemper, definition of 17 

Distemper, general treatment of 20 

Distemper, how to distinguish 19 

Distemper, observations on treatment of ... 20 

Distemper of the belly, causes of 18 



INDEX. 



Distemper of the belly, treatment of ...page ! 

Distemper, sequels of 

Distemper tonic ** 

Diuretics 

Dog biscuits 

Dog, operations on the 48 

Dog shows, judging at 49 

Door, best kind of , for kennels 3 

Drenching, method of 

Dropsy, general symptoms of 39 

Dropsy, general treatment of 40 

Dropsy of the eye 27 

Dysentery, treatment of 37 



E. 

Ear, inflammation of the 27 

Embrocations 12 

Emetics * 12 

Encysted tumours, treatment of 43 

Enlarged growths, sweating application for.. 10 

Enlarged joints 42 

Enteritis, symptoms and treatment of 35 

Ephemeral fever 16 

Epidemic fever 16 

Epilepsy, symptoms of 38 

. Epilepsy, treatment of 39 

Eruption between the toes 30 

Expectorants 12 

Eye, inflammation of the 26 

Eyewashes 10 



F. 

Febrifuges 13 

Fever, ephemeral 

Fever, epidemic , 

Fever mixture 13 

Fever pill 18 

Fevers 

Field trials, on judging at 58 

Firing, use of 

Fits, treatment of 31 

Fleas in large dogs, to destroy 

Fleas in pet dogs, to destroy 6 

Fox terrier judging at Lillie Bridge 52 

Fractures, treatment of 46 

Fungus Hcematodes, treatment of 45 



G. 

Gastritis, treatment of 3 



H. 



Head, distemper, symptoms of page 

lead distemper, treatment of 20 

Heart, inflammation of the 34 

Hepatitis, cause of 34 

Sepatitis, chronic 

Hepatitis, treatment of 

Hinder extremities, paralysis of 23 

Horseheath and Shrewsbury, methods of 

judging at, compared 60 

House management of pet dogs 4 

Hydrophobia, see " Rabies " 



" Idstone's" scale of points 59 

Inflammation of the bladder 37 

Inflammation of the heart 34 

Inflammation of the intestines 35 

Inflammation of the kidney 37 

Inflammation of the liver 34 

Inflammation of the mouth 28 

Inflammation of the nose 28 

Inflammation of the organs of nutrition 34 

Inflammation of the skin 29 

Inflammation of the stomach 34 

Inflammation of the urethra 37 

Inflammations 24 

Influenza 16 

Intestines, inflammation of 35 



J. 



Joints, enlarged, cause of ... 42 

Judging at dog shows 49 

Judging at field trials 58 

Judging at shows, inconsistency of the old 

method 49 

Judging by points, advantages of 53 

Judging, public, preferable to private 50 

Judging, single, best 50 



K. 



Keating' s insect destroying powder 6 

Kennel Club code of points 60 

Kennel lameness 23 

Kennel management of large dogs 3 

Kidney, inflammation of the 37 



INDEX. 



XI 



Large dogs, kennel management of page 3 

Laryngitis, chronic 30 

Larynx, acute inflammation of the 30 

Lice in pet dogs, to destroy 6 

Limbs, fractures of, treatment of 46 

Liniments 12 

Liver, inflammation of the 34 

Lotions 14 

Lowe's, Mr., code of points 60 



M. 

Malignant distemper, description of 18 

Malignant distemper, treatment of 21 

Management of pet dogs in the house 4 

Mange, description of 29 

Mange ointment 13 

Mange, red 30 

Mange, virulent 29 

Mange wash 14 

Mange, with thickening of skin 29 

Maw worm, description of 40 

Mild distemper, symptoms of 17 

Mouth, inflammation of the 28 



N. 
Nose, inflammation of the 28 



O. 

Ointments 13 

Operations on the dog 48 

Ophthalmia, treatment of 27 

Organs of nutrition, inflammation of 34 

Ozena (inflammation of the nose) 28 



P. 

Palsy, treatment of 22 

Paralysis of the hinder extremities 23 

Parturition, diseases of 43 

Parturition, healthy 43 

Parturition, process of 43 

Parturition, treatment after 44 

Penis, wash for 10 

Peritonitis, symptoms and treatment of 35 

Pet dogs, house management of 4 

Pet dogs, medicines for 5, 6 

Pet dogs, washing 6 



Phthisis, symptoms of page 34 

Piles, ointment for 10 

Pill, how to administer 14 

Pleurisy, acute 31 

Pleurisy, chronic 31 

Pneumonia distinguished from pleurisy 31 

Pneumonia, acute 32 

Pneumonia, chronic 32 

Pointers, food for 4 

Pointer, suggested method of judging 54 

Points, advantages of judging by 53 

Points, Kennel Club code of 60 

Points, Mr. Brailsf ord' s scale of 59 

Points, Mr. Lowe's code of 60 

Points, scale of, used at Bedford and Bala... 59 

Points, table of 57 

Public judging preferable to private 50 

Puppies, food for 5 

Purges, action of 9 

Purges, prescriptions for 9 



B. 

Eabies incurable 24 

Babies, preventive measures regarding 25 

Rabies, symptoms of 25 

Red mange, description of 30 

Remedies, administration of 14 

Respiration, inflammation of the organs of 30 

Rheumatic fever, symptoms of 22 

Rheumatic fever, treatment of 22 

Rheumatism, chronic 23 

Ribs, fractures of, treatment of 46 

Rickets, cause of 42 

Rickets, treatment of 42 

Round worm, description of 40 

Round worm, remedies for 41 

"Rule of thumb " judging not trustworthy 51 



S. 

Setters, food for 4 

Shaking palsy 20 

Shaking palsy incurable 38 

Shrewsbury and Horseheath methods of 

judging compared c*. 60 

Shows, judging at 49 

Skin, inflammation of the 28 

Spasmodic asthma, symptoms of 33 

Spasmodic asthma, treatment of 34 

Spasms, prescriptions for 9 

Sporting dogs to be fed once a day 3 

Spratt's biscuits 4 



Xll 



INDEX. 



Stomachic draught page 13 

Stomachic pill 13 

Stomachics 13 

Stomach, inflammation of the 34 

StypticB 13 

Surfeit, treatment of 30 



T. 

Table of points 57 

Tsenialata 41 

Tffinia solium 41 

Tape worm, remedies for 41 

Tears, treatment of 44 

Tetanus 26 

Thickening of skin, with mange 29 

Ticks in large dogs, to destroy 4 

Ticks in pet dogs, to destroy 6 

Toes, "letting down" of 47 

Tonic for distemper 14 

Tonic mixtures 14 

Tonic pills 14 

Tonioa, list of 13 

" Trembles," the 19 

Tumours, encysted, treatment of 43 

Turnside 26 

"Twitch,"the 19 



U. 

Urethra, inflammation of th page 37 



V. 

Vaynol, scale at points used at 59 

Vegetables necessary for large dogs 4 

Virulent mange 29 

W. 

Warts in the month 28 

Washes, astringent 10 

Washes, list of 14 

Washing pet dogs 6 

White precipitate for destroying lice and 

ticks 7 

Worm medicines 14 

Worms, general principles of treatment for 41 

Worms, maw, remedies for 41 

Worms, presence of, in dogs 40 

Worms, round, remedies for 41 

Worms, tape, remedies for 41 

Worms, varieties of 40 

Y. 

" Yellows," the 18, 34 






OF THE 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 



DOOR LIFTED 
; ON ITS HINGES ' 




8 
3 SCALE OF FEET 



KENNEL FOE POINTEES, SETTEES, OE SPANIELS. 




PART I. 

BOOK I. 
MANAGEMENT OF DOGS IN HEALTH. 

OHAPTEE I. 
KENNEL MANAGEMENT OF LARGE DOGS. 



HE kennel management of greyhounds, foxhounds, harriers, and other 
sporting dogs varies almost with each kind. Thus, greyhounds are 
most carefully protected from the weather by a roof to their yard as 
well as by body clothing, which is worn when in severe training. Next 
to these come hounds, and then pointers, setters, spaniels, and retrievers, 
all of which last are allowed a run into an open yard at discretion. In many cases 
this leads to colds and rheumatism, against which the best precaution is a sloping 
door for the opening into the sleeping chamber, hinged at the top, and made up at 
the sides with a /\ shaped piece of wood, but not at the bottom. This, when in 
its place, allows the dogs to jump up on to their beds, while it protects them from 
wind and rain when there, and can at any time be lifted completely up so as to 
allow of the kennel man entering and making all clean. The accompanying 
engraving shows a plan of such a door, with the dimensions suitable for the pur- 
pose, and from it any carpenter will easily be able to construct one. The advantage 
is too obvious to need dilating on it. In the summer time a wooden bench, if pro- 
tected in this way, and guarded from the wall by planking, needs no straw, which 
only harbours fleas ; but in the winter it, or deal shavings, which do not harbour 
fleas, must be provided, and, whichever is used, it should be changed twice a week. 
The floor of the yard should be of glazed tiles, cement, or asphalte, and all the 
woodwork should be either painted or dressed with best gas tar, the latter being the 
better material of the two. If the look of the tar is objected to, it may be coated 
with lime- wash, which, however, requires a renewal at least once a year. 

Sporting dogs are all better fed only once a day, and for those whose noses are 
of the utmost importance, viz., pointers and setters, the food should be almost 
entirely of meal, either made into biscuit or well boiled and converted into pudding. 
In either case, a very weak broth must be made of flesh or greaves, which is then 
used to boil the meal in or to soak the biscuits. Spratt's and other biscuits have 
lately been introduced into general use, by which all this trouble is avoided dried 






4 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

flesh, imported from abroad, being mixed with the meal before it is baked. I have 
tried those of Spratt and Co. with great advantage on pointers and setters, when 
containing not more than ten per cent, of meat ; but a larger proportion I have 
found much too heating, causing loss of nose, and a tendency to eruption. They 
should be given whole and dry, not soaked, the dogs breaking them up easily with 
their teeth ; and they appear to agree much better in this way than when soaked. 
Two or three times a week, whatever may be the kind of meal or biscuit used, some 
green vegetables, well boiled, should be given in addition, by which means the blood 
is kept cool, the coat blooming, and the nose cool and moist. Messrs. Spratt and 
Co. add a certain quantity of dates to their biscuits for the same purposes, but they 
are not sufficient for any length of time to supersede the necessity for green food 
in the case of kennelled dogs, who cannot get at ^ grass, which instinct prompts 
those at liberty to bite off and swallow. The number of biscuits required for a 
pointer or setter daily averages from 3 to 3|, but some gross feeders are sufficiently 
nourished with 2|, and others demand as many as 4| or even 5. 

Last year (1881) Messrs. Spratt introduced beetroot into their biscuits with 
excellent effect, not only on the health of the dogs fed on them, but also on the 
appetite for them of delicate or petted dogs. I find by experience that the most 
fastidious feeder will eat them dry, and strongly recommend this improvement to 
my readers. 

For large dogs, Calvert's carbolic acid wash, diluted with thirty or forty times 
its bulk of water, and used as a wash, forms the best application for fleas and 
ticks, and it is also useful as a vermin- destroying wash for the kennel walls and 
fittings, followed by lime-wash when dry. If preferred, the application described 
for pet dogs may be employed, or a small quantity of benzine collas may be 
rubbed in along the back. 



CHAPTER II. 
HOUSE MANAGEMENT OF PET DOGS. 



ET DOGS require a different treatment, to understand which it will be 
better to begin at the beginning. We will suppose that a puppy six 
weeks old, and of a breed not exceeding 151b. weight, is presented to 
one of our readers What is to be done ? First of all, if the weather 
is not decidedly warm, let it be provided with a warm basket lined with 
some woollen material, which must be kept scrupulously clean. The little animal 
must on no account be permitted to have the opportunity of lying upon a stone 
floor, which is a fertile source of disease ; bare wood, however, is better than caipet, 
and oilcloth superior to either on the score of cleanliness. In the winter season the 




HOUSE MANAGEMENT OF PET DOGS. 



apartment should have a fire, but it is not desirable that the puppy should lie 
basking close to it, though this is far better than the other extreme. Even in the 
severest cold a gleam of sunshine does young creatures good, and the puppy should, 
if possible, be allowed to obtain it through a window in the winter, or without that 
protection in the summer. It will take exercise enough in playing with a ball of 
worsted or other material indoors until it is ten weeks old, but after that time a 
daily run in the garden or paddock will be of great service, extending to an hour or 
an hour and a half, but not so as to overtax its limbs. After this age, two or three 
hours a day, divided into periods of not more than an hour each, will be of service ; 
but it is very seldom that young pet dogs can reckon on this amount of exercise, 
and, indeed, it is not by any means necessary to their healthy growth. Until after 
the tenth week, cow's milk is almost essential to the health of the puppy. It should 
be boiled and thickened at first with fine wheat flour, and, after the eighth week, 
with the mixture of coarse wheat flour and oatmeal. The flour should be gradually 
increased in quantity, at first making the milk of the thickness of cream, and, 
towards the last adding meal in quantity sufficient to make a spoon stand up in it. 
If the bowels are relaxed the oatmeal should be diminished, or if confined increased. 
This food, varied with broth made from the scraps of the table, and thickened in 
the same way, will suffice up to the tenth or twelfth week, after which a little meat, 
with bread, potatoes, and some green vegetable, may be mixed together and 
gradually introduced as the regular and staple food. The quantity per day will of 
course vary according to the size of the puppy ; but, as an approximation to the 
proper weight required, it may be laid down that, for each pound the puppy weighs, 
an ounce of moderately solid food will be sufficient. From the time of weaning up 
to the tenth week it should be fed four times a day ; then up to four months, three 
times ; and afterwards twice until full grown, when a single feed will, in our 
opinion, conduce to its health, though many prefer going on with the morning and 
evening supply. When the puppy is full grown, meat, bread, and vegetables (either 
potatoes, carrots, cabbage, cauliflower, or parsnips), in equal proportions, will form 
the proper diet, care being taken to avoid bread made with much alum in it. Dog 
biscuits, if sound, answer well for pet dogs ; but the quantity required is so small 
that in most houses the scraps of the bread basket and plates are quite sufficient. 
Bones should be supplied daily, for without them not only are the teeth liable to 
become covered with tartar, but the digestion is impaired for want of a sufficient 
secretion of saliva. 

If the above quality and quantity of food and exercise are given, in combina- 
tion with the protection from cold recommended, the pet puppy will seldom require 
any medical treatment. Sometimes, in spite of the most careful management, it will 
be attacked by distemper contracted from some passing dog infected with it ; but 
with this exception, which will not often occur, it may be anticipated that the 
properly treated pet dog will pass through life without submitting to the attacks 
of this disease, which is dire in its effects upon this division of the canine race. If 
care is taken to add oatmeal and green vegetables to the food in quantity sufficient 
to keep the bowels from being confined, no aperient will ever be required ; but 



6 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

sometimes this precaution is neglected, and then recourse must be had either to 
castor oil or the compound rhubarb pill the dose being one drop of the former or 
half a grain of the latter to each pound the puppy weighs. If the oil is stirred up 
with some milk the puppy will take it readily enough, and no drenching is required ; 
but care should be taken that the quality is good, and that the oil is not the rank 
stuff sometimes used in the kennels of sporting dogs. The compound rhubarb pill 
may be given by opening the mouth with the left hand, and then dropping in the 
pill. It must be boldly pushed well down the throat as far as the finger will reach, 
no danger being risked in effecting this simple process. If the liver is not acting 
(which may be known by the absence of the natural gingerbread colour of the 
evacuations), from half a grain to a grain of blue pill may be added to either dose, 
and repeated, if necessary, every day or every other day till the desired effect is 
produced ; or from one-sixth to one-third of a grain of podophyllin, which has a 
similar effect on the liver. Very young puppies should not be washed even in the 
summer season, as they are very liable to chill. After they are three months old, 
however, a bath of warm water, with or without soap, will do good rather than 
harm, provided that care be taken to dry them well afterwards. For white dogs, 
white soap is required to give full effect to this operation ; and it may be either 
" curd " or white soft soap, whichever is preferred, the latter being most effective in 
cleaning the coat. Long-haired dogs, such as spaniels, the Maltese and Skye 
terriers, require combing and brushing until they are dry, which should be done in 
the winter before a fire ; and in the latter breeds the coat should be parted down the 
back with the comb in the most regular manner. If the hair has become matted, 
a long soaking will be necessary, the comb being used while the part of the dog 
submitted to its teeth is kept under water, which will greatly facilitate the unrolling 
of the tangled fibres. After the coat is dry, where great brilliancy is demanded, a 
very slight dressing of hair-oil may be allowed occasionally ; but the brush is the 
best polisher, and when " elbow-grease " is not spared, a better effect will be produced 
than by bear's grease at half-a-crown a pot. 

With the exception of fleas, pet dogs ought -never to be infected with any 
vermin. Sometimes, however, they catch from others either lice or the ticks which 
infest the canine race. The appearance of the first two parasites is well known to 
everyone ; but the tick is not among the things commonly presented to the eye, and 
we may therefore mention that it may be known by its spider-like shape and by its 
close adhesion to the skin by means of its legs, with which it digs into the surface. 
In size it varies from that of the head of a small pin to the magnitude of a small 
grain of wheat, but not being so long in proportion to its width. The colour 
changes with that of the dog and with the quantity of blood imbibed, which always 
gives a greater or less tint of bluish-red ; but in very young ticks the colour is a 
pearly grey. In destroying fleas the best remedy is the insect-destroying powder 
sold by Butler and M'Culloch, of Covent Garden, by Keating, of St. Paul's Church- 
yard, and most chemists, which may be well rubbed in without fear of consequences. 
Lice and ticks require a stronger drug to destroy them, and this should be used 
with more care, as, being a mercurial preparation, it is liable to be absorbed if the 



HOUSE MANAGEMENT OF PET DOGS. 



skin is wetted, and then produces serious mischief, accompanied by salivation ; or, 
if the dog is allowed to lick himself, this effect is still more likely to follow. The 
dog should therefore be kept carefully from all wet for at least twelve hours, and 
during the application of the remedy it should either be carefully watched and 
prevented by the hand from licking itself, or it should be muzzled. The remedy is 
white precipitate, in powder, well rubbed into the roots of the hair over the whole 
body, and left on for six hours, after which it should be brushed out. At the 
expiration of the week the application should be repeated, and possibly it may be 
required a third time ; but this is seldom needed. 



BOOK II. 

DRUGS COMMONLY USED FOR THE DISEASES 

OF DOGS, 
AND THEIR MODES OF ADMINISTRATION. 

[It is to be constantly borne in mind that the doses given below are those suited to the dog 
of average size and strength. Where, therefore, the patient is a toy dog, the dose 
must be reduced to one-third or even one-fourth of that given. The same rule 
applies to puppies.'] 



CHAPTER I. 

THE ACTION OF MEDICINES, AND THE FORMS IN WHICH 
THEY ARE GENERALLY PRESCRIBED. 



ALTEEATIVES. 

LTEEATIVES are intended to produce a fresh and healthy action, 
instead of the previous disordered function. The precise mode of 
action is not well understood, and it is only by the results that the 
utility of these medicines is recognised. 

1. JUthiops mineral, 2 to 5 grains ; powdered ginger, ^ to 1 grain ; 
powdered rhubarb, 1 to 3 grains. Mix, and form into a pill with syrup, to be given 
every evening. 

2. Plummer's pill, 2 to 5 grains ; extract of hemlock, 2 to 3 grains. Mix, and 
give every night. 

3. Stinking hellebore, 5 to 8 grains ; powdered rhubarb, 2 to 4 grains. Mix, 
and form into a pill, to be given every night. 

4. Liquor Arsenicalis of which the dose is 7 drops to an average sized dog 
this is specially serviceable to dogs rendered gross by over feeding and no work. 

5. Podophyllin, f grain ; compound rhubarb pill, 3 grains. Mix, and give once 
or twice a week until the liver acts freely. 

6. Cod liver oil, from a teaspoonful to a table spoonful, with one or two drops of 
wine of iron twice a day. 




LIST OF DEUGS. 9 



ANODYNES. 

Anodyne medicines are given either to soothe the general nervous system, or to 
stop diarrhoea ; or something to relieve spasm, as in colic or tetanus. Opium is the 
chief anodyne used in canine veterinary medicine, and it may be employed in very 
large doses. 

ANODYNE PEESCEIPTIONS. 

1. FOR SLIGHT PURGING. Prepared chalk, 2 drachms ; aromatic confection, 
1 drachm; tincture of opium, 5 to 8 drachms ;" rice water, 7 ounces. Mix; dose, 
two tablespoonfuls after every loose motion. 

2. FOR LONG-CONTINUED PURGING. Diluted sulphuric acid, 3 drachms ; 
tincture of opium, 2 drachms ; compound tincture of bark, 1 ounce ; water, 6f 
ounces. Mix ; two tablespoonfuls every four hours. 

3. Castor-oil, 2 ounces ; tincture of opium, 1 ounce. Mix by shaking ; a table- 
spoonful night and morning while the bowels are loose. 

4. Powdered opium, f to 2 grains ; prepared chalk, 5 to 10 grains ; catechu, 5 
grains ; powdered ginger, and powdered caraways, of each 1 to 3 grains. Mix, and 
form it into a pill with syrup, and give every three hours. 

ANTISPASMODICS. 

Antispasmodics, as their name implies, are medicines which are intended to 
counteract excessive muscular action, called spasm, or, in the limbs, cramp. 

1. ANTISPASMODIC MIXTURE. Laudanum and sulphuric aether, of each ^ to 
1 drachm; camphor mixture, 1 ounce. Mix, and give every two hours till the 
spasm ceases. 

2. ANTISPASMODIC INJECTION. Laudanum, sulphuric aether, and spirit of 
turpentine, of each 1 to 2 drachms ; gruel, 3 to 6 ounces. Mix. 

APEEIENTS. 

APERIENTS, or purges are those medicines which quicken or increase the 
evacuations from the bowels, varying, however, a good deal in their mode of 
operation. Some act merely by exciting the muscular coat of the bowels to 
contract ; others cause an immense watery discharge, which, as it were, washes out 
the bowels ; whilst a third set combine the action of the two. The various purges 
also act upon different parts of the canal, some stimulating the small intestines, 
whilst others pass through them without affecting them, and only act upon the large 
bowels ; and others, again, act upon the whole canal. There is a third point of 
difference in purges, depending upon their influencing the liver in addition, which 
mercurial purgatives certainly do, as well as rhubarb and some others, and which 
effect is partly due to their absorption into the circulation, so that they may be 
made to act by injecting into the veins, as strongly as by actual swallowing and 
their subsequent passage into the bowels. Purgatives are likewise classed, according 



10 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



to the degree of their effect, into laxatives acting mildly, and drastic purges acting 
very severely. 

1. STRONG APERIENT BOLUS. Calomel, 4 grains; jalap, 14 to 20 grains. 
Linseed meal and water, enough to make one or two boluses, according to size. 

2. A GOOD APERIENT BOLUS. Blue pill, | scruple; compound extract of 
colocynth, 1 scruple ; powdered rhubarb, 5 grains ; oil of aniseed, 2 drops. Mix, 
and give to a large dog, or divide into two or three for medium-sized or smaller 
ones. 

3. CASTOR OIL MIXTURE. Castor oil, ^ pint; laudanum, ^ ounce; oil of 
aniseed, 1 drachm; olive oil, 2 ounces. Mix, and give one, two, or three table- 
spoonsfuls, according to the size of the dog. 

4. PURGATIVE INJECTION. Castor oil, f ounce ; spirit of turpentine, 2 
drachms ; gruel, 6 to 8 ounces. Mix. 

ASTRINGENTS 

Cause contraction in those living tissues with which they come in contact, 
whether in the interior or exterior of the body ; and whether immediately applied 
or by absorption into the circulation. They are divided into astringents adminis- 
tered by the mouth, and those applied locally to external ulcerated or wounded 
surfaces. 

1. ASTRINGENT BOLUS USEFUL IN DIABETES OR HEMORRHAGE. Powdered 
opium, 2 to 3 grains ; gallic acid, 4 to 6 grains ; alum, 5 to 10 grains ; powdered 
bark, 10 grains ; linseed meal, enough to form a bolus, to be given to a large dog 
(or divided for a small one) two or three times a day. 

2. ASTRINGENT WASHES FOR THE EYES. Sulphate of zinc, 5 to 8 grains ; 
water, 2 ounces. Mix. 

Or, goulard extract, 1 drachm ; water, 1 ounce. Mix. 

Or, nitrate of silver, 2 to 8 grains ; water, 1 ounce. Mix, and drop into the 
eyes with a quill ; or wine of opium to be dropped into the eye. 

3. WASH FOR THE PENIS. Sulphate of zinc, 6 to 10 grains ; water, 1 ounce. 
Mix. 

Or, chloride of zinc, f to \\ grains ; water, 1 ounce. Mix. 

4. ASTRINGENT OINTMENT FOR PILES. Gallic acid, 10 grains ; goulard 
extract, 15 drops ; lard, 1 ounce. Mix. 

BLISTEES 

Require great care in their application to the skin of the dog, and should never 
be used without a muzzle, which may only be removed during feeding time. Before 
applying them, cut off the hair with scissors from the part to be blistered. 

1. ORDINARY BLISTER FOR PURPOSES OF COUNTER-IRRITATION. Powdered 
cantharides, | ounce ; Venice turpentine, 6 drachms ; lard, 3 ounces. Mix, and rub 
in with the hand. 

2. SWEATING APPLICATION FOR ENLARGED GROWTHS. Eed iodide of mercury, 



LIST OF DRUGS. 



1 drachm; lard, 1 ounce. Mix; rub 'in a little every day till a watery discharge is 
produced, then desist for a day or two ; and repeat as often as necessary. 

3. Tincture of iodine, 1 ounce. Paint on some of the tincture every day till 
a sufficient effect is produced. 

CAUSTICS 

Are substances which burn away the living tissues of the body, by the decom- 
position of their elements. They are of two kinds, viz., first, the actual cautery, 
consisting in the application of the burning iron, and called firing ; and, secondly, 
the potential cautery, by means of the powers of mineral caustics such as potash, 
lunar-caustic, corrosive sublimate, &c. 

Firing is seldom practised on the dog, but sometimes it may be had recourse 
to with advantage, when a very thin iron must be used. The red-hot iron is also 
sometimes needed to stop bleeding from warts in the mouth removed by the knife > 
or in a similar way for piles. 

STRONG SOLID CAUSTICS are as follows : 

1. FUSED POTASS. Difficult to manage, because it runs about in all directions, 
and little used in veterinary medicine. 

2. LUNAR CAUSTIC, OR NITRATE or SILVER. Very valuable to the veterinary 
surgeon. It should always be kept at hand in the portable wooden case made 
specially for it. 

3. BLUE STONE, OR SULPHATE OF COPPER. May be handled safely, and no 
case therefore is required. When used, it should be freely rubbed into the part 
affected, It is valuable for unhealthy sores, &c. 

4. CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE is only required to remove warts, but can seldom be 
trusted to any but a practised surgeon. 

CORDIALS 

Are medicines which act as warm temporary stimulants, augmenting the 
strength and spirits when depressed, and often relieving an animal from the 
ill-effects of over-exertion. 

1. CORDIAL BALLS. Powdered caraway seeds, \ to If drachms ; ginger, 20 to 
40 grains ; oil of cloves, 3 to 8 drops. Mix. and give 10 grains for a dose. 

2, CORDIAL DRENCH. Tincture of cardamoms, \ to 1 drachm ; sal volatile, 15 
to 30 drops ; infusion of gentian, f to 1 drachm ; camphor mixture, 1 ounce. Mix. 

DIURETICS 

Are medicines which promote the secretion and discharge of urine, the effect 
being produced in a different manner by different medicines ; some acting directly 
upon the kidneys by sympathy with the stomach, while others are taken up by the 
blood-vessels, and in their elimination from the blood cause an extra secretion of 
the urine. In either case their effect is to diminish the watery part of the blood, 
and thus promote the absorption of fluid effused into any of the cavities, or into 
the cellular membrane, in the various forms of dropsy. 



12 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

1. DIURETIC BOLUS. Nitre, 6 grains ; digitalis, ^ to 1 grain ; ginger, 

4 grains. Linseed meal and water to form a bolus, which is to be given night 
and morning. 

2. DIURETIC AND ALTERATIVE. Iodide of potassium, 3 grains ; nitre, 4 grains ; 
digitalis, f grain ; extract of gentian, 5 grains. Mix, and give twice a day. 

EMETICS 

Are sometimes required for the dog, though not so often as is commonly sup- 
posed. Vomiting is a natural process in that animal, and seldom wants provoking ; 
indeed, if emetics are often had recourse to, his stomach becomes so irritable that 
neither medicine nor food will remain on it ; hence their administration should be 
carefully kept within the bounds of absolute necessity. 

1. STRONG EMETIC. Tartar emetic, \ to 1 grain ; powdered ipecacuanha, 4 to 

5 grains. Mix, and dissolve in a little water, to be given as a drench ; and to be 
followed by half a pint of lukewarm water in a quarter of an hour. 

2. COMMON SALT EMETIC. A teaspoonful of salt and half this quantity of 
mustard are to be dissolved in half a pint of warm water and given as a drench. 

EXPECTORANTS 

Excite or promote a discharge of mucus from the lining membrane of the 
bronchial tubes, thereby relieving inflammation and allaying cough. 

1. EXPECTORANT BOLUS. Ipecacuanha powder, 1 to If grains ; powdered 
rhubarb, 1 to 3 grains ; compound squill pill, 1 to 2 grains ; powdered opium, \ to 
1 grain. Linseed meal and water enough to make a bolus, to be given night and 
morning. 

2. Ipecacuanha powder, and powdered opium, of each a grain. Confection 
enough to make a pill, to be given every six hours. 

3. AN EXPECTORANT MIXTURE FOR CHRONIC COUGH. Friar's balsam, 
10 to 15 drops ; syrup of poppies, 1 drachm ; diluted sulphuric acid, 5 to 
10 drops ; mucilage, \ ounce ; water, \ ounce. Mix, and give two or three 
times a day. 

4. AN EXPECTORANT IN RECENT COUGH. Tincture of lobelia, 10 to 15 drops ; 
almond emulsion, 1 ounce ; extract of conium, 2 to 3 grains ; ipecacuanha wine, 5 to 
10 drops. Mix, and give two or three times a day. 

LINIMENTS OR EMBROCATIONS 

Are applied to the skin for the purpose of producing counter-irritation, and 
are specially useful in chronic rheumatism, colic, &c. The most generally useful is 
the following : 

Laudanum, liquid ammonia (strong), spirit of turpentine, soap liniment, of 
each \ ounce. Mix. 



LIST OF DBUGS. 13 



FEBRIFUGES. 

Fever medicines are given to allay fever, which they do by increasing the secre- 
tions of urine and sweat, and also by reducing the action of the heart. 

1. FEBRIFUGE PILL. Calomel, 1 to 3 grains ; digitalis, -| grain ; nitre, 3 to 5 
grains. Confection to form a pill, to be given every night. 

Or, 2. Nitre, 3 to 5 grains ; tartar emetic, i grain. Confection to form a pill, 
to be given night and morning. 

3. FEVER MIXTURE. Nitre, 1 drachm ; sweet spirits of nitre, 3 drachms ; 
mindererus spirit, 1 ounce ; camphor mixture, 6| ounces. Mix, and give two table- 
spoonfuls every six hours. 

OINTMENTS 

Are greasy applications, by means of which certain substances are brought 
into contact with the vessels of the skin. 

1. MANGE OINTMENT. Green iodide of mercury, 1 drachm; lard 1 ounce. 
Mix, and rub in a small quantity every other day to the parts affected. 

N.B. Not more than a quarter of the body should ever be dressed at one 
time. Care should be taken to avoid leaving any superfluous ointment on the 
surface of the body. 

2. DIGESTIVE OINTMENT. Red precipitate, 1 ounce ; Venice turpentine, 
1^ ounces ; bees' wax, f ounce ; lard, 2 ounces. Mix. 

STOMACHICS 

Are given to increase the tone of the stomach in particular. 

1. STOMACHIC PILL. Extract of gentian, 5 grains ; powdered rhubarb, 2 grains. 
Mix, and give twice a day. 

2. STOMACHIC DRAUGHT. Tincture of cardamoms, ^ drachm; compound 
infusion of gentian, 1 ounce ; tincture of ginger, 5 drops. Mix, and give twice 
a day. 

STYPTICS. 

Styptics are remedies which have a tendency to stop the flow of blood either 
from internal or external surfaces. They are used either by the mouth, or to the 
part itself in the shape of lotions, &c. ; or the actual cautery, which is always the 
best in external bleeding. 

1. INTERNAL STYPTICS FOR BLOODY URINE, OR BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS. 
Superacetate of lead, 12 to 24 grains ; tincture of matico, | to 1 ounce ; vinegar, 
2 drachms ; water, 7 to 7| ounces. Mix, and give two tablespoonfuls two or three 
times a day to a full-sized dog. 

TONICS 

Augment the vigour of the whole body permanently, whilst stimulants only act 
for a short trnv. They are chiefly useful after low fever. 



14 THE DOGS OF THE BEIT1SH ISLANDS. 

1. TONIC PILLS. Disulphate of quinine, 1 to 3 grains ; ginger, 2 to 3 grains. 
Extract of gentian, enough to form a bolus, to be given twice a day. 

2. TONIC MIXTURE. Compound tincture of bark, 1 ounce ; decoction of yellow 
bark, 7 ounces. Mix, and give two tablespoonfuls twice or thrice a day. 

3. DISTEMPER TONIC. Aromatic spirit of ammonia, 1 drachm; decoction of 
yellow bark, 1 ounce ; compound tincture of bark, 1 drachm. Mix. 

WASHES OE LOTIONS. 

1. MANGE WASH. Calvert's carbolic wash diluted with twenty times its bulk 
of water, and rubbed into the roots of the hair in red mange. 

2. BISHOP'S MANGE LOTION is a preparation of lime, &c., which is said by 
good judges to be extremely successful in curing mange, and especially red mange. 
It is at all events not likely to be injurious. 

WOEM MEDICINES. 

1. Areca nut powdered, of which 2 grains for every pound the dog weighs is 
the dose, for worms generally. 

2. Santonine is the remedy for round worm. Dose for the average dog, 3 
grains in a pill. 

3. Spirit of turpentine, 1 to 4 drachms, to be tied up in a piece of bladder and 
given as a bolus in obstinate cases of tape worms. 

4. MALE FERN. Eoot, 1 to 3 drachms ; oil, 10 to 30 drops, in tape worm. 



OHAPTEE II. 
ADMINISTRATION OF REMEDIES. 



ITHOUT some little patience and a knowledge of the temper of the 
dog, it is often very difficult to administer physic in any shape. A 
large powerful animal, of a savage temper, is scarcely to be controlled 
even k v his keeper ; but any dog of less than 401b. or 501b. weight is 
within the power of a resolute man, especially with his hands properly 
guarded by gloves. 

In giving a pill or bolus to a small dog, he should be gently taken into the lap 
of the operator, or left in that of his attendant, then laying hold of the space 
between the canine teeth and the molars on each side with the thumb and forefinger 
of the left hand, the mouth is forced open, and the pill dropped into the throat by 
the other hand, following it rapidly with the forefinger and pushing it down as far 
as the finger will reach. The mouth is then kept shut for a second or two until the 
pill has had time to reach the stomach. 




ADMINISTBATION OF EEMEDIES. 



15 



A large dog must be backed into a corner, then stride over him, and put a 
thick cloth into his mouth. The ends of this should be brought together over his 
nose, and held with the left hand. An assistant then lays hold of the lower jaw 
with the aid, if necessary, of another cloth, and wrenches the jaws apart, the right 
hand of the operator pushes the pill or bolus down the throat, taking care, as 




before, to keep the head up with the jaws closed for a short time. The mode of 
drenching is either to pour the fluid down, using the cheek as a funnel, as shown 
in the engraving, or to open the mouth as for a bolus, and pour it down the throat 
by means of a small sauce ladle, or a soda-water bottle. The mouth must be shut 
directly the fluid is received, to enable the dog to swallow it. 




BOOK III. 

THE ORDINARY DISEASES OF THE DOG AND 
THEIR TREATMENT. 

CHAPTER I. 
FEVERS. 

SIMPLE EPHEMEEAL FEVER. 

N the Dog, simple fever is merely a condition in which there is first a 
chilliness, accompanied by actual increase of surface heat, and quick 
respiration and pulse ; then loss of appetite and diminished secretion of 
urine, with frequently costive bowels ; and, finally, a tendency to con- 
gestion in the mucous membrane of the lungs or nostrils, or of some 
other internal organ, but generally of the lungs and nose, producing cough and 
running at the nose and eyes. The febrile symptons usually run a short course, 
seldom going beyond three days, but the congestion of the mucuous membrane often 
remains much longer. 

In the first place, complete rest should be accorded ; next, a dose of aperient 
medicine, with calomel, in the following shape, will generally be advisable, as it will 
clear away any sources of irritation which may exist : Calomel, 2 to 4 grains ; jalap 
in powder, 10 to 15 grains ; ginger, 1 grain mix. The dose will be in proportion 
to the size and strength of the dog, giving one-half or a quarter to a small one, or 
to a young puppy. When this has operated, with the assistance of some gruel, 
very little more will be necessary under ordinary circumstances, and in a few days 
the dog will be well. 

SIMPLE EPIDEMIC FEVER, OR INFLUENZA. 

This species of fever is closely allied to the preceding variety in everything but 
the cause, which, instead of being exposure to cold, is some peculiar condition of 
the air, to which the name epidemic is given, in order to conceal our ignorance, for 
it is really only giving a name and nothing else. The term influenza is precisely 
similar, both only signifying the peculiar and general prevalence of the complaint, 
and not defining its nature or its cause. The latter term is, however, applied more 
especially to epidemic catarrh, which is the form we are now considering. As the 



DISTEMPER. 17 



symptoms are very closely similar to those of simple cold, or ephemeral fever, it is 
unnecessary to repeat them ; nor is the treatment in the first stage at all different. 
But as the cough and running seldom disappear without some extra care and 
attention, it does not always do to trust to nature here for a cure. Lowering 
medicines and diet after the first few days are not at all successful ; and, on the 
other hand, warm expectorants, with tolerably good and nourishing slops, will be 
found to answer the best. The expectorant bolus, No. 1, may be given night and 
morning with advantage. As soon as the cough and running at the nose have some- 
what subsided, and before exercise is allowed, the bark mixture (Tonic No. 2) may 
be given ; and only when the strength and spirits are so recruited as to warrant the 
supposition that the health is greatly restored is the dog to be allowed exercise, 
and then only at first with great caution. It is often the case that a premature 
exposure to air and excitement brings on a relapse, and especially when the 
lungs are at all implicated either in their substance or mucous membrane: A 
human patient can be taken out in a carriage, but dogs, unless they are great pets, 
are seldom allowed that indulgence ; and hence the necessity for the above precaution. 

DISTEMPER 

Distemper may be defined as a feverish disease, always marked by rapid loss of 
strength and flesh, in proportion to the severity of the attack. It may occur at any 
period of life, and even more than once in the same individual ; it is, however, 
generally met with in the puppy, and in most cases the dog is afterwards exempt. 
The essence of -the disease appears to consist in a poisoned state of the blood, 
which may be either produced by contagion or by putrid emanations from filthy and 
overcrowded kennels ; and it is from the efforts of nature to throw off this poison 
that the various symptoms are produced by which we know the disease. These 
symptoms differ according to the peculiar constitution of each dog, and to the state 
of the air and other causes which produce them. Hence it is usual to speak of 
distemper as either simple or attended with certain complications in the head, chest, 
belly, &c. But, although they are all essentially the same disease, these variations 
may be conveniently described as 1st, Mild Distemper ; 2nd, Head Distemper ; 
3rd, Chest Distemper ; 4th, Belly Distemper ; and 5th, Malignant Distemper. 

In Mild Distemper there are in almost all cases the following symptoms, which 
also show themselves in the other kinds, with the additional symptoms peculiar to 
each. The first thing noticeable is a general dulness (particularly shown in the 
eyes), accompanied by a dislike to play or take any kind of exercise, and by a want 
of appetite. Soon there appears a short cough, attended by a disposition to sneeze ; 
and the dog often seems as if he hardly knew which of these acts to do first. The 
cough and sneezing are seldom heard while the dog is quiet, but when he is brought 
out of his kennel into the air, and particularly after he begins to play or run about, 
the mucous membrane is irritated and the coughing is set up, either by itself or 
alternately with sneezing. There is some slight thirst, a warm dry nose generally 
(but not invariably), a disordered state of the bowels, which may be either confined 



18 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

or relaxed, and a scanty secretion of high-coloured urine. In a few days the dog 
loses flesh and strength to a great extent, but then gradually recovers. 

Head Distemper commences in the same way as the mild form, but the cough 
or sneezing is very slight, and sometimes there is not a vestige. On separating the 
eyelids, the whites are seen to be covered with blood-vessels loaded with dark blood, 
and a strong light seems to give pain. This kind of distemper is often indicated, 
soon after its commencement, by a fit, lasting a short time, and leaving a state of 
torpor from which the dog can with difficulty be aroused. If the brain is not 
relieved, the fits recur at short intervals, and the stupor increases, until the dog 
becomes quite insensible, and dies in a violent convulsion. 

Chest Distemper appears to be an extension downwards into the chest of the 
irritation which produces the cough. It there generally sets up the kind of inflam- 
mation known as bronchitis, together with which, however, there is often inflamma- 
tion of the substance of the lungs (pneumonia), or even of the external surface 
(pleurisy). 

Distemper of the Belly is too often the result of mismanagement, produced 
either by the abuse of violent drugs or by neglect of attention to the secretions for 
some time previously. In the former case the bowels become very relaxed at the end 
of a week or ten days from the first commencement of a case of mild distemper, and 
then there is a constant diarrhoea, soon followed by the passage of large quantities 
of blood. This may be quite black and pitchy when it comes from the small 
intestines, or red and florid where the lower bowels are affected. Sometimes these 
symptoms appear of themselves, but generally they result from calomel or other 
violent medicines. When there has been neglect, and the bowels have been allowed 
to become confined, while at the same time the secretion of bile has been checked, a 
most dangerous symptom, known as " the yellows," shows itself, the name being 
given in consequence of the skin and white of the eyes being stained of a yellow 
colour, from the presence of bile. This may occur without distemper, and then it is 
not so fatal; but when it comes on during an attack of this disease it is almost 
invariably followed by death. 

Malignant Distemper may come on at first, the dog attacked being as it were 
at once knocked down by the severity of the poison ; or it may show itself at the 
end of a week or ten days from the first commencement. It may follow either of 
the four kinds already described, being marked by an aggravated form of the 
symptoms peculiar to each ; but there are some additional evidences of the poisoned 
state of the blood, which show themselves in the four stages into which the disease, 
when well marked, divides itself. These stages are 1st, incubation, during which 
the disease is, as it were, hatching or brewing ; 2nd, reaction, when nature is working 
herself up to throw off the poison ; 3rd, prostration, following these efforts ; and 4th, 
convalescence, wherein the constitution recovers its usual powers. In a well-marked 
case of malignant distemper these four stages average about a week or ten days 
each ; and it is important to ascertain their existence, inasmuch as the treatment 
proper to each varies very considerably. The period of incubation is known by the 
symptoms described as common to mild distemper, as well as to the other kinds ; 



DISTEMPEE. 19 



but, in the malignant form, the strength is lost much more rapidly, while the 
appetite is almost entirely absent, and the secretions are very much disordered. 
During the reaction, the pulse becomes quick and hard, the breathing is much 
hurried, and is often much quicker than the pulse without the existence of any inflamma- 
tion. This is very important to notice, as, when such is the case, any lowering 
measures are highly improper ; but, on the other hand, the pulse may be very high 
and strong, and the breathing laboured, which, together with other unmistakable 
evidences afforded to the practised ear, prove the existence of inflammation, and 
require energetic and lowering treatment. At this time, also, are developed those 
dangerous affections of the brain, bowels, or liver, to which I have before alluded. 
When the stage of prostration sets in the whole system is thoroughly reduced, the 
dog is so weak that he is unable to stand, his appetite is often entirely gone so that 
he must be drenched if he is to be kept alive ; his gums, tongue, and teeth are 
coated with a black fur, and his breath is highly offensive. At this time an eruption 
of the skin generally shows itself, sometimes consisting in mere purple spots, in 
others of small bladders filled with yellow matter, but most frequently of bladders, 
varying in size from a pea to half a hen's egg, and containing matter more or less 
stained with purple blood, or occasionally blood alone. This eruption is thickest 
on the skin of the belly and inside of the thighs, but sometimes it extends to the 
whole body. It is a favourable sign, taken by itself, though it generally 
attends upon severe cases. In the convalescence from malignant distemper, health 
gradually returns ; but without the greatest care in all respects a relapse is very apt 
to occur, and is then generally fatal. 

To distinguish these several forms of distemper from the diseases which most 
nearly resemble them, it is chiefly necessary to bear in mind that the peculiarity of 
distemper, especially in its malignant form, is the rapid tendency to loss of strength 
and flesh which accompanies it. Thus a common cold with cough is attended with 
slight feverishness, languor, loss of appetite, &c., but it may go on for several days 
without the dog losing much flesh, and with a very partial loss of strength. So } 
also, with ordinary diarrhoea ; it is astonishing how severe an attack is required to 
reduce a dog in anything like the same degree which a few days' distemper will 
effect. In diarrhoea the dog gets thin, it is true, but he does not become the living 
skeleton which distemper produces ; nor does he lie exhausted in his kennel, utterly 
unable to rise from his bed, and obliged to be supported in order to relieve himself. 
The same may apply to simple inflammation of the lungs, which may be treated 
most energetically by bleeding and lowering medicine with good effect, and without 
knocking the dog off his legs; while in chest distemper, even though the local 
symptoms are apparently as severe, a treatment one-half as energetic will be fatal 
from the exhaustion following upon it. 

The sequels of distemper should also be alluded to, as consisting of chorea, 
commonly called " the twitch," and a kind of. palsy, known as " the trembles." 
Both are produced by some obscure mischief done to the brain or spinal marrow in 
the course of the disease, and they generally follow the kind which I have described 
as head distemper. Chorea may be known by a peculiar and idiotic-looking drop 



20 THE DOOS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

in one fore-quarter when the dog begins to move, so that he bobs his head in a very 
helpless way. Sometimes the twitch is slight and partial, at others it is almost 
universal ; but it always goes off during sleep. Shaking palsy affects the whole 
body, and is far more rare than chorea, which is fortunate, as I believe it to be 
incapable of cure. 

The treatment of the several forms and sequels of distemper must always be 
conducted upon the acknowledged principle that this is a most debilitating disease, 
and that any very lowering measure must be avoided, if possible. On the other 
hand, inflammation is always to be feared attacking either the brain, lungs, or 
bowels ; and as bleeding and other remedies of a similar tendency form the most 
active means for getting rid of inflammation, there is often left to the person in 
charge only a choice between two dangers. Two things, therefore, are to be 
attended to in the general treatment. 1st. Not only to avoid lowering the system, 
but also in bad cases to support it by good diet, as far as is consistent with the 
avoidance of the encouragement to inflammation. 2nd. To take especial care that 
inflammation does not go far enough to destroy life, or to leave such organic change 
in the brain or lungs as shall render the dog useless for the purposes to which he 
is designed. This requires some experience in practice, though in theory it is simple 
enough ; and, indeed, one is sometimes obliged to blow hot and cold at the same 
time, lowering the dog with one hand and propping him with the other. It must 
always be remembered, also, that this is a disease which has a natural tendency to 
recovery, its essence being an effort of the powers of the system to throw off a poison 
in the blood. Hence nature requires to be aided, not opposed ; and that man will 
succeed the best in the long run who interferes the least with her operations. With 
these preliminary observations I shall proceed to give special directions for the 
treatment of each form. 

1. GENERAL TREATMENT. In the early stage give a mild dose of aperient 
medicine, such as castor oil and syrup of poppies in equal proportions ; or, if the 
liver is not acting, calomel and jalap. It is always better, however, to avoid giving 
calomel if there is plenty of bile in the evacuations. After the early stage is gone 
by, give nothing in the shape of medicine, but keep the kennel dry, clean, and airy, 
but warm. Change the litter frequently, and avoid exercise till the cough and 
running at the eyes have entirely ceased. For several days the diet should consist 
of nourishing broths, thickened, when there is diarrhoea, with flour, rice, or arrow- 
root ; or, if the bowels are confined, with oatmeal. If there is little water passed, 
give every night (as a drench) five or six grains of nitre, with half a teaspoonful of 
sweet spirits of nitre. 

2. HEAD DISTEMPER requires very energetic local treatment in addition to 
that recommended above. From four to eight leeches may be applied to the inside 
of the ears, washing the part well with milk and water first. Then put in a seton 
to the back part of the neck, first smearing the tape with blistering ointment. If 
the head is very much affected apply cold water to it by means of a wet cloth, or 
if that is not allowed, by the watering-pot. Calomel and jalap must be given to act 
on the liver and bowels, and a pill (consisting of half a grain to one grain of tartar 



DISTEMPEE. 21 



emetic) two or three times a day. As soon as the urgent symptoms have dis- 
appeared, the dog often requires supporting with beef tea and tonics, as described 
in No. 5. 

3. CHEST DISTEMPER must be met with bleeding if there is evidence of inflam- 
mation ; but if not, it is better to avoid such a lowering measure, and trust to 
antimony or ipecacuanha. Mix one grain of either of these with half a grain of 
opium, and give two or three times daily. If there is long-continued mischief, 
apply a blister to the chest, or rub in mustard mixed with vinegar. When the 
breathing is more rapid than the pulse, stimulants will be required, such as the bark 
and ammonia mixture in No. 5. 

4. DISTEMPER OF THE BELLY, attended with purging, requires the immediate 
use of astringents, of which opium is the best. There is nothing better than the 
following mixture. Take of prepared chalk 2dr., mucilage of acacia loz., laudanum 
loz., tincture of ginger 2dr., water 5^oz. Of this give from a dessert-spoonful to 
a tablespoonful every time the bowels are relaxed. The diet should be almost 
entirely of boiled rice, flavoured with milk or broth, and if there is much thirst 
rice-water only should be allowed. On the other hand, where there is a confined 
state of the bowels, which is generally attended with "the yellows," calomel, 
rhubarb, and aloes are the only remedies to be relied on. Take of calomel 3gr. to 
5gr. ; rhubarb and aloes of each 5gr. to lOgr. ; mix, and form into a bolus with 
water, and give twice a day till it acts freely. A turpentine enema may also be 
administered, but this requires some practical skill to carry out. Should bile begin 
to flow, there is still great care required to avoid checking the diarrhoea on the one 
hand, while on the other the exhaustion caused by it is often frightfully great. 
Strong broths thickened with flour or rice must often be given by force, as the 
appetite is generally much reduced in this disease. Where there is great exhaus- 
tion from diarrhoea, arrow-root with port wine will be of use. 

5. MALIGNANT DISTEMPER is less difficult to manage than that of the head, and 
far less than " the yellows," when complicated with the ordinary attack. The great 
thing is to avoid reducing the system in the early stage, and to give at that time 
only such remedies as are imperatively required. A mild dose of oil, as described 
under No. 1, will be of service, after which the less done the better till the usual 
weakness shows itself. In the interval it may be necessary to treat the case as one 
affecting the head, chest, or belly, as described under Nos. 2, 3, or 4 ; but so soon as 
the excessive exhaustion shows itself, there is no chance of recovery without resort- 
ing to strong tonics and good food. For this purpose there is no remedy like port 
wine, or bark and ammonia the former of which may be given, mixed with an equal 
part of water, and with the addition of a little spice, such as nutmeg or ginger. For 
the latter, take of decoction of bark loz., aromatic spirit of ammonia Idr., compound 
tincture of bark Idr. Mix and give twice a day to a large dog, or half the quantity 
to a small one. The greatest care here is required to support the strength by 
drenching the 'dog, if needful, with beef tea ; and, if the bowels are at all relaxed, 
give the dog the astringent mixture ordered under No. 4. Clean straw, a warm, 
dry kennel, and absolute rest, are also essential to recovery. 



22 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

6. CHOREA or PALSY may be treated by a change to country air if the puppy 
has been in the town, and by giving from 3gr. to 5gr. of sulphate of zinc in a pill 
every day. The eyes are best left to themselves ; and, however bad they may 
appear, they will generally recover their- brilliancy as the strength is restored. If 
not, apply a wash composed of 2gr. or 3gr. of nitrate of silver dissolved in loz. of 
distilled water, or the same proportions of the sulphate of zinc and water. 

N.B. The above doses are calculated for a full-sized dog. For their reduction 
see the directions at the head of list of drugs at page 8. 

RHEUMATIC FEVER, 

Or Acute Rheumatism, is a very common disease in the dog, though not very 
generally attended to or described by writers on their complaints. It arises from 
exposure to cold, when the dog has been overfed, and rendered unfit to bear its 
attacks upon a system full of inflammatory matter. The pampered pet is the most 
liable ; but greyhounds and pointers which are highly fed, and sometimes not 
sufficiently exercised, are also very liable to its approaches. In the dog rheumatism 
is either confined to the muscular system or to the coverings of the spinal marrow, 
which sometimes take on the rheumatic inflammation to such an extent as to cause 
paralysis of the hind-legs. General rheumatic fever, or acute rheumatism, is 
characterised by intense soreness of the surface, so that the dog shrinks on the 
approach of the hand from fear of being touched. He will almost always retire to 
some corner, and refuse to leave it on being called by his owner ; and if brought out 
by force, he will stand and snarl at every hand ; and this is one of the best methods 
of diagnosis with which we are acquainted. The treatment should be as follows : 
First give a smart purge (1) or (2) in the list of aperients. After this has acted 
give the following pill, or half of it, according to the size of the dog, three times 
a day until the pain has abated : Calomel and powdered opium, of each 1 grain ; 
colchicum powder, 2 grains ; syrup to form a pill. When the pain is gone, if the 
bowels are not very relaxed, give a dose of castor oil ; and during the whole continu- 
ance of the pain use a warm anodyne embrocation, composed of laudanum, spirit of 
camphor, and liq. ammoniae in equal proportions. This will act still better if the dog 
is first put into a hot bath at 100 degrees of Fahrenheit, then dried well by a good fire, 
and afterwards the liniment rubbed into the parts which are most full of pain. For 
the more chronic forms, called kennel-lameness and paralysis of the hind-quarter 
the warm bath and liniment may be used with the aperients, as above ; but instead 
of the calomel and opium, give one or two tablespoonfuls of the following mixture 
twice a day : Iodide of potassium, 1 drachm ; sweet spirits of nitre, 3 drachms ; 
nitre, 1J drachm; camphor mixture, 6 ounces. Mix. The diet in each case 
should be low, all animal food should be taken away, and the dog fed upon 
meal or rice according to the state of the bowels. It is a disease in great 
measure the result of too stimulating a food, and a withdrawal of meat will go far 
towards a cure, which, however, is seldom of long continuance when the disease has 
become chronic. 



CHRONIC EHEUMATISM. 23 



CHRONIC RHEUMATISM. 

This generally receives a specific name according to the part attacked. Thus, 
if it seizes on the muscles of the chest or shoulders, it is called 

KENNEL LAMENESS, OR CHEST-FOUNDER, which is the great bugbear of the 
foxhound kennel, and is produced in these animals from cold, after the extraordinary 
fatigues which they undergo. When a hound is worn down by long-continued 
exhaustion, and is then placed to lie in a damp or cold kennel, he is almost sure to 
contract rheumatism, especially if he is fed upon stimulating food, which most 
hounds are, in order to enable them to bear their labours. Thus, over- work and no 
work at all alike engender the disease, but in a very opposite state ; the former 
producing an active fever of a rheumatic character, whilst the latter brings on a 
more chronic and low kind, attended with great muscular stiffness, but not with 
high fever. 

PARALYSIS, or loss of power in the hinder extremities (improperly so called), 
is another result of the low kind of rheumatic fever which comes on from long- 
continued high feeding followed by cold ; and it is exactly of the same character as 
chest-founder, but confined to the hinder limbs instead of the shoulders. I have 
said that it is improperly called paralysis, and my reason for this is, that it is not at 
all analogous to other forms of paralysis, though there is temporary loss of power ; 
but so there is in all rheumatic conditions ; yet who would say that the poor 
rheumatic subject, who can neither move hand nor foot, is suffering from paralysis. 
Assuredly no one who understands the nomenclature of disease, because the essence 
of paralysis is considered to be loss of power from disease in the nervous system ; 
hence, when the loss is dependant upon want of tone in the muscles affected, it is 
clearly a misnomer to apply the term paralysis. 

The treatment of these local affections is often attended with little or no 
advantage, but the following somewhat empirical remedy has been found to be 
successful in many cases. At all events I know no more reliable remedy. It is called 
the red herring recipe, and is as follows : Score a red herring with a knife and well 
rub in two drachms of nitre ; give every morning on an empty stomach, and keep 
the dog without food for two hours after ; at night give a drachm of camphor made 
into a ball. The herring may be mixed with a little broth and meal if he will not 
eat it otherwise. Trimethylaniine, which is obtained from a similar source, has 
been recommended by Dr Richardson as superior to the red herring. The dose is 
from 5 to 15 drops given in milk. 



24 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 




OHAPTEE II. 
INFLAMMATIONS. 

BABIES. 

(IMPROPERLY CALLED HYDROPHOBIA.) 

OST MORTEM examination has not revealed with certainty the exact 
seat of this disease, but there is little doubt that it is confined to the 
spinal cord and base of the brain. It is admitted by the medical pro- 
fession throughout Europe and America that no cure has yet been 
discovered for this terrible disease, and therefore it will only be 
needful here to describe the symptoms, so that proper precautions may at once be 
taken, when they appear, to prevent the dog from communicating the disease by 
his saliva, or, if he has already bitten man or animal, to stamp it out in the latter 
case, or in the former to prevent the inoculation from taking effect by absorption. 

The Hon. Grantley Berkeley has taken on himself of late years, with very little 
experience of rabies, to resuscitate the long exploded fallacy that the rabid dog 
may be distinguished from the animal whose brain is only attacked in an ordinary 
way, by the fear of water, which the former, as he alleges, always displays. Every 
modern authority is against him, yet he fearlessly recommends owners of dogs 
which are attacked by madness of any form to run all sorts of risks so long as they 
show no fear of water. He says they may handle such patients with perfect 
impunity ; and as his name stands high with the multitude because of his position 
in the world of sport, he is likely to mislead a good many into taking his advice. 
My own experience is not much greater then his in true rabies, having only seen 
three cases of it ; but, as far as it goes, it is dead against him, there being no fear 
of water in either of the cases seen by me, but, on the contrary, a strong desire 
and craving for it. In each case the disease was propagated from, and in two of 
them both from and to, others ; so that there could be no doubt of its being true 
rabies. Still, I should lay little stress on so limited a number, and prefer to rest 
the question on the general opinion of the medical profession, which, as I said 
before, is unaminous on this point, and I shall therefore dismiss it as settled 
without further discussion. 

The symptoms of canine madness are very much the same in all cases, though 
varying somewhat in their manifestations. The first and most marked is a change 
of disposition and temper, so that the naturally good tempered dog becomes 
morose and snappish, and those which are usually fondling in their manners are 
shy and retiring. Sometimes the change is even so great that the usually shy dog 
becomes bold ; but this is not nearly so common as the opposite extreme. Generally 



EABIES. 25 

the rabid dog shows a warning of his coming disease by this change of manner for 
several days before it breaks out with severity; though I have seen one well- 
marked attack which began and ended in death within forty-eight hours. This 
was in a Newfoundland dog, which I bought in perfect health to all appearance, 
and shut up in order to accustom him to his new master for a week or ten days, 
feeding him myself at the end of the first twenty-four hours, and observing no 
change from the usual habits of a strange dog. On the evening of the tenth day, 
however, after he had appeared in very good spirits, and eaten his dinner from my 
hand in the morning, he began to show signs of bad temper, and exhibited that 
peculiar snapping at imaginary objects well described by Mr. Youatt. On the next 
day he was in a highly rabid state, and died in the night after. When these 
premonitory symptoms have lasted an uncertain time, varying from twenty-four 
hours to three or four days, the dog begins to attack imaginary objects, and if real 
ones are presented to him he will tear them savagely to pieces. He is now 
exceedingly irritable, and wanders restlessly from place to place, having apparently 
a strong desire to do something, but not caring what that is, so that he is not 
quiet. If he is confined by a chain he will try and gnaw it to pieces ; and if 
restrained by a door within narrow bounds he vents his fury upon that. In this 
state he knows not the sensation of ordinary pain, but will bite a red-hot poker 
presented to him exactly as if it were a cold one. As the disease advances water is 
eagerly swallowed, but in his hurry the dog will generally upset his stock of that 
fluid ; and hence he is often thought to be unable to swallow, whilst all the time 
he is burnt up with thirst, and will constantly imbibe it, if he can do so without 
knocking over the vessel containing it in his haste. The howls and groans are 
generally peculiarly deep and melancholy, and by them a mad dog in confinement 
may often be recognised, though sometimes the patient is quite silent, and in that 
state is said, in common language, to be " dumb mad." When at large, however, 
no warning noise is made, and the dog seems only determined on a straightforward 
trot. If he is interfered with in any way, and more especially if he is struck, he 
will wreak his vengeance on the offender ; but he seldom goes out of his way to do 
a mischief, and will often pass through crowds of people without biting them ; 
even if pursued and annoyed by cries and hootings, he takes no notice until he is 
injured, and then more frequently endeavours to escape into solitude, than turn 
upon his assailants. This desire to wander appears to me an instinctive attempt to 
get rid of the disease by muscular action, and if indulged in quietly, I am inclined 
to think that there might be some chance of a recovery ; but as it would not be 
wise to run the risk, the experiment can never be tried. The disease is evidently 
caused by some poison, and, as in other cases, poisons are got rid of by some 
extraordinary secretion, so I am lead to believe that the wearing down of the 
muscular, and with it the nervous system by long-continued fatigue, is the natural 
cure of the disease. 

PREVENTIVE MEASURES are the only ones of service in this complaint, which 
if fully established, has hitherto been uniformly fatal in all animals attacked by it, 
including man himself. When a bite has taken place, the best plan is to destroy 

E 



26 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



the animal at once : for though excision may most probably prevent the occurrence 
of the disease, no risk should be run. In man, immediate excision, followed by 
caustic, should always be had recourse to, previously taking care to suck the wound, 
with a mouth free from ulcers, to discover which put a little salt in the mouth, 
when it will by its smarting show their existence, if there are any. It is supposed 
that confinement is the cause of the disease ; and I am strongly inclined to believe 
that such is the case, as in those countries where dogs are suffered to be at large, 
rabies is an unknown disease. A wooden caustic case, containing a pointed piece 
of lunar caustic, is sold by all chemists, and should be carried in the pocket by 
those who run any risk of a bite from a rabid dog. 

The average time elapsing between innoculation and the appearance of the 
disease is about two or three months. It has been known to break out in less than 
three weeks ; and, on the other hand, not till fully six months after the reputed 
bite. 

TETANUS 

Is a disease very similar in its nature to rabies, but manifesting itself in spasms 
of the muscles, rather than in general irritability of them. I have, however, only 
seen one case in the dog, which was the result of a severe injury, and it is said to 
be very rare indeed. No remedy seems to exert any power over it any more than 
over rabies itself. Chloroform, by inhalation, might be tried ; but I can scarcely 
expect any good result in the dog, when its effects on the human being are so far 
from satisfactory. 

TIJENSIDE 

Appears to be an inflammation of one side of the brain only, producing a ten- 
dency to turn round in a circle, like " the gidd" of sheep. It is rather a rare 
disease, and is easily recognised by the above characteristic sign. There is no 
apparent constitutional disturbance, and the dog eats much as usual; but the 
moment he attempts to walk he begins to turn round. In a case which I saw some 
years ago, the dog recovered by the use of a seton, with purgatives, followed by 
nitrate of silver, given three times a day in a pill, as follows : 

Nitrate of silver, carefully powdered, 2 grains ; crumb of bread, enough to 
make eight pills. 

INFLAMMATIONS OF THE EYE. 

The EYE is the seat of various inflammations, coming on from causes totally 
distinct from one another. Thus, in distemper, there is generally an inflammation, 
with discharge, and sometimes the inexperienced attendant will fear that the eye 
will be lost ; but if the dog recovers his strength, the eye, in almost all cases, is 
restored also, and especially if it is not interfered with. If, on the other hand, an 
attempt is made to apply remedies, with the intention of saving the sight, the effect 
is the reverse of good, and the disease is aggravated so far as often to cause the 
ulceration to extend through the cornea, and destroy the eye. In ordinary 
ophthalmia, arising from cold, there is considerable injection of the vessels of the 



INFLAMMATION OF THE EYE AND EAR. 27 

white of the eye, which becomes red and swollen. In this kind, if an ulcer appears, 
it will often eat through the cornea, and the eye will be lost by a discharge of its 
contents. Sometime, again, in a weakly young dog, there is a low kind of inflam- 
mation, with great intolerance of light, and a discharge of watery fluid instead of 
thick pus. This is strumous ophthalmia, and requires a very different treatment. 
A third kind of ophthalmia, the rheumatic, is unattended by discharge ; the vessels 
are deeply gorged, and the pain great. This, however, is a disease peculiar to old 
dogs, and from that cause may generally be distinguished from the strumous, and 
from the ordinary ophthalmia, by the absence of discharge. There is also an 
inflammation, the result of accident, which sometimes destroys the eye rapidly, and 
requires energetic treatment. The Treatment of ordinary ophthalmia should depend 
upon its severity, which, if great, will demand bleeding and .strong purgatives ? 
followed by a grain of calomel and opium two or three times a day. When an 
ulcer appears, a wash should be used daily, consisting of the nitrate of silver in 
solution, or the sulphate of zinc, according to the formulas given under Eye-washes. 
In the strumous kind tonics are necessary, consisting of 1 grain of quinine and 3 of 
hemlock, in a pill, three times a day. When the rheumatic form shows itself, a 
brisk purge must first be given, and then the iodide of potassium should be adminis- 
tered according to the formula at page 12. If this does not succeed, a seton may be 
inserted in the neck. 

CATARACT consists in an opacity of the crystalline lens, for which nothing 
can be done ; for although it might be removed by operation, the dog would still 
be unable to see for want of the glasses, which, in the human subject, supply its 
place. It may easily be recognised by the clear white pupil, which takes the place 
of the ordinary dark centre of the organ. 

DROPSY of the eye is only the result of chronic inflammation, and little can be 
done to alleviate it, as the eye is almost always destroyed before the disease pro- 
ceeds so far as to cause dropsy. 

AMAUROSIS, or paralysis of the nerve, is generally a sign of disease of the brain, 
either produced by injury or from overfeeding. The dog is more or less blind 
without the eye showing any change in form, and even at first being preternaturally 
bright. But if the dog is watched, he is seen to be blind by his striking his head 
against objects in his way, and by his timid mode of moving about. If the disease 
is recent, the dog may possibly be cured by smart purgatives and a seton ; but, in 
most cases, very little benefit is experienced from these remedies. 

INFLAMMATIONS OF THE EAR. 

DEAFNESS often arises from severe cold, and may then be expected to disappear 
as the dog recovers, but it is sometimes congenital, and when such is the case, no 
remedies are of any avail. If it comes on after distemper, it will generally dis- 
appear, or if it occurs from ordinary cold. Whenever it is obstinately persistent 
for more than a fortnight, a seton in the neck is the best remedy, kept in for some 
weeks. 



28 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

CANKER of the ear is an eruption attacking the ear passage or external 
ear, as the case may be, rather than a disease of the ear itself. According 
to ita seat, as above mentioned, it is termed external or internal, and then 
requires very different treatment. Internal canker may be suspected when the 
dog is seen to shake his head constantly without having any eruption on the 
external ear to account for this habit. On looking into the ear passage, it will 
generally be found to be full of yellow matter, bnt sometimes the membrane lining 
is thickened, red, and dry. In either case it is inflamed, and requires local as 
well as general treatment. A solution of nitrate of silver should be dropped into 
the passage every other day, alternating its use with the green iodide of mercury, 
which should be blown in without admixture with lard. The dog should be 
physicked with a mild aperient, his diet should be reduced in quantity and quality, 
and some boiled green vegetables should be added to it every other day. These 
remedies generally effect a cure in a fortnight, unless the disease has extended 
beyond the drum of the ear into the delicate structures of the interior, in which 
case it is often incurable. 

EXTERNAL CANKER attacks the tips of the ears, producing a scabby sore, on 
one or both, which is greatly aggravated by the dog continually shaking his head. 
Hence it often requires a canvas cap to be tied on, so as to confine the ears, 
without which, in bad cases, no remedy is effectual. The general treatment is the 
same as for internal cankers, but the sores require touching with bluestone after 
rubbing off the scales, and afterwards applying the ointment of green iodide of 
mercury. 

In very bad cases of either kind, when the system is in a very gross state, 
6 or 8 drops of liquor arsenicalis should be added to the food twice a day, 
proportioning the dose to small dogs accordingly. It should be continued for weeks 
or even months, until it produces a redness of the white of the eye. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE MOUTH. 

The MOUTH is liable to inflammation from decayed teeth, or from the 
collection of tartar about them. The only remedy is the removal of these causes of 
irritation. 

WARTS sometimes infest the mouth to a very troublesome extent. They must 
be removed with scissors, and the bases should then be touched with a small red- 
hot iron; or with lunar caustic, the former being simpler, and giving less pain, if 
properly applied. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE NOSE (OZENA). 

The NOSE is sometimes attacked by inflammation of its lining membrane, 
producing a stinking discharge, which the dog is constantly dropping about. A 
solution of chloride of zinc (2 grains to the ounce of water) may be thrown up with 
a syringe daily. 



SKIN DISEASES. 29 



INFLAMMATION OF THE SKIN. 

MANGE is the kennel term for several inflammations of the skin, whether acute 
or chronic, the chief popular distinction from surfeit or blotch being, that it is 
communicable from one to the other by contact that is to say, that it is " catching." 
Hence, tbe sporting public exclude surfeit, blotch, &c., from this definition, and only 
include under the term mange those chronic eruptions which are capable of being 
taken by one dog from another. There are, however, several distinct varieties, 
which are not sufficiently described ; and every now and then I see a fresh and 
perfectly new form, so that I cannot give a complete epitome of them. Every 
sportsman must know that when his dog has an eruption, the first question asked 
is the following, namely, " Is it mange, or not ? " and to this it is not always easy 
to give a satisfactory reply. The following are, however, the forms of mange 
which I have met with ; but, as I said before, I am constantly meeting with a new 
variety. 

1. VIRULENT MANGE, in its more ordinary form, occurs most commonly in 
utterly-neglected and large kennels, where dogs are suffered to remain in large 
numbers together, in all their filth, and without exercise. It is seldom met with 
elsewhere, but it is highly contagious. The skin is bare of hair in large patches, 
but these are not in regular forms, being gradually shaded off into the hairy parts, 
as if from scratching, and are nowhere quite free from hairs. It is dry and rough, 
with a few oozing scabs here and there, and with inflamed creases, extending 
wherever there is a fold. The eruption is generally confined to the back, bosom, and 
inside of the thighs. The health is not much affected, but from the loss of sleep, 
and constant irritation caused by the itching, there is sometimes some little fever. 
An insect (acarus) is the cause of this form of mange, but my readers will be 
none the wiser for reading its scientific name. The treatment consists in a gentle 
dose or two of aperient medicine internally, and externally of the application of the 
ointment of green iodide of mercury, which should not be rubbed in at one time 
over more than ono quarter of the body, for fear of absorption. In such virulent 
cases, therefore, as extend to more than this extent of surface, a part should be first 
anointed sparingly, taking care to leave no superfluous ointment on the coat but 
rubbing it till it has nearly or quite disappeared. With this precaution no 
danger is to be apprehended from licking, as a small quantity does no harm to a 
dog of average strength. By repeating the application every second or third day, 
the most severe cases are soon cured, no remedy within my knowledge being so 
certain in its operation. In case of failure, Bishop's mange lotion may be used 
instead. It is sold by Messrs. Barclay and Son, Farringdon-street, London. 

2. MANGE, WITH THICKENING OF THE SKIN, appears to be more dependent on 
constitutional disorder than the first variety, and for it the arsenical solution is 
no doubt very valuable. In this disease the discharge is very offensive ; the skin 
is thick, and pouring out an irritating ichor, which occasions a constant and violent 
itching ; the hair falls off, and the dog is continually scratching himself. 



30 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

The REMEDY for this state is a cooling diet, without any animal food of any 
kind, and composed chiefly of potatoes and other vegetables. A smart purge may 
be first given, and then the liquor arsenicalis in doses of from two to ten drops three 
times a day, mixed with the food, according to the size of the dog. If this dose 
makes the eyes red, or stops the appetite, or occasions vomiting, it may be diminished 
one-half; but the best plan in all cases is to begin with a full dose at first, and when 
the desired effect is produced, gradually to diminish it. Less than two or three 
months will seldom effect a cure, and green iodide ointment will often be required 
to complete it. 

3. RED MANGE, is the most easily detected of all the varieties, because it 
always shows itself by altering the colour of the hair, whether the dog is white or 
not. If white, the hair becomes pink ; and if brown or red, it is of a brighter 
shade ; while if black, it becomes reddish brown. It does not, however, fall off, 
except from the constant scratching which takes place. There is no eruption visible, 
but the skin is more red than natural. 

The REMEDY is either the ointment of green iodide of mercury, which, however, 
sometimes fails, or Bishop's mange lotion wash above mentioned applied to the roots 
of the hair with a stiff brush every other night. Liquor arsenicalis should also be 
given as above described. 

BLOTCH OR SURFEIT is one of those skin diseases which is dependent upon 
too gross a diet, and is not of a specific nature, that is to say, it is not caused by 
contagion, nor by a parasitic insect. It begins with an irritation of the skin, which 
causes the dog to be constantly scratching. On examination, there is a matted 
mass of loose hair, as if some starch had been dropped on the coat ; and when 
this comes off, the skin underneath is red, and deprived of its cuticle, dis- 
charging also a thin watery fluid. These patches occur chiefly on the back and 
the inside of the thighs, and also on the scrotum, where they are very commonly 
met with. 

The TREATMENT consists in giving cooling and laxative medicines, with 
starvation and plenty of exercise. This will almost always effect a cure. Locally 
a piece of bluestone may be rubbed upon the sores, but they will not heal until the 
constitutional foulness of blood has been relieved, after effecting which local 
measures are seldom needed. 

An ERUPTION between the toes is also constantly occuring in sporting dogs ; 
and it is precisely similar in its nature and cause, and also in the treatment. 
Bluestone is almost invariably successful, if combined with purgation and starvation. 
It generally requires to be well rubbed into the roots of the nails, and also to the 
clefts between the toes. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE ORGANS OF RESPIRATION. 

The LARYNX, situated at the top of the windpipe, is not so often the seat of 
acute inflammation as in man and the horse, but chronic laryngitis is by no means 
unfrequent in the dog. Both are recognised by the hoarseness of the cough and 



PLEURISY. 31 



bark, and by a rough sound in breathing, sometimes very audible at a short 
distance ; and accompanied by a certain degree of increased quickness in respiration, 
vary ing according to the intensity of the attack. 

The TREATMENT will vary according to the acuteness and severity of the 
disease ; and if this is urgent, bleeding and emetics will be necessary, followed by 
small doses of calomel, digitalis, and nitre, as prescribed at page 13. If, on the 
other hand, the more common form of chronic laryngitis is developed, remedies of 
a different nature must be adopted. A seton should be inserted in the throat, 
and a good discharge from it promoted by the application of blistering ointment to 
the tape. Iodide of potassium may generally be given in one, two, or three grain 
doses, with five or six drops of ipecacuanha wine, and five grains of nitre three 
times a day, mixed in a little water. When this has been given for a short time 
without benefit, any of the warm expectorants given at page 12 may be tried ; and 
sometimes one, and sometimes another, will be of service. The dog, during the 
continuance of this disease, must be kept rather low than otherwise, but not rigidly 
starved, as is necessary in some inflammations of the respiratory organs, and should 
have a fair allowance of walking exercise. 

PNEUMONIA, or inflammation of the substance of the lungs, must be dis- 
tinguished from pleurisy (inflammation of the pleura) and bronchitis, which, when 
simple, is confined to the lining membrane ; but very commonly there is a combina- 
tion of two out of three in the same attack. 

All are characterised by fever, with quickened respiration and pulse ; generally 
there is cough, but not always ; and in all cases there is great anxiety depicted in 
the countenance. The following series of symptoms mark the difference between 
the three forms of inflammation, whether acute or chronic : 

SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE PLEURISY 

COMMENCE with shivering, with slight spasms and sweats. Inspiration short, 
unequal, and interrupted, as from pain ; expiration full ; air expired not hotter 
than usual. Slight cough only, and without expectoration. Pulse quick, small, 
and wiry. 

The STETHOSCOPE gives the usual respiratory murmur, accompanied with a 
rubbing sound in the parts attached. 

PERCUSSION elicits at first little or no deviation from the natural sound ; after 
effusion has taken place there is a dull sound. 

DISEASE TERMINATES in a gradual disappearance of the symptoms, or in the 
effusion of fluid (pus or lymph). 

SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC PLEURISY. 

INSPIRATION always deep ; expiration short. Cough dry, sometimes with 
expectoration ; frequently changing from dry to moist cough. 

STETHOSCOPE indicates an absence of respiratory murmur in the lower parts of 



32 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

the chest, and sometimes a gurgling noise. Strong respiratory murmur in the 
superior portion of the lung, very often of one side only. 

TERMINATES either by cure or by effusion and infiltration of the whole of the 
cellular membrane of the chest and belly, and sometimes of the scrotum and thighs : 
at last the serum in the thorax presses upon the lungs till it causes suffocation. 

SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE PNEUMONIA 

COMMENCE with shivering, without spasms. Inspiration full ; expiration 
short ; air expired hot, Nostrils red in the interior. Cough generally violent, with 
expectoration of rusty mucus, not very profuse. Pulse quick, full, and soft. 

The STETHOSCOPE gives a crackling sound in the early stage, followed by 
increased dullness, and, finally, by crepitating wheezing. 

PERCUSSION gives after the first stage a dull return to the finger. 

DISEASE TERMINATES in resolution, with cessation of the bad symptoms ; or 
in solidification, called hepatization ; or sometimes in abscess of the lung. 

SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC PNEUMONIA. 

INSPIRATION and expiration both difficult and interrupted. Cough present, 
but not frequent, and evidently avoided and suppressed. Expectoration rarely 
profuse ; sometimes absent. 

STETHOSCOPE indicates hepatization, from the entire absence of murmur. 

PERCUSSION also gives a very dull return to the fingers. Sometimes there is 
a mucous rattle. 

TERMINATES sometimes in resolution ; or, if fatal, in a discharge from the 
nostrils of purulent matter, coloured with blood, and often very fetid. The animal 
never lies down at length, but sits up on his hind legs. 

SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE BRONCHITIS 

COMMENCE also with shivering, followed by constant hard cough. Air 
expired warm, but not so hot as in pneumonia. Inspiration and expiration both 
full. Cough after a time attended with expectoration of mucus, at first sticky, soon 
becoming frothy, and, finally, profuse and frothy. Pulse full and hard. 

The STETHOSCOPE gives a soap-bubble kind of sound, with wheezing. 

PERCUSSION elicits nothing of consequence. 

DISEASE TERMINATES either by resolution, or by extention to the cellular 
membrane, constituting pneumonia in combination with bronchitis. 

SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS. 

RESPIRATION free, but quicker than natural. Cough constant and intense, 
evidently not restrained by fear of pain ; sometimes to such an extent as to cause 
soreness of the muscles of the belly. 



ACUTE BRONCHITIS. 33 



STETHOSCOPE gives a rattling sound, as of soap bubbles, with a great deal of 
wheezing. 

PERCUSSION gives no result different from a state of health. 

TERMINATES in resolution ; or, if fatal, in an accumulation of mucus, and 
consequent suffocation. Until very near suffocation the dog will almost always lie 
down ; whereas the contrary is the case in pneumonia. 

The TREATMENT will a good deal depend upon which of the above three con- 
ditions is present, though not to such an extent as to be of very great consequence. 
In pleurisy and pneumonia, bleeding will almost always be required in the early 
stage, but not in bronchitis, which seldom is benefited by loss of blood. Blisters, 
again, relieve pneumonia and bronchitis, but are actually prejudicial in pleurisy, 
where the close relation between the vessels of the pleura lining the chest, and the 
skin covering it, often causes the irritation of the latter to extend to the former, 
and thus increase the mischief it was intended to relieve. With regard to internal 
medicines, they are, fortunately, much the same in all three. Calomel and opium, 
with or without digitalis and tartar emetic, will generally be useful ; and in 
bronchitis, rhubarb, opium, and ipecacuanha, as follows : 

Calomel and opium in powder, of each | to 1 grain ; tartar emetic, f to f grain ; 
digitalis, | grain. 

Confection enough to form a pill, to be given three times a day. Or, 

Rhubarb powder, 2 grains ; ipecacuanha powder, ^ to 1 grain ; extract of 
opium, | to 1 grain ; compound tincture of benzoin, 2 drops. 

Mix, and form a pill, to be given three times a day. 

When these remedies have had the desired effect of relieving the inflammation, 
as evidenced by the breathing and pulse becoming slower, and by the dog being 
able to lie down, if the pneumonia has been present, some one of the cough 
mixtures or pills given in the chapter on drugs, under the head of Expectorants 
will be found beneficial ; but it is generally difficult to say which of them will best 
suit any particular case. A trial may be made of one for two or three days, and if 
that fails, another should be substituted for it. The diet should be very low at 
first, and afterwards only a milk and farinaceous one, with vegetables, should be 
allowed for some weeks. When dropsy of the chest supervenes upon pleurisy, 
tapping has occasionally been had recourse to ; but for sporting dogs it is wholly 
useless, because the animal never recovers sufficient bodily powers to be of real 
service in the field ; and it is only in pets whose lives are valued by their masters 
or mistresses that this operation should ever be had recourse to. 

CHRONIC BRONCHITIS, WITH SPASM, usually known as spasmodic asthma, is 
very common among ladies' pets, who become overfed in consequence of the 
kindness of their mistresses, and their blood vessels gorged with foul blood, when 
spasm comes on with congestion of the mucous membrane of the large air-tubes, 
causing that frightful panting for breath which is so distressing in the human 
subject, and which even in the dog is by no means calculated to afford pleasure to 
the spectator. A fat, pursy, and asthmatic old dog is a miserable object of pity, 
and had far better be destroyed than suffered to live on in misery. The nose 



34 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

is dry and hot, the animal spirits are flagging ; there is a distressing cough, and 
exercise is followed by an aggravation of the symptoms. 

The TREATMENT should be by giving nauseating doses of tartar emetic, 
camphor, and henbane ; or of ipecacuanha with the two last, as follows : 

Ipecacuanha, f to If grains ; camphor, 1 to 2 grains ; extract of henbane, If 
to 3 grains. Make into a pill, and give three times a day. 

A blister or seton may be applied to the side, and low diet in small bulk 
should be given ; but there is little chance of doing more than to relieve a dog 
labouring under this complaint. 

CONSUMPTION, OR PHTHISIS, is a disease of the lungs, in which a peculiar 
condition, called tubercle, is developed in them ; and when aggravated by cold, or 
often by the natural constitution of the dog, they become inflamed, are converted 
into abscesses, and cause the death of the animal by constitutional fever (hectic), 
and by the suffocation produced either by a vessel giving way, or by the quantity of 
matter discharged into the air-passages. The symptoms are very insidious, and 
many dogs have them developed to a great extent before their owners take any 
notice of their condition. Very little good can be effected by treatment, but some- 
times cod-liver oil, with steel, will be of temporary service. In sporting dogs, 
however, it is seldom that it is desirable to prolong life with this condition of the 
system ; and it is never right to breed from dogs or bitches suffering under this 
disease, it being decidedly hereditary. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE HEART is another of the diseased conditions which 
attack the dog, generally from over-exertion in an unprepared state. There is 
usually a very rapid action of the heart, with a strong bounding pulse, and 
laborious breathing, unaccompanied by cough. 

The TREATMENT is to be conducted upon lowering principles, with digitalis and 
nitre, and blistering or a seton in the side. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE OEGANS OF NUTEITION. 

GASTRITIS, or inflammation of the stomach, is either acute or chronic. Acute 
gastritis is generally caused by poison administered wilfully, or by some similar 
accidental circumstance, such as highly-seasoned food, &c. There is constant 
violent retching, with intense thirst, and apparently great pain. The nose is dry, 
and the breathing quick ; no kind of food is retained on the stomach ; and the poor 
wretch lies extended on the cold earth with his belly applied closely to it. There is 
a constant desire to lick cold marble or iron, so as to cool the tongue, and cold water 
is eagerly sought after. 

The TREATMENT chiefly consists in removing the sickness, which is best accom- 
plished by calomel and opium, 1 grain of each in a pill twice a day. 

HEPATITIS, or INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER, is one of the most common of all 
diseases to which the dog is subject. In the acute form it is the disease which is 
characterised by the yellow skin and eyes, commonly called " the yellows," which in 
sporting dogs is very commonly fatal. Acute hepatitis comes on from exposure to 



INFLAMMATION OF THE INTESTINES. 35 

cold and wet, one or two days after which the dog is shivering and feverish, with a 
small, hard, and wiry pulse, and a dry nose ; there is generally obstinate costiveness, 
and when the bowels are moved, the motions are white or slate-coloured and 
entirely devoid of bile. If these symptoms are not soon alleviated, the inflamma- 
tion goes on to destroy the substance of the liver, and the dog dies rapidly from 
constitutional disturbance, arising chiefly from the want of depurating power of 
the liver. To remove the inflammation, bleeding is sometimes necessary in the 
early stage, but as it reduces the strength greatly, and as this is required to be kept 
up during convalescence, it is always attended with danger. Calomel, with or 
without opium, is the only medicine to be relied on in extreme cases, but when 
there is time enough, podophyllin may be substituted for it. If there is no 
diarrhoea produced by these drugs, opium may be omitted, but it must be added to 
counteract that effect in sufficient doses. If the bowels are confined, a dose of 
rhubarb and castor-oil may be given, mixing 10 grains of rhubarb with a tablespoon- 
ful of oil and a teaspoonful of syrup of poppies for a full-sized dog, and less, in pro- 
portion, for a smaller one. Sometimes a blister must be applied to the side when 
the inflammation runs very high ; and, in all cases, the mercury must be continued 
until the motions acquire a natural colour, when the stomachic No. 2 may be given 
and the mercury discontinued. Chronic hepatitis is a very different disease, and is 
more frequently the result of bad general management than of cold. Want of 
exercise is the usual cause, which has given the liver the work of the lungs. The 
symptoms of chronic hepatitis are multiform, and no one can be depended upon 
except the absence of bile in the faeces, which is an invariable sign, for no gland in 
a state of chronic inflammation will be able to secrete good bile. 

The TREATMENT is to be conducted by rubbing into the region of the liver on 
both sides the ointment of biniodide of mercury, together with castor oil and 
rhubarb internally, in sufficient doses to keep the bowels gently moved. If the 
mercurial ointment does not soon cause the bile to flow, it may be assisted by small 
doses of blue pill or Plummer's pill, added to the rhubarb and oil, and the stomachic 
draught, No. 2, should be regularly administered in addition. If these means are 
perseveringly continued, and the dog is regularly but gently exercised, with plain 
farinaceous food, mixed with weak broth, the disease, unless very inveterate, will 
generally subside, and if a free flow of bile is obtained little doubt need be felt of 
the ultimate recovery. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE INTESTINES 

May be said to be divided into four varieties, though one of them is more of a 
spasmodic than of an inflammatory nature ; these are first, peritoneal inflammation ; 
secondly, colic, or inflammation and spasm of the muscular coat ; thirdly, diarrhosa, 
or acute inflammation of the mucous coat ; and, fourthly, constipation, from chronic 
inflammation of the same membrane. 

1. PERITONITIS and ENTERITIS are merely different parts of the same mem- 
brane inflamed ; the former comprehending the peritoneum lining the abdominal 



36 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

walls, whilst the latter embraces the peritoneum covering the intestines. In 
practice, there is very little difference between them, and the symptoms and treat- 
ment are the same. It is a frightful disease, and soon runs its course to a fatal 
termination ; beginning with shivering, cold legs, ears, and nose ; breath hot ; 
pulse hard, quick, and small ; the expression is an anxious one, with a staring eye ; 
the tail is pressed firmly against the anus, and there is intense tenderness of the 
belly ; bowels generally costive, and urine scanty ; tongue dry and rough ; with 
thirst and loss of appetite. As the disease advances all these symptoms become 
aggravated, and very soon the dog dies, worn out with irritation and pain. 

The TREATMENT consists in full bleeding, with calomel and opium, of each a 
grain every four hours. Blisters, or stimulating applications to the belly, and a 
warm bath, will be beneficial in some few cases ; but whatever is done must be done 
quickly, as the disease soon passes on to a fatal termination, if unchecked by 
remedies. 

2. COLIC is very common in all kinds of dogs, and is partly of a spasmodic, 
partly of an inflammatory nature. There is intense pain, coming on in paroxysms, 
during which the dog howls with agony. Very often the attack is quite sudden, 
and comes on after a full meal which has been eaten much as usual ; suddenly the 
dog starts up, with something between a moan and a groan, and then lies down 
again ; soon after there is another groan, and a shifting of the position, and then, 
after an interval of rest, and perhaps sleep, there comes on a regular paroxysm of 
pain, with violent howls, which soon, however, cease, only to be repeated at intervals, 
varying in length according to the severity of the attack. The nose is not dry or 
hot, the tongue is clean and moist, and the appetite even is not affected ; pulse full 
and soft, and not much quicker than natural. There is no tenderness of the belly, 
and pressure seems to alleviate the pain, rather than to increase it. 

The TREATMENT consists of giving ether and laudanum internally, in doses of 
from thirty to sixty drops of each, and a clyster of turpentine and laudanum, one 
teaspoonful of each in a half a pint of gruel. The stimulating embrocation, page 12, 
should be well rubbed into the bowels ; and in bad cases a very hot bath may be 
administered. When the colic comes on in young dogs, the injection of turpentine 
with laudanum and a little ether will generally Suffice without any internal 
medicine; but a dose of castor oil will almost always be necessary to carry off 
the offending matter. 

Sometimes colic is followed or attended by INTUSSUSCEPTION, in which one 
contracted part of the bowel is driven into the expanded part below it. It cannot 
be distinguished from colic, and the animal is sure to die, unless an operation is 
performed to liberate the bowel ; which might be easily done if the disease could 
be discovered with certainty ; but, unfortunately, this is not the case. 

3. DIARRHCEA, or DYSENTERY, comes on either from epidemic causes, or from 
some irritating and improper food, or from too violent aperient medicine. Unless 
there is an epidemic raging at the time, or the diarrhoea is clearly connected with 
distemper, the treatment should generally commence with a dose of castor oil, 
having with it a few drops of laudanum. If this is not enough to stop the purging, 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER. 37 

the anodyne mixture, No. 1, may be tried, and failing that, No. 2, adding more 
laudanum to each dose, if necessary, up to any extent, for this medicine is well 
borne by the dog in full doses. Rice-water is to be the only drink allowed ; and 
arrowroot or rice the only food, flavoured with milk or weak mutton-broth. If the 
dysentery is very bad, an injection of laudanum and starch may be tried ; but it is 
seldom retained, even for a minute or two, and unless mechanical pressure is kept 
upon the anus by means of a towel, it is quite useless. 

4. COSTIVENESS is generally the result of chronic inflammation of the bowels, 
or of the liver, by which their functions are impaired ; and when the former is 
torpid, the healthy stimulus of the bile is not afforded. Dogs which are regularly 
exercised are not very liable to costiveness, but those which are confined to the 
house or to their kennels, are often terribly tormented by it, and suffer severely 
from the consequences, including that painful affection, piles, to which the dog is 
much subject. Very often the dog suffers very severe pain from the obstruction 
afforded by pent-up faeces, and is utterly unable to pass them until Nature has set 
up an inflammation of the rectum, by which mucus is poured out, and the mass 
comes away with much straining. The dog thus affected is almost mad with pain ; 
he runs to and fro, rushes into odd corners, and shakes his head in the most odd 
manner, and in this stage may very easily be mistaken for a " mad dog ; " but the 
suddenness of the attack, and the mass of hardened faeces easily felt in the flank 
mark the difference between the two cases. 

The TREATMENT of costiveness should be by diet if possible, and the 
substitution of oatmeal, with or without the addition of boiled green vegetables, 
will generally effect this. If not sufficient, give a pill of rhubarb and ipecacuanha 
5 to 30 grains of the former, with f grain of the latter at the time of feeding, 
every day. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY AND BLADDER. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY is not very common in the dog, but it some- 
times occurs from the use of turpentine as a vermifuge. Very rarely there is met 
with in the kidney a formation of stone, called Renal Calculus, but no means can 
be used to remove it, nor are there any symptoms which indicate its presence during 
life. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER AND URETHRA is very usual in the dog, and 
is marked by a discharge of yellow mucus from the end of the penis. This is the 
result of high feeding generally, though sometimes it comes on from mechanical 
irritation. 

The TREATMENT is to be conducted by giving saline aperients : sulphate of 
magnesia, \ to 1 ounce ; nitre, 10 to 15 grains ; water enough to dissolve. Mix, and 
give twice a week. 

Balsam of copaiba may be given in obstinate cases, in does varying from 4 to 
15 drops, in a little mucilage ; but it seldom is retained on the stomach, and the 
best chance is to give one or two of the capsules now commonly sold, which may be 



38 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

pushed down the throat. When the discharge is clearly in the sheath, a wash of 
the sulphate of zinc, as here prescribed, may be used. Sulphate of^zinc, 10 to 15 
grains ; rose water, 1 ounce. Mix. 

CHOREA AND SHAKING PALSY. 

The former is almost always a sequel of distemper, and may be known by the 
peculiar nodding of the head, or twitch of the fore-leg, which all dog owners must 
have seen. Shaking palsy is a general agitation of the body, without the twitching 
so characteristic of chorea. Chorea generally occurs as a sequel of distemper (see 
page 19) ; but sometimes it appears without that combination. Little can be done in 
either case ; but nitrate of silver, in doses of -|th of a grain, has sometimes effected 
a cure of chorea. When the disease first comes on, a general tonic treatment should 
be tried, the first principle being to improve the general health by good food and 
fresh air, aided by stomachic medicines ; and secondly, to give such strengthening 
and tonic medicines as are likely to improve the tone of the nervous system. Fresh 
country air is of the utmost consequence, and this alone will often dispel the attacks 
of chorea ; but when united to a liberal diet it is doubly likely to be successful. 
The puppy should have plenty of good milk, or, if that cannot be obtained, beef 
tea or mutton broth, with oatmeal or wheaten flour added in proportion to the 
looseness of the bowels. If these are confined, they must be acted on by castor oil 
or rhubarb and aloes, or some of the aperients which merely act without producing 
much loss of strength. When the strength is somewhat improved by diet and 
stomachics, sulphate of zinc, in doses varying from 2 to 4 grains three times a day, 
may be given ; or a grain or two of quinine, with 2 or 3 grains of extract of hemlock 
in a pill, will be likely to be serviceable, but either must be used regularly for some 
weeks in order to have a fair chance of success. By these means many bad cases 
may be relieved, or perhaps nearly cured ; but with sporting dogs, if the attack is 
really severe, it is seldom that sufficient improvement is effected to make the dog 
as efficient as before. Hence, in this instance it is perhaps better to destroy him, 
than to persist in patching him up in a way which will only render him a burden 
and disgrace to his master. Shaking palsy, I have already remarked, is wholly 
incurable. 

EPILEPSY 

May be distinguished from the fits of puppyhood by the great champing of the 
jaws and struggling of the limbs during the fit, and also by the frothing at the 
mouth which is generally an accompaniment of it. It comes on without notice } 
and in the setter and pointer is peculiarly annoying, because it generally shows 
itself at the time when their services are most wanted, namely, during the middle 
of a day's shooting. Very often this happens during the excitement of the " point," 
but the fit is scarcely marked till the birds are sprung, when the dog generally 
falls, and is seized with struggles and foaming at the mouth. Generally this lasts 
for a few minutes, extending sometimes to half an hour, after which he recovers 
himself, and will even continue his work without loss of nose. With regard to the 



GENERAL DROPSY. 39 



causes of epilepsy nothing is known, but its attacks are aggravated by improper 
food, and by the addition of flesh without due preparation, as is often heedlessly 
done just before the shooting season. 

The TREATMENT consists in attention to the general health, which is all that 
can be done, as in confirmed epilepsy a cure is seldom effected. If recently 
developed, bromide of potassium should be given in from 3 to 5 grain doses, and 
this should be continued for at least a month or six weeks. 

By FITS may be understood those which occur to the puppy during dentition 
or from distemper, both of which indicate either disease of the brain, or great 
disturbance of the digestive apparatus in consequence of worms. These fits are 
accompanied by slight convulsions, but no foaming at the mouth, and the dog is 
not speedily recovered from them, but lies exhausted after he recovers his con- 
sciousness. They are very fatal in distemper, being symptoms of great mischief 
in the brain ; but they are not invariably fatal, because the severity of the fit does 
not always indicate a corresponding degree of internal mischief. 

In their TREATMENT Mr. Mayhew recommended injections of ether and 
laudanum ; but I can scarcely assign to this remedy the credit which he claims for 
it, knowing that many epileptic fits are recovered from without any aid at all, and 
finding that he classes all under the one head of "fits." In the kind I am now 
considering, there is generally some exciting cause present, as distemper, or the 
irritation of worms, or of teething ; and if these are removed, the fits will generally 
subside, and, consequently, the whole attention should be directed to this object. 
These fits seldom recur many times in succession, being either speedily fatal, or 
else ending in a complete cure ; and in this respect they are unlike epilepsy, as well 
as in their symptoms and treatment. 

GENERAL DROPSY. 

ANASAECA, or general dropsy in the dog, is not a very uncommon disease among 
old kennelled dogs, owing to the improper way in which they are fed and kept 
without exercise. It consists of an infiltration of serum from the blood vessels into 
the cellular membrane, caused by the kidneys refusing to act, as a consequence 
generally of inflammation ; and the disease, therefore, is merely a symptom of 
inflammation of the kidneys, for which reason I might have classed it among the 
inflammatory diseases, but that it sometimes occurs from a different condition of 
that organ, owing to a want of tone in the general system. Its most frequent cause 
is either improper stimulants in the case of the stallion greyhound, a very frequent 
cause or a gross kind of food, or sometimes from simple over-crowding of the dogs 
in a small kennel, occasioning a breaking down of the system, and an exudation of 
serum as a consequence. Among over- stimulated pets, which are not allowed any 
exercise, it is a very common disease, and often carries them off in a very dis- 
gustingly loathsome condition. When the liver is in fault, by throwing too much 
work upon the kidneys, as is sometimes the case, the urine is yellow, but in the 
usual way it is highly charged with salts, and dark brown, not yellow. 



40 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

THE TREATMENT consists in acting in accordance with the cause that is to 
say, in treating the case so as to relieve the dropsy, and not upon any fixed prin- 
ciples ; thus, supposing the kidneys are inflamed, blood must be taken, and calomel 
and digitalis given in grain doses of each, without any violent diuretics, which will 
only aggravate the disease. If the dropsy is merely a symptom of a breaking down 
of the system, this must be propped by bark and steel, with perhaps ammonia in 
addition. When the urine is mixed with blood, in a broken down constitution, the 
following mixture may be given, on the authority of Mr. May hew, and I have my 
doubts of its success : Tincture of cantharides, 3 drops ; water, two ounces. To be 
given twice a day. 

If the dropsy is from the kidneys refusing to act, 6 or 8 grains of nitre may be 
given two or three times a day, in the diuretic mixture, No. 2, but the great prin- 
ciple is to make out the cause and act accordingly. 

WORMS. 

The PRESENCE of WORMS in the intestinal canal is one of the greatest 
annoyances to the proprietors of dogs of all classes. In the greyhound they are a 
constant source of mischief, and in the other varieties of sporting dogs they are 
equally common. In the puppy they are particularly injurious, cutting off his 
supplies of food, and also irritating his nervous system, to a degree which can 
scarcely be credited without actual experience. Whenever a puppy is seen to look 
rough and unhealthy in his coat (mere roughness is 110 indication), and when he is 
also thinner than he ought to be, with a ravenous appetite, and the constant passing 
of small quantities of faeces, the first part of which is solid, while the latter part 
is loose and frothy ; when he also is more dull than natural, with a hot dry nose, 
and offensive breath, it may generally be concluded that he has some kind of 
intestinal worm, and the only thing is to find out which species is present, and then 
to exhibit the appropriate remedy, For this purpose the areca nut is a very useful 
medicine, given in proportion to the age and size, from a whole nut powdered, which 
is the dose for a full grown dog of 401b. or 501b., down to a quarter of a nut for a 
little dog of lOlb. weight. This should be given, and followed in a few hours by a 
mild dose of castor oil, when some of the worms present will most likely make 
their appearance, and according to their nature must the remedy be. 

The VARIETIES of WORMS are as follows : 

1. The COMMON MAW- WORM. This is a short white worm, about an inch long, 
with a pointed head, and a flat broad tail, the intervening part being nearly oval. 
These worms exist chiefly in the large intestines, where they are often in great 
numbers, and they are generally supposed not to interfere much with the health of 
the dog ; but as it appears, according to Dr. Cobbold, that they are joints of the 
tape worm, it may, I suppose, be considered that this idea is not correct. 

2. The LONG BOUND-WORM (Ascarls lumbricoides). A pink or red worm, 
resembling the garden worm in appearance, but somewhat less in size, and not so 
red in colour. They chiefly inhabit the small intestines, and are very injurious to 



WOEMS. 41 

the health, interfering with the digestion in every way, since they take up 
the chyle for their own use, and also irritate the mucous membrane by their 
presence. 

3. The TAPE-WORM (Tcenia solium and Tcenia lota). This worm is found in 
two or three species, but for our purpose it is sufficient to describe its general 
appearance, which is that of a long flat worm, divided into joints, and often coming 
away in portions, but leaving the head behind. It is, when suffered to remain long 
enough, from six to eight feet long, and the dog may often be seen running about 
with a foot or two hanging from his anus, or curled round his tail, to his great 
annoyance and 'disgust. The tape-worm inhabits the small intestines, and is much 
worse even than the round worm in its effects upon the health of the animal. Its 
expulsion should therefore be effected with great care, and its head, which is larger 
considerably than the diameter of the rest of the body, should be diligently sought 
for, for until this is found it cannot be asserted with positive certainty that the 
vermifuge has been successful. 

The GENERAL PRINCIPLES of treatment consist in starving the dog for from 
twelve to twenty-four hours, and then administering the appropriate vermifuge 
followed by a mild dose of aperient medicine, to carry off the worms from the 
intestines. The following is a complete list of vermifuges suited to the various 
conditions and kinds of worms ; but it will be necessary to repeat here what are the 
best for each kind, and their respective advantages and disadvantages, for, 
unfortunately, all are more or less injurious to the dog, and their use is only to be 
encouraged as a less evil than the continued existenee of worms. 

The REMEDIES FOR ROUND-WORM are as follows : 

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). 

Garlic (Allium sativum). 

Cowhage (Macuna pruriens). 

Santoniiie, or the active principle of worm-seed (Artemisia contra). 

Indian Pink (Spigelia Marylandica). 

Areca nut (Nux areca). 

Stinking hellebore (Helleborus foetidus'). 

Powdered tin and glass. 

Calomel (Hydrargyri chloridum). 

For TAPE-WORM or MAW-WORM the following may be used with advantage : 

Areca nut (Nux areca). 

Kousso (Bray era anthelmintica). 

Barbadoes tar (Petroleum Sarbadense). 

Pomegranate bark (Punica granatum). 

Male fern (Felix mas). 

Spirit of turpentine (Spiritus terebinthince). 

Of these wormwood, garlic, and cowhage are nearly inert : santonine is 

G 



42 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

useful for round worms, as also are Indian pink and hellebore ; calomel 
is unsafe in the highest degree, and powdered tin and glass nearly useless. 
With the exception of Barbadoes tar, all the remedies enumerated for tape- 
worm are efficacious, but more or less injurious when the constitution is at all 
weakly. 

Areca nut is the remedy upon which reliance is now chiefly placed, its careful 
and repeated exhibition being almost always sufficient to procure the expulsion of 
the worms ; the dose of the freshly grated nut is 2 grains for each pound the dog 
weighs, and this should be given freshly mixed in broth, or, if the dog refuses it, mixed 
into a pill with a little jam or treacle ; it should be repeated every four or five days 
for about four or five doses, when it may reasonably be hoped that a cure is effected, 
but, if not, a second course will almost always succeed. For round worm santonine 
is the most efficacious remedy, the full dose being 3grs. 



RICKETS AND ENLARGED JOINTS. 

When a puppy is unable to stand strongly on his legs, which are more or less 
twisted and the joints enlarged, the condition is known by the name rickets, and if 
the case is a bad one, he had better be destroyed. The disease is often produced by 
bad management, but sometimes it is the result of breeding " in and in," or of 
diseased parents. Phosphate of lime is the main agent in stiffening the skeleton, 
and if food containing this salt is not afforded in sufficient quantity the bones are 
of a gelatinous character, easily bending under the dog's weight, and consequently 
rendered by nature too bulky for his future well-being as an animal fitted for the 
chase. Many breeders like to see a puppy show larger joints than usual, and 
consider them an indication of strength; but I am strongly of opinion that the 
reverse is the case, and that the puppy which has them is not nearly so strong as 
one whose limbs are grown more like those of an old dog. This, however, is a 
disputed point, and I would never advise the rejection of a puppy because his joints 
were all enlarged ; but, if one is much larger than the others, it is a sign of worse 
disease than rickets, and more nearly allied to what, in human pathology, is called 
scrofula. Sometimes the swellings disappear, and the disease is cured, but generally 
these joints become more and more inflamed, and finally go on to form matter, and 
to make the dog entirely lame. Little can be done for this in the way of treatment, 
and the destruction of the puppy is the best plan of proceeding. In rickets, 
however, a great change sometimes takes place, and the bending of the limbs or the 
enlargement of the joints gradually disappears, leaving only some slight indication 
of what has existed. Too often, however, the bone is weak and liable to 
fracture ; and at the time when the dog is wanted for the sport to which it is 
dedicated, the bone gives way, and the time and trouble occupied- in its rearing 
are found to have been totally thrown away ; hence the necessity for good feeding 
in the rearing of all young dogs, and too much c are can scarcely be bestowed upon 
them. 



CANCER DISEASES OF PARTURITION. 43 



CANCER AND FUNGUS H^MATODES. 

These malignant diseases usually attack the bitch either in the uterus or teats. 
Cancer, in the early stage, is known by its peculiar hardness, while fungus is 
distinguished by its comparatively soft and elastic feel, and by its general tendency 
to bleed. Both are incurable, and the only chance is to remove the tumours with 
the knife if they occur in the teats, but the disease generally returns. 

ENCYSTED TUMOURS 

Are very common in the dog, and consist of small soft bags, lying close 
under the skin, of a circular form, and devoid of pain or inflammation. They vary 
in size from that of a pea to the volume of a small orange. The only remedy is the 
knife, which may be used with perfect safety, by anyone accustomed to it. The 
skin must be saved and dissected back, and the tumour, when exposed, may readily 
be lifted out of its bed without much dissection ; after which the parts may be 
suffered to heal of themselves. 

DISEASES OF PARTURITION. 

In HEALTHY PARTURITION the bitch seldom suffers much ; but sometimes in a 
small bitch, when the sire is of much larger size, the disproportion between the 
whelps and the mother is so great as to occasion great difficulty and danger. This 
sometimes also happens without any apparent reason. 

In order to ascertain whether or not the bitch is in pup,' a careful external 
examination will generally be necessary ; when, on pressing the fingers deeply 
into the flank, several small round or oval bodies may be felt, in number 
according to the future litter. Between the fourth and seventh weeks the 
whelps cannot so easily be felt; but, though they are said to be lost, a careful 
examination by a practised hand will always detect nearly all of them lying close 
against the spine. After the seventh week they appear very plainly, and the 
belly rapidly swells till it attains the size which it presents at whelping time ; 
about three or four days before which the teats begin to swell, and on the day 
before generally are full of milk a pretty sure indication of the near approach of 
labour. 

In the PROCESS OP PARTURITION, the bitch should be left to herself as much 
as possible ; and if of good size and healthy, she will nearly always pass through it 
without trouble. Sometimes, however, her pelvis is too small to allow of the passage 
of the whelp, and then either she must die, or man must afford his aid by 
mechanical means ; but this operation is too difficult for any but a practised hand, 
and therefore I should recommend the aid of a skilful veterinarian to be in all 
cases called in. If a part of the whelp is bom, and the remainder does not come 



44 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

away for some time owing apparently to the exhausted condition of the bitch 
it is quite safe to give a little brandy and gruel by the mouth, and then steadily to 
draw away the whelp, by laying hold of the part presenting with a piece of tape 
round it, or a strip of calico. 

As soon as all the whelps are born, the bitch may be allowed to rest for a short 
time, unless she is very much exhausted, when the brandy and gruel may be 
given, as directed in the last paragraph, After an hour, a little lukewarm gruel 
may generally be allowed; and in the course of four hours another quantity 
of the same. No meat of any kind should be given for three days, during which 
time the state of the bowels should be regulated, if necessary, by castor oil ; and milk 
thickened with oatmeal or wheat-flour, or broth with the same thickening, or with 
arrowroot, if diarrhoea is present, should be the only food. Sometimes, after the 
first week, the whole litter is too great a draw upon the system, and part mvst 
be removed from the bitch, and brought up by hand, if it is wished to preserve 
them, feeding them from a common baby's bottle, with the india-rubber nipple, now 
so commonly in use ; but a very thick and stout one should be selected, or the puppy 
will compress it too much with its tongue. When the bitch is much reduced by her 
suckling, she sometimes is subject to fits, for which the only remedy is the removal 
of her whelps, and the exhibition of strong beef tea, with bark, and ammonia in 
addition ; together with port wine and arrowroot, if the bowels are relaxed. After 
the first week, and, indeed, gradually during the fourth, fifth, and sixth days, meat 
must be added to the other food, or earlier even if the bitch has had much animal 
food before whelping. 

If the bitch is inclined to devour her young, she should be allowed to remain 
very quiet, and very little animal food should be given her. A dose of oil should 
always be given a short time before her whelping time, and if she should, never- 
theless, devour them, another dose should follow, so as to carry off the effects of so 
heating a meal. 

If a foster-mother is determined upon, all that is necessary is to muzzle her until 
the strange whelps have sucked her, and lain for some time with her own ; she will 
then fail to distinguish between them, and her own offspring may be removed with 
safety, leaving the foster- whelps to her care, which she will exercise just as fully 
towards them as if they were really hers. 

If the bitch has been " put by," as it is called, and is not in whelp at the end of 
nine weeks from her " heat," she will be fat and indolent, with her teats full of milk. 
At this time it is better to take a little blood from her, and to give her a smart purge 
once or twice, together with vegetable food; after which she will generally 
recover her health and spirits, and become much as usual at the expiration of 
another month or five weeks. This ought to be fully considered in the case of all 
sporting dogs. 

CUTS, TEAES, AND BITES 

Are easily treated in the dog, because his skin is very readily healed, though 
not so speedily or in the same manner as that of man. In man a clean cut, if 



CUTS, TEAES, AND BITES. 45 

properly treated, heals as if by magic ; and in three days large surfaces of many 
inches in extent will often be firmly healed by a kind of glue thrown out from 
the cut surfaces, which afterwards becomes organised. In the dog and horse, 
however, no such glue is thrown out, and the oozing is always of a watery 
nature ; so that apposition must always be maintained by stitches, and even they 
are only of use in preventing extreme displacement while they remain inserted. 
In slight cuts, tears, and bites, therefore, it is better to leave them alone to the 
healing powers of the dog's tongue; but in those cases where a large flap is 
torn down, as in the legs, for instance, a stitch or two should always be inserted, 
over which a bandage should be fixed, and the- dog kept muzzled until union 
takes place. Without the last precaution stitches and bandages are of no use, 
since the dog will always manage to remove them, and will tear out any stitches 
which may be inserted, however carefully they may be tied. The first thing to 
be done is to wash the parts, if dirty, and then with a common needle and 
thread to put in several stitches, according to the extent of the wound ; but 
only fixing it so as to keep it nearly in position, for an exact adaptation is of 
no use whatever. In putting in the stitches, the following is the plan to be 
adopted: take the needle and thread and insert it in the outside of the skin, 
on one side of the wound, and bring it out on the inside; then pass it from 
the inside towards the out of the opposite part of the corresponding flap on the 
other side, and tie the ends so as to close the wound. Repeat this as often as 
necessary, and cover all up with the bandage as already directed. After four 
or five days the threads may be cut and removed, because they are no longer 
serviceable, and only serve to irritate the skin; and from this time the whole 
dependence must be placed upon the bandage in keeping the parts together. 
In some parts as, for instance, the flank, a bandage can scarcely be applied; 
but even there it is wonderful how nature fills up an apparently irremediable 
gap. I have often seen a flap torn down by a spike, which has hung down 
from the flank for five or six inches, but at the end of a month scarcely any 
scar can be seen. The owner therefore need never despair as long as the skin 
only is the seat of the accident; but when the abdominal muscles also are torn 
the bowels are apt to protrude, and the parts, if left to themselves, will never 
regain their original condition. Here a circular stitch must be practised, so as to 
pucker up the parts like the mouth of an old-fashioned purse, and if the walls 
are thick enough the plan may be practised with success; but in the thin 
tendinous expansions covering the middle of the belly there is great difficulty in 
carrying out this plan of rectifying the injury. The mode by which nature 
heals all the wounds of the dog is by granulation, in which small red bladders 
are thrown out by both surfaces, which, after they are in contact for some hours 
or days, coalesce and form a bond of union; but if they are allowed to rub 
against each other this union cannot take place, and the growth is confined to 
the angle of the wound only. Hence the use and necessity of a bandage, which 
keeps the two surfaces in close contact, and hastens the cure in a remark- 
able manner; effecting in ten days what would often require ten weeks if left 



46 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

to the dog's tongue alone. When the granulations rise above the level of 
the surrounding skin, a piece of bluestone may be rubbed over them daily ; 
and if the whole sore is too red, and the granulations large and smooth, a 
little friar's balsam may be brushed over it ; or, what is far better, a solution 
of nitrate of silver, of the strength of from three to eight grains to an ounce 
of distilled water. 

FEACTIJEES 

May easily be treated in -the dog by any person possessed of ordinary 
mechanical ingenuity. The bones most commonly fractured are those of the 
extremities ; but almost all throughout the body are at times subject to this 
accident. 

FRACTURES OP THE BIBS are very common from the kick of a horse, or 
from the thick boot of a man, who sometimes in his rage, at the attack of a 
dog, administers a blow with his iron-shod toe which is sufficient to destroy 
life, or, at all events, to break one or more ribs. When from any cause they 
are fractured, the best plan is to apply a horse-girth round the whole chest, by 
buckling it smoothly twice round, or, if the size of the dog will not admit of 
this, the girth may be adapted to one circle only. This may be buckled so 
tightly as to prevent the dog using his ribs in breathing, and to confine him to 
the use of his diaphragm for that purpose, by which means the ribs are kept 
quite still, and nature in about three weeks unites the broken ends. For a 
broken shoulder-blade, or true arm, there is little to be done, nor in the case of 
a fractured pelvis or upper thigh-bone can much good be effected by interference. 
Nature will in all cases work a cure so far as to enable a new joint to be formed ; 
but the animal is rendered useless for sporting purposes, and can only be kept for his 
or her breed. 

In FRACTURES OF THE LIMBS, splints or strips of deal should be neatly 
applied round the limb and encircled with tapes to keep them in position. The 
first thing to be done is to adapt the splints to the leg, so that the parts shall 
be kept in a tolerably correct position while the inflammation is being subdued ; 
for if the fracture has been the result of much violence there will be considerable 
swelling of the soft parts, and the tapes require constant attention to prevent 
undue pressure. Some experience in such matters is, however, required, and a 
surgeon should always be called in when the animal is of sufficient importance. 



DISLOCATIONS 

Consist in a displacement of the end of a bone from its connexion with the one 
above it ; and they may occur at the hip, stifle, shoulder- joint, or knee, as well as 
the joints of the toes. The hock is seldom dislocated without fracture, but such an 
accident has been known to occur, and great trouble would be experienced in its 



DISLOCATIONS. 47 



reduction, on account of the shape and nature of the joint. Dislocation of the 
stifle-joint is not very common, it being very strongly guarded by ligaments, and 
broad also in the surface of the bones of which it is composed. The hip-joint is 
very often the seat of dislocation, and is one of the most intractable of all to manage. 
The socket projects in a prominent manner from the body of the pelvis, and when 
the head of the thigh bone is thrown out of its cup in sinks at once deeply by the 
side of it, and can scarcely be drawn out of its bed by any force which can be 
applied. In the anterior extremity, the knee is the chief seat of this kind of 
accident, and it is dislocated quite as frequently as the hip, but its reduction is ten 
times as easy, because both bones can easily be grasped, and extension being made, 
they are speedily brought into a proper relative position. But though they are 
readily reduced, they are as easily thrown out again ; and, therefore, great care is 
required to prevent this unhappy result. The elbow and the point of the shoulder 
are seldom put out, because these joints are so securely guarded that the bones of 
which they are composed are more inclined to break than to leave their sockets. 
In both the hind and fore-legs the toes are often put out ; and, besides this accident, 
the tendons are apt to give way, causing the accident which is called " the letting 
down of the toes." 

The TREATMENT of all dislocations consists in putting the displaced bone back 
again into its socket as speedily as possible, for if allowed to remain long out of its 
proper situation it contracts fresh adhesions, and can scarcely be drawn away from 
them by any practicable force. The dislocated knee is reduced simply by pulling 
steadily the two bones away from one another ; an assistant seizing the arm, and 
the operator making extension by laying hold of the foot and pastern. After it 
is reduced, a piece of list should be crossed in the form of a figure of eight behind 
the joint, so as to prevent it from being straightened, and thus again displaced; 
and this position must be maintained for some time, in order that the torn ligaments 
may have time to unite. In the dislocated hip, unless very recently done, chloro- 
form should be used, because the muscles of that joint are very powerful and it 
will require great force to overcome their action without its assistance. The dog 
is first placed on a table, with a firm cushion under it ; chloroform is then 
administered, by placing a sponge dipped in it in the end of a leather muzzle, such 
as is used for the greyhound. The holes at the side should be stopped, by pasting 
strong paper over them, so as to make a complete cone, one end of which is 
adapted to the jaws, and the other is closed by the sponge ; so that the dog, when 
it is put on, can only breathe through the sponge. After a short time he snores, 
and breathes heavily, and then the sponge may be withdrawn for a time, and the 
attempt made to lift the bone into its socket. I have, however, lately failed, 
even with the aid of this agent, in reducing a hip dislocated only for about 
ten days ; and I am not aware of any case of more than a few hours' duration 
where a hip has been replaced. Nevertheless, in a valuable dog, such as that in 
which I made the attempt, which was a highly-prized puppy, presented to me, 
and of a very scarce breed, the attempt is worth making, especially as it occasions 
no pain. 



48 



THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



OPERATIONS. 

IN OPERATING ON THE DOG, either a regular muzzle should be put, or ordinary 
tape or cord should be applied to the mouth, as indicated in the annexed engraving, 




binding it firmly round the jaws two or three times, and carrying it back to encircle 
the neck so as to prevent the dog pulling it off. 



-3H 



BOOK IV. 
JUDGING AT DOG SHOWS AND FIELD TRIALS, 




CHAPTER I. 
JUDGING AT SHOWS. 



HATEVEE difference of opinion may exist as to the utility of dog 
shows in improving the breeds of this animal, there can be no 
doubt of their popularity, or that they have become permanent 
institutions. Large sums of money are annually spent in rearing 
and feeding dogs with the express purpose of exhibiting them; and 
it may, therefore, be admitted without argument that it is desirable to conduct 
these shows in the way most likely to give satisfaction to their supporters. 

From their institution at Newcastle in 1858 there has been a growing feeling 
of dissatisfaction with the awards of the judges. Animals which have been 
successful under one set of judges in obtaining a first prize, have been altogether 
overlooked by another, not even obtaining a commendation, though in equally 
good condition at both places, and often with the same or nearly the same 
competitors. That these have been exceptional cases is true enough, but nothing 
has been more common than that the position of first and second prizeholders 
should be reversed within the same month remarkable examples of which might 
be adduced, but the instances are so well known that it is needless to specify 
them. I have repeatedly drawn attention to these facts, and attempted to 
demonstrate that for the cause of this fickleness we must look to the absence 
of any recognised standard by which to measure the particular breed which is 
being judged. Among cattle and sheep-breeders it is generally admitted that 
certain leading qualities shall be considered all-important, such as the propensity 
to carry flesh of good quality on the parts most valuable to the butcher, early 
maturity, and, in the sheep, quantity and quality of wool. But in horses and 
dogs, and more especially in the varieties of the latter, there is not the same 
unanimity, even in leading principles; and in matters of detail, as may naturally 
be supposed, the difference of opinion is very great. 

At the present time (1877) Dog Shows have reached such a pitch of general 
interest, that the question of judging demands a very careful consideration, and 
very recently in the Field I inserted the following article with that view: 

H 



50 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



"ON JUDGING AT DOG SHOWS." 

" It is needless for us to return to the much- vexed questions relating to the 
discrepancies between the decisions given on the merits of competing dogs at the 
various exhibitions of those animals which are now so common as to occupy our 
columns largely with their reports from week to week throughout the year. That 
they exist is admitted by all who are in the slightest degree acquainted with 
the facts, and that they are much to be lamented is equally to be taken for 
granted. The subject for our present consideration is how this lamentable state 
of things is to be avoided or. reduced within reasonable limits ; for no one 
can expect absolute uniformity in any machinery composed of fallible human 
beings. 

" In regard to this selection of prize winners, there are now five open questions 
under general consideration : First, shall the judges be public or private ? secondly, 
shall there be one, two, or three judges ? thirdly, shall the judge or judges select 
the prize winner at random, or be guided by any written law? fourthly, shall he 
or they be compelled to draw up a numerical estimate of each of the prize winners, 
founded on a standard of points furnished for the purpose ; and if so, shall it 
be published ? and fifthly, how shall the judges be elected ? Each of these 
subjects we now propose to discuss seriatim. 

" In reference to public v. private judging, the general verdict is certainly in 
favour of the former whenever it can be managed, and all the clubs devoted to 
any particular breed have, we believe, adopted it. The only large show whose 
managers hold out against it is that held at Birmingham, where the want of 
space is a sufficient reason to forbid it ; and the choice lies between the 
abandonment of Curzon Hall, with all its counterbalancing advantages, and the 
continuance of the old system of judging in private. The Birmingham Show 
being the oldest annual exhibition of dogs, and having always been well managed 
on the whole, has obtained a strong hold on the public, and, in spite of the 
abovementioned drawback, it seems likely to continue its career with success. 
Nevertheless, it is quite clear that public- judging is now established, and will 
be adopted at all other large shows. 

"The next question is not so easily settled, and it is only recently that it 
has been fairly tried. One thing has, however, been fully shown by experience, 
viz., that when more than one judge is appointed, they should possess equal 
knowledge of the breed or breeds placed before them. Nothing is so liable to 
lead to dissatisfaction as the importation of a judge specially acquainted with 
a particular breed, and the coupling of him with a ' gentleman of position.' 
Wherever this has been done some fiasco has occurred, and at length the plan 
has been abandoned. Our own opinion, founded on a long experience in every 
department of dog shows, is that ultimately single judging will be found to 
act most beneficially ; but it requires some length of education to develop firm- 



JUDGING AT SHOWS. 51 



ness of purpose sufficient to carry good principles into fair practice, and there 
are many men possessed of sufficient knowledge, who have yet such a deficiency 
of moral courage as to make them require a coadjutor to share the onerous 
responsibility of condemning to the ranks the dogs of their friends. On the 
other hand, if, as we allege, it is necessary that both the judges of a class should 
be possessed of equal knowledge, it reduces its amount to a much lower level 
if double or treble the number of individuals are required, since we all know 
that the managers of our shows have not a very large circle from which the 
choice can be made. The question is, however, now fairly submitted to the 
test of experience, and we need not, therefore, discuss it more at length. 

"But now we have to examine the most vexed of the five questions before 
us, and yet it seems to us so clear as to be incapable of two opinions about 
it. In examining it, we must remember that the judicial bench is not composed 
of the same individuals at the various shows, and that many of them are known 
to have proclivities as regards types, &c., which render it possible for a clever 
exhibitor to ' place ' successfully under different judges, the various members 
of his kennel, all of which could scarcely have a chance of a prize under any 
one judge possessed of reasonable consistency and fairness. It is quite true that 
it is impossible entirely to avoid this, and that, even with all the much- vaunted 
integrity of the judges in our higher courts of law, well deserved as it no 
doubt is, suitors and their solicitors are very apt to have a preference founded 
upon well-known proclivities. But without statute laws, .and precedents equally 
binding in our common law, our courts would resemble a lottery office still more 
than they now do, and we think no one but a madman would desire to wash out 
the written and unwritten code which guides us in all our transactions. Why, 
then, should we leave our canine judges to a ' rule of thumb,' when in our 
more important relations of life we adopt a different plan ? To this question 
we know no answer, and we confess that this judicial blindness of the world of 
'doggy ' men is beyond our comprehension. The only explanation we can give 
is that it allows each exhibitor to use his powers of ' placing ' with a reasonable 
hope of success, and that he thinks in that way he can cover the defects in his 
dogs by his own cleverness. The special clubs have, however, in most cases 
abandoned this plan, and have each drawn up a code of points, not only 
describing most minutely the dog they combine to glorify and improve, but 
appending a numerical value to each point ; and in setting this example they 
have, no doubt, done good service in the cause to support which they have been 
called into being. It may therefore be concluded that the days of judging by 
' rule of thumb ' are numbered. 

" Having thus reached a stage when it may be laid down as decided that 
the judges of our shows are to be guided by a written code of laws, it may 
reasonably be deduced that they shall carry out this code in a practical manner. 
To show the fallacy of depending on a code theoretically, we may instance the 
judging of Mr. Bassett at the recent show of fox terriers at Lillie Bridge 
under the club specially formed to supervise that fashionable breed of dogs. 



52 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

Prior to the show the club had drawn up and published a code of points 
describing each minutely, and allotting to them the following numerical value : 



POINTS OF THE Fox TERRIEE. 



Yalue. 

Head and ears 15 

Neck 5 

Shoulders aiid chest. . . 15 



35 



Yalue. 

Back and loin 10 

Hindquarters 5 

Stern .. 5 



20 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Legs and feet 20 

Coat 10 

Symmetry and cha- 
racter 15 

45 



" Now, by almost general consent, the above-named gentlemen is admitted to 
have an excellent knowledge of the fox terrier, and, on the whole, his decisions were 
accepted ; but the curious feature attending them is that, with a class of dogs so 
near together as to take him almost two hours to select the prize winner, no attempt 
was made to reduce the theory of points into practice with the aid of pencil and 
paper. At the end of an hour and twenty minutes Mr. Bassett had drawn six from 
the sixty-seven dogs of which the class was composed, five of them being compact 
and strong-bodied animals, with slight variations in other points, but all very near 
together, while the sixth is a dog with a beautiful head, but possessing a body of 
almost greyhound-like proportion. Now, surely with such opposite types, and 
with a code of points at his disposal, drawn up by a club who had appointed him, 
any reasonable man would aid his memory by jotting down in pencil the numerical 
value of the points in each of the competitors according to the above code. Of 
what use is such a code, if not thus applied? we ask of all men possessed of 
common sense. How otherwise can the beautiful head of the winner (Brockenhurst 
Joe), coupled with his light body, be compared with the inferior head, but wonder- 
fully good body and legs, of the second dog (Moslem) ? That it was a near thing 
between them, as admitted by all, only makes this numerical comparison the more 
needful; and, though we do not by any means impugn the decision, we think it 
highly probable that if Mr. Bassett had taken out his pencil he would have come 
to a different conclusion: at all events, he would have given his estimate of the 
points exhibited by the six dogs formerly selected by him, which would have been 
of great interest to breeders of the fox terrier, in which every point in detail is 
now weighed and considered with great care by thousands of both sexes throughout 
the land. But, much as we think the paper and pencil were wanted in this class, 
they were still more needed by him in his judging of the rough bitch class. In this 
small lot of six, Bramble, bred by Mr. Wootton, exhibited as beautiful a head as 
that of Brockenhurst Joe, coupled with a light body, but not nearly so light 
as that of Mr. Gibson's dog though looking more so than usual from the effects 
of a recent sea voyage and in addition very good legs and feet. Minx, who was 
placed first by Mr. Bassett, was also bred by Mr. Wootton, but was by no means 
equal to Moslem in body; and between her and Bramble, if judged numerically 
according to the above standard, the decision would, as we think, have been 



JUDGING AT SHOWS. 53 



deservedly in favour of the latter, who only took the third prize. In any case, 
however, these decisions are not consistent, and indicate that even an acknowledged 
good judge should assist his memory with paper and pencil ; and at the same time 
add to the knowledge of his supporters by giving them the benefit of his opinions, 
not only as to the prize winners as a whole, but of their respective points when 
dissected and analysed by him. In practice it has been sometimes found that this 
use of the pencil has led to a great expenditure of time, and at the show of bulldogs 
held under the auspices of the club devoted to that breed, the judge retired for 
some hours, in order to cast up his accounts. Such a proceeding, however, is wholly 
unnecessary, unless the judge is unable to do a sum of simple addition ; for surely 
it is easier to estimate the proportionate value of any individual head or back, 
as compared with fifteen or ten, in the dog's presence than in his absence; and, if 
so, what is the use of retiring ? We contend, from practical experience, that, in 
judging five or six selected dogs near together in merit, it is the simplest and 
quickest plan to judge numerically by points, and we have not the slightest doubt 
that before long no other will be used. 

" Lastly, we have to consider the best method of election, the choice lying 
between that by the votes of the subscribers, that by the committee of management 
made at the last moment, and that by the committee announced at the time of 
publishing the programme. All these plans have been tried, and experience has 
shown that there are drawbacks to each, to which it is very difficult to assign an 
exact value. For this reason, we shall not therefore venture to give a decided 
opinion on the present occasion." 

In addition to the cases mentioned above, numerous instances have occurred 
in which the advantages of judging by points, had it been acted upon, would 
have been made manifest; and in the present absence of all written law in 
many breeds I do not see how it is possible to prevent the recurrence of such 
cases. A well-known instance of the difficulties connected with judging by rule 
of thumb occurred some few years ago in the large pointer bitch class at 
Birmingham. One of the bitches, which we will call A., had a bad head and 
very light ears, combined with a strong useful middle, but spoilt by short 
shoulders. In addition, she had good legs and feet, an elegant stern, well 
carried, and an absence of quality, her age being eighteen months, when a small 
bitch is fully developed. Another, B., showed a better head, but inferior legs 
and feet, a coarse stern, and a heavy, lumbering middle. A third, C., exhibited 
a magnificent head, beautiful ears, capital legs and feet, fine stern, good shoulders, 
with great liberty of action; but these fine points were counterbalanced by a 
deficient girth of chest, for which, being only twelve months old, some considerable 
allowance should be made, the judges having a statement of the age of each 
animal on their books for this special purpose. Here, then, -was a case of some 
difficulty, and though I do not agree with the award, I by no means assert that 
it was decidedly wrong. But, supposing, for the sake of argument, the pointer 
were said to have five properties, viz., 1, head and neck; 2, legs and feet; 



THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



3, body ; 4, stern ; 5, quality and coat ; and that to each of these were 
allotted the following proportion of points, viz., head and neck, 30; legs 
and feet, 24; body 20; stern, 16; quality and coat, 10 total, 100; the judge 
(being provided with books for the purpose, with the number and age of 
the entries duly written in) would only have to insert under each property 
such a number as would mark the degree of approximation to perfection this 
being represented by the maximum figure given at the head of each column. 

CLASS 27. 



No. 


Age. 


Head and 
Neck. 
Maximum. 
30. 


Legs and 
Feet. 
Maximum. 
24. 


Body. 

Maximum. 

20. 


Stern. 

Maximum. 
16. 


Quality 
and Coat. 
Maximum. 
10. 


Total. 

Maximum. 
100. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


1 yr. 6 mo. 
9 mo. 
3 years 
4 years 
1 year 


5 
10 

rejected 
rejected 

28 


20 
16 

20 


12 

8 

6 


14 
6 

14 


4 
3 

8 


55 

43 

76 



Had such a plan been adopted and I can conceive nothing more simple or easy 
to carry out the dogs A., B., and C. would have been placed in the order 5, 1, 
and 2, whereas the awards were given in the order the dogs stand on the lists. 
At present the judges make their notes opposite each entry, but they are so 
indefinite that afterwards it is necessary that all the animals likely to take a prize 
shall be compared together at the same time a far more tedious operation than 
that which requires them to be carefully examined only once. I do not for 
a moment assume that the numbers I have attached to each property are correctly 
apportioned, or that I should have carried them out in practice exactly in the 
manner I have indicated for the three pointers; I only contend that, supposing 
the judges to be each furnished with a book containing definitions of a similar 
nature for their guidance, they would have far less difficulty in deciding than 
at present, while the public would be able to ascertain the reasons which guided 
them, and would know what to expect in sending their animals to a show. It will 
no doubt take some time to settle finally the relative value of the head as compared 
with the locomotive organs, in the several breeds of dogs, for they vary in almost 
all. Thus the pointer, however well formed in his back, chest, and shoulders, 
is perfectly useless unless he has a head which will not only contain a good brain, 
but also sensitive olfactory organs. So, also, with the feet and legs ; unless these 
are capable of sustaining work equally with the back, chest, and shoulders, the 
latter, however good, are thrown away. The National Dog Club, however, in 1869, 
made the attempt, which, though it was somewhat hastily and carelessly carried out, 
has served as a very useful foundation for subsequent labours in the same field. 
Unfortunately, only a portion of the judges at their Islington show carried out 
their code of points into practice, great difficulties being thrown in their way by the 
paucity of attendants, and the distance between the benches and the field in which 



JUDGING AT SHOWS. 



55 



all the dogs were led out. On the whole, however, this first attempt on the large 
scale to combine public judging with the aid of a scale of points was eminently 
successful, but, nevertheless, it has not been followed to the full extent at any 
other exhibition. The Birmingham council, in spite of the strenuous efforts of Mr. 
Murchison, have steadily opposed these innovations, and their only concession has 
been to guarantee that every dog shall be seen by the judges off the bench to which 
he is chained. In the series of articles now published I have introduced the points 
adopted by the several special clubs, with short alterations where I think them 
needed, as in the case of the bulldog, but still they must have the authority of 
some generally recognised body before they can be made imperative on judges. 

In 1869, a great improvement on the then existing mode of judging by points 
was suggested by a correspondent in the Field, who was a noted breeder of 
mastiffs, and as his letter contains the whole of the argument, stated in a clear 
and convincing manner, I reproduce it at length. 

" g IBj Although I believe it to be most desirable that the judges at our 
dog shows should be guided in their awards by a settled standard of points and 
marks, it will, I believe, be found in practice very difficult, if even possible, to 
give satisfaction by this method, unless some such plan as I venture to suggest 
be followed. 

" In order to have a claim to be classed as a prize dog, it seems to me that an 
animal ought to be fairly good in every point, and the plan of judgment I would 
suggest, which is adopted from the method often followed in scholastic examinations, 
is this : Presupposing that every point in the animal ought to be fairly good, the 
positive marks scored in the dog's favour would represent degrees of excellence. 
Should, however, the animal under judgment be notably deficient in any particular 
point, I consider that not only should no positive marks be allotted for this 
particular point, but negative marks should be given to it in proportion as the 
point in question fell below fairly good. 

" Possibly the system may be already followed, but if not, I think it would 
be found to work fairly and well. The book put into the hands of the judges 
would run thus : 



Bull Terrier. 




Positive Marks. 


Negative Marks. 


Head 


... 25 






Chest 


.... 10 






Neck 


.... 10 






Shoulders 


.... 10 






Feet and Legs 


.... 10 






Loin 


.... 10 






Colour 


.... 10 






Temper 


.... 10 






Tail 


.... 5 






Total 


.... 100 















56 THE DOOS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

" It might in practice be found advisable that the negative marks should never 
exceed the possible positive marks in number; or, again, that an animal notably 
deficient in any one special characteristic of his breed would be considered 
disqualified. 

" These are, however, minor points ; but I hope and think that the principle 
I suggest, unless it has already been thought of, may be found practical and 
useful. " MASTIFF." 

" April 3, 1869. 



This suggestion removed the only objection in my mind to the plan of judging 
by points, and with its aid every animal shown, whether horse, dog, poultry, bird, 
or pigeon, should, I think, be judged. I have endeavoured to persuade the 
managers of the various shows to adopt this amended system, but hitherto without 
success. Still, as it is never too late to mend, and as I am convinced that, sooner 
or later, it must come into use, I give a specimen table of an open class of large 
pointers, with the points filled up of half a dozen selected specimens, between which 
it is obvious to the judges the three prizes given must rest. Of course it would 
be an enormous sacrifice of time to set down the points of the whole of the above 
class, but an experienced judge can readily point out four, five, or six, as the case 
may be, all of which may be carefully "pointed," as is shown in the following 
table, which is supposed to be a copy of a page of the judge's book filled up. In 
this way I believe that time may be saved rather than wasted, as I have found that 
the fixing on the numerical value of the several points is much easier than the 
judging two nearly equal dogs on their general merits. 

There is a very general impression in the minds of judges that the method 
here advocated would be a great waste of time ; and on one occasion, at the recent 
show of bull dogs by the club specially formed for their improvement, the judge 
thought it necessary to retire for several hours in order to fill up his book. Now, 
this proceeding was simply absurd, because the only thing which could possibly 
be done in the absence of the dog was to cast up the score made when examining 
them, and that process could not occupy more than a few minutes. The fact, 
I have no doubt, was that he was nervous at having to define his opinions on the 
several points; but a really well informed judge ought surely to have no such 
feeling. Having myself tried the experiment several times, I find that I can easily 
set down the points of six dogs, previously selected, in half an hour, exercising 
the greatest care, whilst in most cases I can do it in half that time; and I am 
quite sure that in all important classes fully half an hour is occupied by the 
usual rule of thumb process. 

The following tabular form is suggested as the most convenient. The figures 
in italics are those supposed to be filled in by the judge. 



TABLE OF POINTS. 



57 



R 



p 



CD 



a 



Qo 



PH 



Pn 



fe 



i 



PH 



EH 
i> 



PH 



Qo 



06 



E| t> 
O 



}; 



9 



p 



58 



Qo 



05 



Ob 



<*> 



eso^j 



en 



I 



111 

O 



58 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

By inserting the points given at the end of each article in the following chapter, 
instead of those of the pointer, a series of scales may easily be compiled for the 
use of judges. 

DISQUALIFICATIONS. 

In consequence of the uncertainty prevailing as to what shall be considered a 
proper ground of disqualification, the Kennel Club have recently (1881) appointed 
a committee to report to them on the subject. Their report has been accepted, but 
up to the time of this sheet going to press, it has not been embodied in any definite 
code of rules. I may, however, state that the old practice of disqualifying for dyeing 
or faking is to be continued, and that the removing of the tips of retrievers' tails, 
and the use of blacking or flour are in future not to be allowed. 




CHAPTER II. 
ON JUDGING AT FIELD TRIALS. 



HE judging at Field Trials has for some years been conducted on the 
above principles at Stafford and Shrewsbury, without any negative 
points, which were, however, introduced at Vaynol, in September, 1871, 
and gave great satisfaction. 

The following is the scale adopted at the Stafford and Shrewsbury 
trials, which prevailed up to that time. Under it, a dog, which we will call Pilot, 
refusing to back, but reasonably good in other points, would score 52, but 
under the negative scale 10 would be deducted from his totals, and very 
properly so, that being the amount of the allowance for backing, which is not only 
not to be calculated in his favour, but is absolutely to be deducted from his total 
score. Now, as the dog refusing to back does mischief to the sport so far as often 
to spoil it altogether, it is quite right that he should be severely punished for his 
offence, and on that account I think the principle is quite sound. It was at first 
considered that backing is merely the result of breaking, and therefore is no test 
of the utility or otherwise of a stud dog. Hence, nose, point, pace, and range were 
made the chief tests, omitting all notice of- backing, dropping to shot, &c. This 



ON JUDGING AT FIELD TEIALS. 



59 



was, I think, a mistake as regards backing, which is as inherent in some breeds as 
the point, and quite as difficult to impart by education. 

ME. BRAILSFORD'S SCALE OF POINTS AS USED AT STAFFORD AND 

SHREWSBURY. 





20 


20 


15 


20 


15 


10 


100 






















g 


General 


o 

p 


p 

be 




bb 


be 


bb 
.1 


jf 


3 


V 

rt 05 


Remarks. 




.3 


i 


g 


^3 /- 


1 





> -*^ 








<D 


*& 


.2 


w 


43 




PH 


IB 

PQ 


H 


^o 




i 


1 


1> 


.9 


2 


g 


.a 


Q 
pfl 


'o 




fc 




O 


r2 





1 


1 


1 


o 











02 




-*i 

02 


s 








Pilot 


,- 


fO 


10 


/7 


/a 


n 





? 






"I O 


/ t/ 


1 C/ 


c/ 


7 % 


u 


t?<* 


tx 





The scale used at Bedford and Bala was somewhat different ; but still it did not 
introduce the negative points. I insert it as filled up at Bala by " The Prior " in 
the case of the celebrated Hamlet : 

"IDSTONE'S" SCALE, AS USED AT BEDFORD AND BALA. 



& 

p 

H 
O 

<s 

* 


40 


30 


10 


10 


10 


<D 

t 


100 


a 


m 

.s 

Qj c3 

^^ 


9 

'I 


6 

\ 

m 

<^s 

1 

1 


Temperament. 


Staunchness. 


I 
| 


1 

P5 


Behind. 


Hamlet ") 


30 


W 


5 


10 


10 


Indifferent. 


75 


* 


First hour j 


Ditto 7 


4-0 


25 


5 


10 


10 


Good. 


90 


3 


Second hour j 


Ditto 7 


4-0 


25 


10 


10 


10 


Good. 


95 


3 


Third hour ) 



Now, supposing Hamlet had refused to back, he would only be mulcted 
10 points from the above totals ; whereas, according to my ideas, he ought to 
lose 20. Moreover, there is no calculation made for " dropping to wing and 
shot," two most important items in the utility of a pointer or setter. Taking 
these considerations into view, I proposed for adoption at the Vaynol trials the 
following modifications of the Bedford and Bala scale, which was originally 
intended only to test dogs used for stud purposes. This, when filled up for a dog 
of average merits, would be as follows : 



60 



THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



SCALE OF POINTS. 



Name and Age 
of Dog. 


Vahie of Points when perfect. 


General 
Remarks. 


30 


20 


20 


15 


10 


5 


100 






bb 


,4 Sf 
















.9 


5*1 


d 








8 








fe S 






Q 







g 




w 


PJ 


Q 

A 




r 


Q 


1 


8_ 




.5- 


^^rS 




be 


Jbb 


5 


1 


^* 


<s 




5 ^ ^ 


^ 9 


^ 


d 




^2 


^? 


CO 

O 




vj r 1 ^ 


-+3 -g 


S 


g^ 


P" 


tA ^ 


-g 


to 


CQ 


8|9 


-gg 





^ 


1 




3 




^ 


bij^ ^ 


83 




P 


^ 


J-l 


PH 




i 


^~hc'^ 


r2 




i 




11 








m d O 


_^* 








^ 









K *'*' 


CQ 








O r^H 






PH 


cq 










^^ 


Positive 


$f) 


//9 




ki 






J,K 


1 ^ 










" 








1" 


Deduct Negative . . . 






/<5r 




/^ 


^ 


30 


Net Total of Point 


s 


15 


o 





This scale worked admirably at Vaynol for two years in succession, and not 
only did the judges experience no difficulty in carrying it out, but the spectators 
were satisfied with the results, to a degree which I have never seen equalled 
elsewhere. 

In the third year, however, one of the subscribers and his confederate, having 
been previously spoiled by a long series of successes, objected to the decisions, 
alleging that the dogs were not worked out in pairs, as in coursing ; and since then 
an attempt has been made under the instigation of Mr. Lowe, the Secretary of 
the Kennel Club, to establish a code of points founded upon the number of times 
each dog has found game or backed his competitor, without reference to style, 
pace, &c. Again and again attempts have been made to carry this plan out, 
but it has uniformly failed, as might be expected, and when put to the vote of 
the subscribers to a stake, it has always been negatived. During the present season, 
1877, and prior to the trials at Horseheath of the Kennel Club Derby dogs, Mr. 
Brewis, the liberal owner of the estate on which they take place, has attempted 
to combine the two plans ; but as the combination is still in a state of development, 
no opinion can fairly be given of its merits. 

The following article was published by myself recently in the Field, being a 
comparison between the two plans adopted this year at Shrewsbury and Horseheath. 
It may, I think, be studied with advantage by those who either dislike judging by 
points, or desire to carry out the system of pairing all the dogs entered, as in 
coursing, forgetting altogether the difference between that sport and shooting. 

"At the risk of incurring the charge of publishing vain repetitions of our 
opinions on the above subject, we are tempted once more to return to it, in 



ON JUDGING AT FIELD TRIALS. 61 

consequence of recent very remarkable events, which tend to show that we have 
not been without a good foundation for those so often expressed in these columns. 

" In regard to the trials, we think that two positions have been established 
by the late meetings at Shrewsbury and Horseheath. First, that the absolute 
winner should never be selected until the latest possible time; and, secondly, 
that the same absence of haste should be displayed in finally rejecting each 
competitor that is to say, the system of running the dogs in pairs, adopted in 
coursing, should not be followed in field trials. The great drawback to those 
trials is the necessarily short time which can be devoted to the several pairs; 
and, as a conseqxiencet it is desirable to arrange them, so that, if possible, a dog 
should be estimated according to his whole performance, if tried more than 
once, rather than by that in any separate run. In coursing it is impossible to 
carry out such a scheme, because the relative amount of work done by the two 
dogs previously to any particular course after the first round influences their 
respective powers very considerably, and, therefore, it would be very difficult for 
a judge to select any two at his discretion for trial; and the result of long 
experience is, that the only resource is to draw the whole entry out in pairs by 
lot, and afterwards try the several winners in the successive rounds together, 
according to their first position on the card. But in pointer and setter trials no 
such difficulty exists. The amount of work done by each dog is only sufficient 
to steady him, and the judges can fairly pair any two whenever they like, as 
has been done at all meetings but those of late years held under the auspices 
of the Kennel Club. At Shrewsbury the covert has generally been so bad, and 
game so scarce, that the trials have been only of the nature of a farce ; but this 
year the ground was nearly equally good with that at Horseheath, and it is 
therefore fair to compare the results of the two meetings conducted as they 
are on wholly different plans. 

"At Shrewsbury a scale of points originally drawn up by Mr. Brailsford is 
adopted, in which a certain value is attached to the several qualities demanded 
in the setter and pointer in the abstract, calculating the whole, when perfectly 
displayed, at 100. This scale is printed, and furnished to the judges, with the 
addition of the names of the competitors in each stake, and is made up as 
follows namely, for pace and range, 20; obedience, 20; style in hunting, 15; 
game finding abilities, 20 ; style in pointing, 15 ; merit in backing, 10 total 100. 
After trying a brace of dogs, the judges have only to go through the scale with 
each, and set down under the above heads the comparative degree of merit 
shown by them. Thus, under 'pace and range,' if a dog is only of average 
merit, they put down 10; if three-quarters, 15; or if perfect, 20. Proceeding 
next to ' obedience,' they estimate his merits in the same way as compared 
with perfection, putting down 10 if an average display has been made, and 20 
if perfect; and so on through the whole scale, calculating the figures according 
to the amount of merit. 

"After thus estimating A., the next thing is to proceed in the same way 
with B., and whichever has the higher figure of merit is declared the winner; 



62 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

or, if equal, a further trial is necessary. On concluding the first round or 
series of pairs, the judges have only to select the dogs with the highest figure 
of merit, and place them first, second, and third accordingly, unless the figures 
of two or more are very near together, when it has been customary to give 
these animals a further trial ; and at the last Shrewsbury meeting it was very 
properly, as we think, decided that in all cases the highest two should have 
this. Under both the Shrewsbury and Kennel Club plans, it often happens 
that the two best dogs come together in the first or second round ; but in the 
former plan they may be ultimately placed first and second; whereas in the 
latter this is. impossible, as the inferior of the two in any particular trial is at 
once hors de combat. As an illustration of this statement, we may instance the 
fact that in the first two pointer stakes at Shrewsbury this actually occurred 
in the second round; whilst in the third and most important it took place in the 
first, Bang and Dick meeting in that position, and being ultimately declared 
the first and second prize holders. No doubt a mistake was here committed, 
which the Kennel Club plan would have prevented ; but this was manifestly a 
fault in the practice of the judges, and was not incidental to the plan itself, 
as proved by the general opinion of the spectators declared at the time, and 
embodied in our report. It occurred in this way. After a long and very 
tiring day, the first round of the Combermere Stakes had been completed at 
seven o'clock, and the judges, overlooking the new rule to which we have 
adverted above, and considering Bang to be undoubtedly the best in the stake, 
at once declared him the winner, and ordered three dogs, including Dick, beaten 
by him, to compete next day for second and third prizes. In this decision they 
overlooked, most probably from inadvertence, Mr. Whitehouse's Eapid, who had 
just defeated " Rector (the winner there for the last two years) in a short trial, 
confined to one field, in which Eapid made only the pardonable mistake of 
flushing a brace of birds the moment he was cast off, and with an undeniably 
bad scent a mistake also partially condoned by a subsequent good find. Now, 
if the judges had at once cast up the ' points ' made by Eapid and Bang, they 
must, according to the Shrewsbury scale, have made them at least equal, and 
thus insured a second trial, since ' the pace, range, and style ' of Eapid are 
very superior to those of Bang ; and these qualities are estimated at the high 
relative value of thirty-five out of one hundred, whereas ' game-finding,' the 
only quality in which the former could be considered to be excelled by the latter, 
is valued at twenty. As before remarked, the Kennel Club plan would have 
prevented this; but in rescuing Eapid from Scylla it would have drawn Dick 
into Charybdis, since his defeat by Bang would have prevented his getting even 
the third prize, except under the special provision made by the competitors them- 
selves in the case of the Horseheath ' Derby,' which, though an improvement 
on the 'heats' method, renders it still more complicated and tedious. Curiously 
enough, Eapid endorsed this opinion formed by the spectators at Shrewsbury, by 
defeating Bang at Horseheath, though, as we all know the variation of these 
animals on different days, it does not prove that he would have done the same 



01ST JUDGING AT FIELD TEIALS. 63 

at Shrewsbury if they had come together. Passing from the pointers to the 
setters, we find at Shrewsbury Brave Boy, to whom the third prize was allotted, 
defeated by Nora (the winner) in the first round, which would have stopped 
his career under the Kennel Club plan. On the other hand, in the 'Derby' 
at Horseheath, according to the opinion of our reporter, the two best performers 
came together in the first round, when Danger, who was ultimately placed fourth, 
beat Norna (the winner at Shrewsbury), and the latter was consequently not 
allowed another trial. These two -were first and second at Shrewsbury without 
dispute, but in a reverse position to that at Horseheath ; and with Die behind 
them both, she being beaten by Norna in the second round, and not tried a 
third time. At Horseheath, Die, the winner of the first prize, behaved shame- 
fully in her first two trials, and, if estimated on her average performance 
throughout the Derby, would have come out badly ; but, happening to meet in 
the first two rounds animals worse than herself, she luckily reached the third 
round, when, being paired with Danger, who did not do so well as in her 
previous trials, she just managed to score a win, though, according to our re- 
porter, Danger, on the whole, showed herself to be evidently ' the better setter 
of the two;' and this opinion, coming from a supporter of the 'heats' plan, 
is not likely to be prejudiced in favour of Danger. 

"Now, if the object of these trials is to reward the owner of the best dog 
in each stake with the first prize, we think the evidence afforded by the pro- 
ceedings at these two meetings is strongly in favour of the system of judging 
by points, without necessarily running in 'heats.' With the same time at their 
disposal, worse ground, and, we will assume, equal knowledge of their task, the 
Shrewsbury judges in two days settled the pretensions of eighty-five dogs, 
against thirty-one at Horseheath; and in no instance was such an animal as 
Norna put out without a second opportunity of showing his or her powers, 
except in the single case of Rapid, which, as above shown, was clearly a mis- 
take, caused by hurriedly coming to a decision without any necessity for it, and 
therefore not in any way implicating the system adopted ; and, when it is con- 
sidered that the numbers judged at Shrewsbury in two days were nearly three 
times as great as those judged at Horseheath in the same time, the balance in 
favour of the plan adopted at the former is at once apparent. 

"We are by no means pledging ourselves to the opinion that the scale of 
points adopted at Shrewsbury is incapable of improvement, and we prefer that 
used at Vaynol and Bala; but we contend that its principle is correct for the 
following reasons : 

"1st. It is admitted that the great drawback to these trials is the want of 
time to test the merits of the competing dogs fully and fairly. 2nd. The 
Shrewsbury plan economises time by devoting as much as possible to the best 
dogs in each stake, without wasting it on a second, third, or fourth trial of 
inferior animals. 3rd. The Kennel Club method of heats often leads to the 
entire defeat of one of the best dogs in a stake in the first or second round, by 
meeting either the best or the second best in it, which contretemps does 'not 



64 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

occur in the Shrewsbury plan. 4th. At Shrewsbury the average performance of 
each ( dog is estimated by the judges, whether he is down once, twice, or thrice ; 
whereas under the Kennel Club plan a dog may, on. the average, perform badly, 
and yet, from happening to be in luck or in good temper in the third or fourth 
trial may be hailed the winner of the stake, as really happened at Horseheath, 
even after such a shamefully bad performance as that of Die. We beg most 
distinctly to state that in the above observations we cast no reflections on this 
fine bitch, which we greatly admired at Shrewsbury ; and we have reason to 
believe that she will ultimately turn out to be as good as any setter puppy we 
have seen this year. What we mean to imply is that every dog should be 
judged by the average merit displayed by him or her, and not by the results 
of single trials. In short, our object is that, as far as possible, the luck con- 
nected with meeting bad or good competitors, or with bad or good ground, should 
be eliminated from these trials, which, though not attended by any number of 
spectators, are regarded with great interest by a large body of gentlemen possessed 
of moors or manors. 

"We have not alluded to the exploded plan of judging according to the 
number of times each dog finds game during a certain fixed period, because 
experience has shown its fallacy, and it has been abandoned after fair trial. 
The choice now lies between the two methods which have this year been fairly 
tried on nearly equally good ground, with judges of similar powers, and with 
almost exactly the same dogs competing, but with the great disadvantage at 
Shrewsbury of having the merits of eighty-five dogs to decide, instead of thirty- 
one at Horseheath, in the two days devoted to the principal stakes. Under 
these conditions that the former should have come out equal with the latter is 
a strong argument in favour of the plan adopted there, especially when it is 
recollected that, but for the error in judgment alluded to above, which is not 
inherent in the plan, its superiority at all points would have been displayed. 
In this comparison we have not alluded to the subject of byes, which have no 
unfair tendency at Shrewsbury, but are of necessity an evil in the Kennel 
Club plan." 

During the early part of this year (1882) a movement has been commenced 
by Mr. Brewis in the Kennel Club to dispense with the heats plan, and a majority 
have voted against it, but up to the time of this chapter going to press, no final 
decision has been arrived at except that a new plan of some kind is to be adopted. 



PART II. 

IDOO-S. 



BOOK I. 
DOGS USED WITH THE GUN. 



CHAPTER I. 
SETTERS. 

GENERAL EEMARKS THE ENGLISH SETTER THE BLACK AND TAN OR 
GORDON SETTER THE IRISH SETTER. 



GENEEAL EEMAEKS. 

H E four divisions of the United Kingdom may be said to have each a 
breed of setters peculiar to itself, though of late years many of each 
variety have been distributed beyond the limits of their respective 
districts. The English setter may be taken as the true type of the 
breed, next to which comes the Irish setter, while the old Llanidloes, or 
Welsh breed, retain more of the spaniel character. Their curly waterproof coats 
are, however, admirably suited to the wet climate of their native hills. It is said, 
and I think probably with truth, that the Scotch or Gordon setter is crossed with 
the bloodhound, which gives the comparatively heavy head and long folding ears 
often shown by him, and at the same time accounts for the delicacy of his nose and 
for the coarseness of his coat. At all events, his appearance is not so typical as' 
that of the English and Irish breeds. The Gordons are now usually described as 
black and tans, to avoid the disputes as to the breeding of the several entries, 
for while there is no doubt that many black -tans are not true Gordons, it is also 
indisputable that many true Gordons are black, white, and tan. Similar remarks 
may apply to the Irish setter, but he has not been treated in the same way, though, 
no doubt, a red setter of English breed, without any Irish blood, if exhibiting 
the desired points in perfection, would win in an Irish class. I must, however, 
take things as I find them, and describe the setter according to the definition given 




66 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

in our prize lists, omitting the Welsh setter, which is not of sufficient importance 
to interest any but the few possessors of him who remain. 

The setter is, without doubt, either descended from the spaniel, or both are 
offshoots from the same parent stock. Originally that is before the improvements 
in the gun introduced the practice of " shooting flying," it is believed that he 
was merely a spaniel taught to " stop " or " set " as soon as he came upon the scent 
of the partridge, when a net was drawn over the covey by two men. Hence 
he was made to drop close to the ground, an attitude which is now unnecessary ; 
though it is taught by some breakers, and notably to very fast dogs, who could 
not otherwise stop themselves quickly enough to avoid flushing. Manifestly, a dog 
prone on the ground allowed the net to be drawn over him better than if he 
was standing up ; and hence the former attitude was preferred, an additional reason 
for its adoption being probably that it was more easily taught to a dog like the 
spaniel, which has not the natural cataleptic attitude of the pointer. But when 
"shooting flying" came into vogue, breakers made the attempt to assimilate the 
attitude of the setting spaniel, or "setter" as he was now called, to that of the 
pointer ; and in process of time, and possibly also by crossing with that dog, 
they succeeded, though, even after the lapse of more than a century, the cataleptic 
condition is not so fully displayed by the setter as by the pointer. In the present 
day, as a rule, the standing position is preferred, though some well known breakers, 
and notably G-eorge Thomas, Mr. Statter's keeper, have preferred the "drop," 
which certainly enables a fast dog to stop himself more quickly than he could 
do by standing up. It is, however, attended with the disadvantage that in heather 
or clover a " dropped " dog cannot be seen nearly so far as if he was standing, 
and on one occasion, at the Bala Trials of 1873, the celebrated Eanger was 
lost for many minutes, having " dropped " on game in a slight hollow, surrounded 
by heather. As a rule, therefore, the standing position is the better one, but 
in such fast dogs as Eanger and Drake, "dropping" may be excused. At the 
above meeting, however, after a long and evenly-balanced trial between Mr. 
Macdona's Eanger and Mr. E. J. LI. Price's Belle, the latter only won by her 
superior attitude on the point, and Eanger was again penalised for dropping at 
Ipswich in 1873. 

With regard to the low carriage of the setter's flag when at work, and his 
spaniel-like lashing of it ; I think they indicate his spaniel descent, and are to 
be considered from that point of view. This "tail action" is now out of fashion 
with many good sportsmen, who allege that grouse as well as partridge do not 
lie so well to a dog exhibiting it fully as they do to a quiet trail. In theory this 
sounds well, but, as far as I know, it was never propounded until it was required 
to excuse the fox-like trail of Drake and Eanger in particular, and generally of 
the Laverack setters ; and I confess that in practice I never noticed it in a long 
experience with both kinds of flag carriage. My bias in favour of "tail action" 
was founded upon the close observation of three successive litters, which I bred 
from a wonderfully good bitch about thirty years ago. Lucy was extremely 
handsome, fast, and untiring, which qualities, coupled with a good nose, gave her 



GENERAL REMARKS ON SETTERS. 67 

a considerable local reputation; and I think I may quote the opinion of that 
excellent sportsman, the present Rector of Wadhurst, who repeatedly shot over 
her in my company, that no better single-handed setter was ever seen. She had 
merry " tail action " without being overdone, which indeed her great pace forbade ; 
and I was anxious to breed from her, for which purpose I put her for three 
successive years to the late Mr. John Clifton's Bacchus, of great renown in 
Worcestershire, nineteen puppies altogether being reared. Of these about half 
had the "tail action" of the mother, while the remainder were without it ; and 
in every case, without a single exception, the " trailers " had no nose whatever, or a 
very bad one, while the "lively" ones possessed excellent scenting powers, and were 
indeed nearly all first class dogs. This drew my attention to the two kinds of 
flag carriage, and since then I have almost always seen the quiet trail accompanied 
by a nose of equal dulness. In the pointer I have not found the same remark 
apply, having both seen and myself possessed dogs of that breed with good noses 
unaccompanied by " tail action" in a proportion fully equal to one-half, if not more, 
and I have consequently abandoned all idea of connecting the one with the other 
in the pointer. In the setter, however, I have still thought, from careful observation, 
that my original fancy held good, and when I saw Sir R. Garth's Grouse and May, 
produced at Stafford as pure Laveracks, on trial for the first time in public, 
the absence of all "tail action" and their low carriage of the head prejudiced me 
against the breed, which their subsequent bad performance confirmed. Even the 
brilliant pace and style of Countess and Nellie did not entirely dissipate this 
original bias ; for, though I am not induced to believe that this strain is, on the 
average, possessed of absolutely bad noses, yet I should not say that they come 
up to the level of the best old English setter strains, or to the Gordons or Irish. 
Indeed, I consider this their weak point. Countess, Nellie, and Daisy could find 
game well enough with a good scent, but they were comparatively useless with a 
bad one. In addition to Ranger, whose nose in undeniably good, Dash II., a 
three-quarter Laverack, who has recently won all before him at Horseheath, may 
be adduced as a notable exception to the above conclusion ; but beyond these I 
cannot recollect any setter who has appeared in public without tail action possessed 
of an unexceptionably good nose. Hence rightly or wrongly, I have still regarded 
these two features as of considerable importance ; and, knowing' them to be 
strongly developed in the spaniel, I conclude that they are transmitted to his 
descendant the setter, and, as such, that they are to be regarded as his natural 
attributes. 

The greater frequency of a good nose without "tail action" in the pointer 
than in the setter, supposing it to exist, may, I think, be explained in the fol- 
lowing way. Both the original pointer and the spaniel undoubtedly always 
possessed "tail action," which has probably been lost in many examples of 
each breed by crossing with the hound. Now, the foxhound chiefly tries for 
the foot scent, and so does the spaniel ; while the peculiarity of the true pointer 
is that he carries his head high in the air, trying for the body scent, in which 
lie is imitated by the best setter strains. As a consequence, according to my 



68 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

theory, the hound cross was borne by the pointer, while it was fatal to the 
setter, making the latter who had by a long process of selection lost the 
spaniel's kind of nose in the hands of the most successful breeders return to 
his original low carriage of head and "quest" of the foot scent. 

There is a quality of great importance to the enjoyment of a good day's 
shooting over setters or pointers which has not in our field trials, been, I think, 
sufficiently attended to, namely, the mental development necessary to distinguish 
between a "false point" and one really on game. Even in partridge shooting it 
is a great nuisance to be dragged all across a large field without seeing fur or 
feather before you, your dog standing "as stiff as a crutch;" but on a grouse 
moor it is still worse. Of course even the best dog will occasionally make a 
mistake, but to be constantly misleading his master is an unmitigated bore. 
There are two or even three causes of this "false pointing." 1st. A dog may 
be so bred as to develop the tendency by association of ideas ; that is to say, to 
point without any. scent at all, and only from some indication either of eye or 
ear. 2ndly. A point often occurs from a dog feeling the scent which has been 
left behind by birds or "fur" recently gone away; and 3rdly. Some soft or 
lazy dogs point when they are tired, simply to get a rest from their gallop. 
Now, as to the first of these causes, I have had little or no personal experience 
in the setter ; but I have certainly seen it strongly developed in the old-fashioned 
pointer, and notably in a well-known strain kept very pure by the last Lord 
Foley, which, like the Laverack setters, were very much in-bred. But they were 
very different from that strain in point of stamina and courage, and required no 
breaking whatever. I should not, therefore, from their example have suspected 
its existence in the Laveracks, which are said to require a great deal of breaking ; 
although, since it was alleged against them as a fault by " Setter," I can call to 
mind the fact that Sir E. Garth's Daisy, when she won at Shrewsbury in 
1869, began to point almost as soon as she was cast off by her breaker, and the 
general impression was that it was a trick, for which E. Armstrong got the 
blame, as her false point ended in a draw ; and this going on till she came on 
game, Daisy obtained credit which it was thought she did not deserve. Not 
having seen Blue Belle III. at Horseheath, I must depend on the evidence of 
the Field reporter, who describes her as manifesting the fault five times in succession 
in a short time, pointing and staring about her when on the point, in a way to show 
clearly that no game was before her. Assuming this account to be correct as 
I have no doubt it is it certainly corroborates "Setter's" statement in a re- 
markable manner, and endorses the opinion generally formed that the strain is 
too much in-bred. Most probably Mr. Laverack selected for stud purposes those 
animals which showed the greatest tendency to point naturally, and in this way 
obtained the cataleptic tendency in excess. But this propensity is by no means 
objectionable when crossed with other strains, and hence we have seen such good 
dogs as Mr. Field's Daisy, Mr. Macdona's Ranger, Mr Brewis's Dash II., and 
Mr. Purcell Llewellin's Norna and Nora. 

The second kind of " false point " is the most common, and should be severely 




MB. PURCEI.L LLEWELLIN'S ENGLISH SETTER " COUNTESS.' 



THE ENGLISH SETTEE. 



69 



punished in the fully broken dog by every means short of the whip. Most breakers, 
and especially when preparing for field trials, are content to get a point, whether 
false or true, since the practice usually has been, at public trials, to give the dog 
credit for the point, if in the opinion of the judge game had recently gone away, 
whether the dog has made out his mistake or not. But the experienced sports- 
man is not content with such a mental defect, and expects his pointer or setter 
to tell him clearly whether or no he is certain of a find. The nose should be 
keen enough to make a dog stop in his gallop however slight the scent, and he 
should even point ; but no sooner is the stop made, than he should set his brains 
to work to discover the actual presence or absence of game, which is easily 
made out by a clever dog, who soon finds the scent diminish if not kept up by 
a fresh supply from the bird or ground game. To be able to say with certainty 
that " Grouse " or " Duke " has game before him, and to march any distance to him 
with confidence is a pleasure only equalled by the annoyance suffered, when after 
a long march a blank is the result. Hence, I think it highly important that a 
" false point " repeated more than once in a short trial should be regarded as 
a fatal defect in selecting a dog or bitch for stud purposes. 

As to the third kind of false point arising from laziness alone, I need scarcely 
remark that a dog exhibiting it is only fit for a hempen collar or a charge of shot. 

POINTS OF THE SETTER. The numerical value of the points in each breed 
is the same, though the description in several of them will vary. I therefore 
begin by allotting the following figures to each, referring my readers to the 
three articles for their varying definitions. 



VALUE OF POINTS IN SETTEE. 



Value. 

Skull 10 

Nose 10 

Ears, lips, and 

eyes 4 

Neck . 6 ' 



30 



Value. 
Shoulders and 

chest 15 

Back, quarters 

and stifles ... 15 



Value. 
Legs, elbows, 

and hocks ... 12 
Feet... 8 



30 
Grand Total 100, 



20 



Value. 

Flag 5 

Symmetry and 

quality 5 

Texture of coat 

and feather 5 

Colour 5 

20 



THE ENGLISH SETTEE. 

Since the first publication of the articles on the various breeds of dogs in 
the Field, during the years 1865-6, the strain of English setters known by the 
name of " Laverack," from the gentleman who bred them, has carried all before 
it, both on the show bench and in the public field trials which have been 
annually held. For this high character it is greatly indebted to the celebrated 
Countess, who was certainly an extraordinary animal, both in- appearance and at 
work ; for until she came out the only Laverack which had shone to advantage 



70 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

was Sir R. Garth's Daisy, a good average bitch. Though small, Countess was 
possessed of extraordinary pace, not perhaps quite equal to that of the still more 
celebrated pointer Drake, but approaching so closely to it that his superiority 
would be disputed by many of her admirers. On referring to her portrait 
accompanying this chapter, it will be seen that her frame, though on short legs, 
is full of elegance, and her beautiful head and neck are absolutely perfect. 
With her high pace she combined great power of endurance, and her chief fault 
was that she never could be fully depended on; for, when fresh enough to 
display her speed and style to the full, she would break away from her master 
and defy his whistle until she had taken her fling over a thousand acres or so. 
On a good scenting day it was a high treat to see her at work ; but, like most 
other fast gallopers, she would sometimes flush her game on a bad scenting day, 
and then she would be wild with shame. An instance of this occurred at the Bala 
field trials of 1872, when, on her appearance in the stake for braces with her sister 
Nellie, both of these bitches were utterly beyond the control of Mr. Buckell, who 
worked them, Nellie even chasing a bird like a raw puppy. To get rid of this 
wildness, they were worked hard in the day which intervened between their 
appearance in the braces and Countess's trial in the Ehiwlas Stakes, when she came 
out as stale as a poster, and was only placed third to Ranger and Belle. Still, 
though manifestly beaten, she evidently was so from bad judgment alone on the 
part of those who managed her ; and she only injured the character of the stock to 
which she belongs so far as to show that, like most high-couraged setters, they 
require a certain amount of work to keep them steady, which it appears she had not 
had. Nellie (the sister) was of the same size, but not so fast nor so elegant ; still 
she was good enough to beat the crack on one occasion at Vaynol in 1872, but on 
most days she would have stood no chance against Countess. She served to show 
that Countess was not wholly exceptional, as was sometimes alleged by the detractors 
of the "Laverack"; and these two bitches, together with Sir R. Garth's Daisy, 
may fairly be adduced as indicating that at all events these Laverack bitches were 
quite first-class. No, dog, however, of the pure breed has yet put in an appearance 
at any field trial with any pretension to high form, but several winners have 
appeared half or quarter bred of that strain. For example, Mr. Statter's Bruce, 
by Dash (Laverack) out of owner's Rhcebe, and his Rob Roy, by Fred II. (also 
Laverack) out of the same bitch, may be adduced; but Dick and Dan, by Duke 
(of the Corbet and Graham strain) out of Rhoebe, were far superior to these dogs, 
and serve to show that, at all events as crosses for other breeds, the Laveracks 
are not to be so highly recommended as Mr. Lort and other disciples of the 
"Laverack" school would lead us to believe. The cross which has been most 
successful is that with Mr. Lort's, Sir R. Garth's, and Mr. Paul Hackett's blood, 
culminating in the third remove from the Laverack kennel in Mr. Macdona's 
Ranger. This dog was fully as fast as Countess, with. a keener nose and far better 
temperament, being, when in form, as steady and dependable as a steam locomotive. 
Mr. Macdona's favoairite may be classed A 1 among the field trial winners in 
a quintet including Drake, Countess, Dash II., and Belle; the Irish setter, 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 71 

Plunket, approaching them very nearly, but not quite reaching their level. Roll 
and Frank, who won several prizes on the show bench, are of the same cross as 
the grandsire of Ranger, all being out of Lort's Dip by a Laverack dog, and 
these last being all the same blood, as I shall presently show, though their sires 
are respectively named Rock and Fred II. Roll was a grand dog in shape, with 
the exception of his loin, in which a certain amount of slackness was displayed 
when a little out of condition, as he generally was when shown, being a shy feeder. 
I am told by Mr. Lort, who shot over him for some time, that he was as good 
in the field as on the bench, but when I tried him he had no nose whatever. His 
pace was very great, with the usual Laverack quiet trail of flag ; and the spaniel-like 
character peculiar to the Laverack dogs is also quite lost in him by the cross with 
the Anglesea bitch Dip. Next to this cross comes that with the Corbet and 
Graham strains as shown in Mr. Brewis's Dash II., who this year (1877) has 
beaten Ranger in two out of three stakes at Shrewsbury and Horseheath, and whose 
portrait I have selected, with that of Countess, to illustrate this breed as excellent 
specimens of the high-bred English setter, though the dog is still, in my opinion, 
a little too spaniel-like in the shape of the body. He and his sister, Daisy, also 
a field trial winner, are by Laverack's Blue Prince, out of Armstrong's Old Kate. 
This bitch is by Laverack's old Blue Dash, out of E. Armstrong's Kate, sister to 
his Duke, the sire of Dan, about whose stock a great deal has been written in the 
highest terms by " Percival" and " Setter" in the Field and elsewhere, and by Mr. 
Purcell Llewellyn, who has used him as a stud dog almost exclusively to cross with 
his Laverack bitches, after purchasing him at a very high price, together with his 
brother Dick, from Mr. Statter at the Shrewsbury meeting of 1871. The opinions 
expressed by these gentlemen must be taken cum grano sails, as they are manifestly 
interested in the breed, which they style as par excellence "the field trial breed" 
from the successes obtained by its component parts at these trials. I shall there- 
fore confine myself in my remarks on it to their public performances as observed by 
myself and others, disregarding all private opinions in this as in all other cases, 
from my experience of the little reliance to be placed upon them. 

The most remarkable feature in the Laverack breed of setters is the extra- 
ordinary extent to which in-breeding has been carried, as shown in the pedigree 
of Countess, given by Mr. Laverack in his book on the setter. By examining this 
carefully, it will be seen that every animal in it is descended from Ponto and Old 
Moll, which were obtained by Mr. Laverack in 1825 from the Rev. A. Harrison, 
who lived near Carlisle, and who had kept the breed pure for thirty-five years. 
Four names only besides these two are found in the right hand column, and these 
four are all descended from Ponto and Old Moll, as will be seen at a glance by 
referring to the names in italic in the middle of the table. Thus it appears that 
they alone formed Mr. Laverack's breed, though he often stated that he had tried 
the introduction of alien blood, but finding it not to answer he had abandoned the 
produce, and resorted again to the original stock. This has led to the belief that 
the pedigree is incorrect, but he was very positive in his statement. If correct, 
it certainly is the most remarkable case of breeding in and in I ever met with. 



PEDIGREE OF MR. PURCELL LLEWELLIN'S COUNTESS, SISTER TO NELLIE AND SAM 

, i 

M !} IIL Dal II. 


("Sting .. 


rRegent 


r Pilot , 


C Dash I. 




'" (.Belle I. 
C Dash I. 

j TJollr. T 


TRock 


I Moll II. . 


1 Jet I. ., 


f Pilot 


(Dash I. 




' ' ' ' ( Belle I. 
C Dash I. 


fRegent ., 
* 


(.Moll II. 


Cora II 


r Pilot 


' (Belle I. 
(Dash I. 




' " I Belle I. 
C Dash I. 


^Blair's Cora ... j 
[jetl 


( Moll II. .. 


f Pilot 


" (Belle I. 
C Dash I. 


5 


' " (. Belle I. 
C Dash I. 


fRock 
fFred I 


(.Moll II. .. 


rRock 


"" (Belle I. 
C Pilot. 


'(Peg 


""(. Moll II. 

C Dash I. 
i i\/rn TT 


[_MollII 


(Dash I. 


(^ Moll 11. 
C Ponto. 




""1 Old Moll. 
C Ponto. 


CDasJiI. 
Cora I 


(Belle I. 


'Fred I 


f Ponto 


" (.Old Moll. 


Old Moll.. 




\_BelleI. 


C Ponto 








{Rock 


\OUMoll... 


CPilot 


C Dash I. 




1 ' ' (. Belle I. 
fDash I. 
i "RC.HA T 




(.Moll II. ... 


Peg... 


fDash I. 


C Ponto. 




" ' ( Old Moll. 
C Dash I. 


["Dash I 


(.Moll II. ... 


Belle II. 


f Ponto .. 


(. Belle I. 






Moll II 


(.Old Moll... 
rPonto 


Belle I 






["Regent 
"Rock IT 


(.Old Moll... 


rPilot 


C Dash I. 


(Moll II. ... 


1 ' (. Belle I. 
C Dash I. 
; RA!IA T 


I^Jet I 


rPilot 


C Dash I. 




' ' ( Belle I. 
C Dash I. 


{Regent 


(Moll II 





rpiiot 


' ' ( Belle I. 
(Dash I. 




' ' ( Belle I. 
C Dash I. 


Jet I 


(.Moll II 


rPilot 


' ' ( Belle I. 
C Dash I. 
(Belle I. 
C Dash I. 
"(Belle I. 






(Moll II 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 73 

The supporters of the opinion that Mr. Laverack's pedigrees are incorrect adduce 
two arguments against him, first, that he has, shortly before his death, given different 
pedigrees of his stud dogs ; and, secondly, that the average duration of life in 
each generation, from Dash and Belle, to Countess, Nellie, and Sam, was fully 
nine years, which is certainly very remarkable, though within the bounds of 
possibility. The first of these arguments does not go for much, as we all know 
that after a man has passed his 70th year his memory is not often to be relied on ; 
and, as to the second, though per se highly improbable, it is, as I have above 
remarked, by no means impossible. But the discussion of this point is of little 
practical interest, the " Laverack " breed having been sufficiently tested in practice 
to stand on its own merits without regard to any theoretical opinions. No one 
disputes that it is in-bred to an extent which few would care to imitate; and 
if it could be proved that a cross had been occasionally introduced, instead of being 
considered to have lost in value, I should estimate it more highly. The discussion, 
therefore, is purely one of curiosity, and need not influence any breeder in his 
selection of a breeding stud. 

To this in-breeding is, no doubt, to be attributed the fact that the Laverack 
setters are very difficult to rear, and that a large proportion of them die of dis- 
temper. Whether or no the average working " form " of the breed is a high one, 
is very difficult to decide ; but, undoubtedly, Countess and her sister Nelly were 
grand specimens of the high-bred setter. Nearly all the pure Laverack dogs which 
have been shown are too spaniel-like in shape to please my eye, the only exceptions 
I remember being Prince and Rock, and to some extent the well-known Sam, 
brother to Countess and Nellie ; nevertheless, they have not the spaniel carriage 
of the flag alluded to above, which is in them generally trailed like that of the 
fox, and without any lashing or feathering. Probably it is owing to the excessive 
in-breeding of the Laveracks injuring their health that they have not succeeded 
as well as might be expected as sires ; but at all events, from whatever cause, a 
good deal of disappointment has been felt by breeders on that score. Nevertheless, 
for work the breed still maintains the high character gained for it in its purity 
by Countess, Nellie, and Garth's Daisy, and for its crosses by Ranger, Dick, 
Dash II., Field's Daisy, Prince, Ginx's Baby, Glen, Rhoda, Druid, Norah and 
Nora, and, last, but not least, that excellent little bitch, Mr. Lloyd Price's Queen, 
by Blue Prince out of the Rev. S. East's Quaver II. bred by that gentleman from 
his own old Shropshire blood. 

A great many different strains of English setters might be adduced from all 
parts of the country, but notably from the north of England, with claims superior 
to those of Mr. Laverack's strain, up to the time of the institution of field trials. 
Among these were the Graham and Corbet breeds, those of the Earl of Tankerville, 
Lord Waterpark, Mr. Bishop, Mr. Bay ley, Mr. Lort, Mr. Jones (of Oscott), Major 
Cowan, Mr. Withington, Mr. Paul Hackett, and Mr. Calver, the last two being 
a good deal crossed with Gordon blood. None of these strains were, however, 
so generally known beyond the immediate circle of their owners' friends as to 
have gained a universal reputation; and it was not till the public appearance 

L 



74 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

of Mr. Garth's Daisy, and afterwards that of Mr. Purcell Llewellyn's Countess 
and Nelly, that the Laverack strain attained its present high reputation. Before 
Daisy came out, Mr. Garth had produced a brace of very bad ones at Stafford 
in 1867; and it was with considerable prejudice against them that the above 
celebrated bitches first exhibited their powers, in spite of the high character given 
of them by Mr. Lort, Mr. Withington, and other well-known sportsmen who 
had shot over them for years. It is Mr. Lort's opinion that Mr. Withington 
possessed better dogs than even Countess; but it must not be forgotten that 
private trials are generally more flattering than those before the public. 

I come now to consider the value of Mr. Llewellyn's " field trial " strain, as 
they are somewhat grandiloquently termed by their "promoters," or as I shall 
term them, the " Dan-Laveracks," being all either by Dan out of Laverack 
bitches, or by a Laverack dog out of a sister to Dan. As a proof of the superiority 
of this cross to the pure Laveracks " Setter " states, that " during the last two 
years ten of this breed" (Laveracks), "and ten of the Duke-Rhoebe and Laverack 
cross have been sent to America ; the former including Petrel, winner of the champion 
prize at Birmingham, Pride of the Border, Fairy, and Victress ; the latter including 
Rock, Leicester, Rob Roy, Dart, and Dora, the same men being owners of both 
sorts. At the American shows both sorts have appeared, and the Rhcebe blood 
has always beaten the Laverack. At field trials no Laverack has been entered; 
but, first, second, and third prizes were gained at their last field trials, in the 
champion stakes, by dogs of the Rhcebe blood, all descended from Mr. Llewellyn's 
kennel." I confess that, in my opinion, this does not indicate any superiority 
in the one over the other, as far as regards field trials, since they were not 
tested together ; and, in reference to the superiority of the Dan-Laveracks on 
the show bench, it is of little interest to my present inquiry, but I un- 
hesitatingly state, that, as far as my judgment and opportunities for forming 
it go, " Setter " is quite correct. Dan himself was a very fine upstanding and 
handsome dog, and his stock might therefore be expected to resemble him, while 
the Laverack dogs are nearly all heavy and lumbering, and the bitches, though 
very elegant, too small and delicate for perfection. But, as I have above remarked, 
the Laveracks have not shown very delicate noses in public, and indeed I have 
always considered them rather deficient than otherwise in this quality, which 
is the worst point of the setter as compared with the pointer, and should be 
regarded, therefore, as the first essential in estimating any of its strains. Now, 
though I have always regarded Duke himself as on the whole a good dog, especially 
in pace and range, and have estimated Dan and Duke, the result of his cross 
with Mr. Statter's Rhcebe, favourably, as compared with the Laverack litters as 
shown in Bruce and Rob Roy, yet I never considered Dan as a good cross for 
the Laverack bitches, because his sire always showed a want of nose similar to 
that of the Laveracks themselves. Duke is said by "Setter," and I believe 
correctly, to have received a high character from Mr. Barclay Field for his nose 
as exhibited in private, but he was notoriously deficient in this quality when brought 
before the public, going with his head low, and feeling the foot rather than the 



THE ENGLISH SETTEE. 75 

body scent. In proof of this defect it is only necessary to say that he was beaten 
by Hamlet and Young Kent in this quality at Bala in 1867, when the judge gave 
him only thirty-one out of a possible forty for " nose ;" while at Stafford in the 
following spring Eex found birds twenty yards behind the place where he had 
left his point, and thereby gained the cup, Sir V. Corbett, the breeder of Duke, 
being one of the judges, and loud in admiration of Eex's nose, at the same time 
finding fault with that of Duke. Indeed, this defect was always made the excuse 
for E. Armstrong's constant interference with him by hand and voice whether 
rightly or wrongly I do not pretend to say, but it evidently marked that clever 
breaker's want of confidence in his dog's nose. Of Ehoebe herself I do not recollect 
enough to give an opinion as to this quality in her individually; and among her 
produce I do not remember any but Bruce and Dan that displayed even an average 
amount of scenting powers. Eob Eoy was notoriously deficient in nose; and 
Dick, brother to Dan, in his second season, was constantly making false points, 
and is so described in the report of the Southampton Trials of 1872. For these 
reasons, although I had always considered the Duke-Ehoebe cross superior to the 
two Laverack-Ehoebe litters, I never expected Dan to get such a good bitch 
as Norna in point of nose and correct carriage of head and flag, according to my 
ideas. If Nora, as alleged by her owner and " Setter," as well as by the Field 
reporter at Horseheath, is superior to her, I can only make my apology to Dan, 
and admit that he has turned out a better sire than I expected, and than might 
have been gathered from the performances of Laura, Leda, and Druid, at the 
Devon and Cornwall, and Sleaford trials of 1874, which I saw. These two bitches 
were slow and without any style whatever, while the dog, though moderately 
fast, was well beaten by Eanger at Sleaford at all points. 

In 1875 it is true he turned the tables on Mr. Macdona's dog, who was out 
of all form at that meeting, but he could only get second to Viscount Downe's 
Sam, who was consequently at once added 'to Mr. Llewellin's kennel. Taking 
into consideration that the dogs which have been exhibited by Mr. Llewellin are 
picked from a very large kennel, and that as far as I have seen them perform, they 
have not proved themselves to be above the average, I can only come to the 
conclusion that Dan has not done any great good in improving the Laveracks, 
except in size and looks. Neither do I place him or any of his stock in the 
first rank of field trials winners, which in setters would, I think, include only 
Countess, Eanger, and Dash II., forming with the pointers Drake and Belle, a 
quintet in class Al, as remarked above. Dan came out in public only once, it 
is true, though winning three stakes at that meeting; but he met the same 
competitors in all, and the victory was virtually a single one. After this he put 
his shoulder out and never appeared in public, but his brother Dick, who was 
coupled with him in the braces, and went equally well with him in the short trial 
accorded them, did nothing worth speaking of next year, except to win the brace 
prize at Southampton, " by a succession of false points, in which he was splendidly 
backed " by his companion Euby ; and to divide the Stoneham Stakes with his 
only competitor Eobin, " neither being able to find birds," though Dick " made 



76 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

many points, all of which turned out to be at nothing," according to the report in 
the Field, which is no doubt worthy of all credit from the well known ability 
of the writer. Moreover, Dan at Shrewsbury had a very narrow escape of defeat 
by Rake, as recorded by myself at the time, so that on mature reflection I have 
no hesitation in placing him below the first class; but possibly he is entitled to 
rank in the second along with Plunket and his son and daughter, Kite and Music 
(Irish), together with Kate, Eex and Lang (Gordons). To them may probably be 
added the Dan-Laveracks Nora and Norah, and also Die, the last two winners 
respectively at Shrewsbury and Horseheath of the puppy stakes, all more or less 
crossed with the late Mr. Laverack's strain. To sum up, therefore, it may be safely 
alleged that his setters have been of great service to sportsmen in giying pace and 
style when crossed with other breeds. 

The points of the English setter may be described as follows. : 

1. The skull (value 10) has a character peculiar to itself, somewhat between 
that of the pointer and cocker spaniel, not so heavy as the former's, and larger than 
the latter's. It is without the prominence of the occipital bone so remarkable in 
the pointer, is also narrower between the ears, and there is a decided brow over the 
eyes. 

2. The nose (value 5) should be long and wide, without any fullness under the 
eyes. There should be in the average dog setter at least four inches from the 
inner corner of the eye to the end of the nose. Between the point and the root 
of the nose there should be a slight depression at all events, there should be no 
fullness and the eyebrows should rise sharply from it. The nostrils must be wide 
apart and large in the openings, and the end should be moist and cool, though 
many a dog with exceptionally good scenting powers has had a remarkably 
dry nose, amounting in some cases to roughness like that of shagreen. In all 
setters the end of the nose should be black, or dark liver-coloured, but in the 
very best bred whites or lemon and whites pink is often met with, and may in 
them be pardoned. The jaws should be exactly equal in length, a " snipe 
nose," or " pig jaw," as the receding lower one is called, being greatly against its 
possessor. 

3. Ears, lips, and eyes (value 4). With regard to ears, they should be shorter 
than the pointer's and rounded, but not so much so as those of the spaniel. The 
" leather " should be thin and soft, carried closely to the cheeks, so as not to show 
the inside, without the slightest tendency to prick the ear, which should be clothed 
with silky hair little more than two inches in length. The lips also are not so 
full and pendulous as those of the pointer, but at their angles there should be a 
slight fullness, not reaching quite to the extent of hanging. The eyes must be full 
of animation, and of medium size, the best colour being a rich brown, and they 
should be set with their angles straight across. 

4. The neck (value 6) has not the full rounded muscularity of the pointer, 
being considerably thinner, but still slightly arched, and set into the head without 
that prominence of the occipital bone which is so remarkable in that dog. It must 
not be " throaty," though the skin is loose. 



THE ENGLISH SETTEE. 77 

5. The shoulders and chest (value 15) should display great liberty in all 
directions, with sloping deep shoulder blades, and elbows well let down. The 
chest should be deep rather than wide, though Mr. Laverack insists on the contrary 
formation, italicising the word wide in his remarks at page 22 of his book. 
Possibly it may be owing to this formation that his dogs have not succeeded at 
any field trial, as above remarked ; for the bitches of his breed, notably Countess 
and Daisy, which I have seen, were as narrow as any setter breeder could desire. 
I am quite satisfied that on this point Mr. Laverack is altogether wrong. I fully 
agree with him, however, that the " ribs should be well sprung behind the shoulder," 
and great depth of the back ribs should be especially demanded. 

6. Sack, quarters, and stifles (value 15). An arched loin is desirable, but 
not to the extent of being "reached" or "wheel-backed," a defect which 
generally tends to a slow up-and-down gallop. Stifles well bent, and set wide apart, 
to allow the hind legs to be brought forward with liberty in the gallop. 

7. Legs, elbows, and hocks (value 12). The elbows and toes, which generally 
go together, should be set straight ; and if not, the " pigeon-toe " or inturned leg 
is less objectionable than the out-turn, in which the elbow is confined by its close 
attachment to the ribs. The arm should be muscular and the bone fully developed, 
with strong and broad knees, short pasterns, of which the size in point of bone 
should be as great as possible (a very important point), and their slope not exceeding 
a very slight deviation from the straight line. Many good judges insist upon 
a perfectly upright pastern, like that of the foxhound ; but it must not be forgotten 
that the setter has to stop himself suddenly when at full stretch he catches scent, 
and to do this with an upright and rigid pastern causes a considerable strain on the 
ligaments, soon ending in " knuckling over ; " hence a very slight bend is to be 
preferred. The hind legs should be muscular, with plenty of bone, clean strong 
hocks, and hairy feet. 

The feet (value 8) should be carefully examined, as upon their capability of 
standing wear and tear depends the utility of the dog. A great difference of 
opinion exists as to the comparative merits of the cat and hare foot for standing 
work. Foxhound masters invariably select that of the cat, and, as they have 
better opportunities than any other class of instituting the necessary comparison, 
their selection may be accepted as final. But, as setters are specially required 
to stand wet and heather, it is imperatively necessary that there should be a good 
growth of hair between the toes, and on this account a hare foot, well clothed with 
hair, as it generally is, must be preferred to a cat foot naked, as is often the case, 
except on the upper surface. 

9. The flag (value 5) is in appearance very characteristic of the breed, although 
it sometimes happens that one or two puppies in a well-bred litter exhibit a curl or 
other malformation, usually considered to be indicative of a stain. It is often 
compared to a scimitar, but it resembles it only in respect of its narrowness, the 
amount of curl in the blade of this Turkish weapon being far too great to make 
it the model of the setter's flag. Again, it has been compared to a comb ; but 
as combs are usually straight, here again the simile fails, as the setter's flag 



78 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

should have a gentle sweep ; and the nearest resemblance to any familiar form 
is to the scythe with its curve reversed. The feather must be composed of 
straight silky hairs, and beyond the root the less short hair 011 the flag the 
better, especially towards the point, of which the bone should be fine, and the 
feather tapering with it. 

10. Symmetry and quality (value 5). In character the setter should display a 
great amount of " quality," a term which is difficult of explanation, though fully 
appreciated by all experienced sportsmen. It means a combination of symmetry, 
as understood by the artist, with the peculiar attributes of the breed under 
examination, as interpreted by the sportsman. Thus, a setter possessed of such a 
frame and outline as to charm an artist would be considered by the sportsman 
defective in " quality " if he possessed a curly or harsh coat, or if he had a 
heavy head with pendant bloodhoundlike jowl and throaty neck. The general 
outline is very elegant, and more taking to the eye of the artist than that of the 
pointer. 

11. The texture and feather of coat (value 5) are much regarded among 
setter breeders, a soft silky hair without curl being considered a sine qua non. 
The feather should be considerable, and should fringe the hind as well as the 
fore legs. 

12. The colour of coat (value 5) is not much insisted on among English setters, 
a great variety being admitted. These are now generally classed as follows, in 
the order given: (1) Black and white ticked, with large splashes, and more or 
less marked with black, known as " blue Belton;" (2) orange and white freckled 
known as orange Belton; (3) plain orange, or lemon and white; (4) liver and 
white ; (5) black and white, with slight tan markings ; (6) black and white ; (7) 
liver and white ; (8) pure white ; (9) black ; (10) liver ; (11) red or yellow. 



THE BLACK. TAN SETTEE. 

(SOMETIMES CALLED GORDON.) 

The black-tan setter, until the institution of shows, was commonly called 
" Gordon," from the fact that the Dukes of Gordon had long possessed a strain 
of setters of that colour, which had obtained a high reputation. At the first 
dog show held at Newcastle in June 1859, Mr. Jobling's (of Morpeth) black 
and tan Dandy was shown with success in an open class ; and in November of 
the same year Mr. Burdett's Brougham followed suit at Birmingham. In 1861 
Mr. Burdett's Ned (son of Brougham) won the first prize in an open class at 
Birmingham, after which a special class was made for dogs of that colour at Bir- 
mingham, London, and other large shows, the breeders of English dogs fancying 
that the beautiful colour of the " Gordons " was too much in their favour. Up 
to the above-mentioned period the black-tan setter had not been generally intro- 
duced into the midland and southern counties of England, Mr. Brown, of Melton 
Mowbray, Mr. Burdett, of Birmingham, the Eev. T. Pierce of Morden, and Mr. 




J^^^f^jSK 



MR. COATH'S BLACK AND TAN SETTER "LANG. 



THE BLACK-TAN SETTEE. 79 

Calver of East Harling, Norfolk, having been the chief breeders in those districts. 
Mr. Burdett's Ned was a very handsome, useful-looking dog, and was sold at a 
good price, together with his brother Eock, to Sir J. Eivett Carnac, of Warborne, 
Hampshire, by whom they were shot over for two or three seasons. Mr. Pearce 
won several prizes with Argyll II., Eegent, and Euby at the early shows ; but 
it was not till the appearance of Kent, shown by Sir E. Hoafe at the Ashburnham 
Hall Show, London, in 1863, that the strong furore, which from that time set in, 
was displayed. Beating Argyll II., bred by Mr. Pearce (but shown in another 
name, having been previously sold), he was at once claimed by Mr. Pearce at 
the selling price (30 guineas), and proved a profitable investment, earning for 
his owner a large annual income for several years at the stud, and winning several 
prizes in the champion classes, together with' the gold medal at the Paris Show 
of 1865. On the show bench his grand head and rich colour drew general attention 
to him, and it was only to those that could see him out that his rather weak hind- 
quarters were visible. Taking prize after prize at Cremorne, Birmingham (four 
times), Islington (twice), Worcester and Paris, his extraordinary career naturally 
caused a great amount of jealousy, and he was called by the opposition party a 
" cur," a " mongrel," a " half -bloodhound," and a dozen other bad names. Since 
that time, however, the real facts of the case have been revealed; and there is 
little doubt that he was descended on his sire's side from Mr. Jobling's kennel, 
and on his dam's from that of Mr. Adamson. He was bought when a puppy by 
Sir E. Hoare from an old rabbit- catcher on his estate, who had brought him up 
under a cat. Probably to his early confinement and bad rearing may be attributed 
his weak hind-quarters. So convinced, however, was Mr. Pearce of his purity of 
breeding that he determined to put the matter to the test of experiment, and 
offered to trust one of his stock out of Eegent to the care of the writer of this 
article, to be brought up where he could not possibly see game, and at the 
proper age, namely, nine or ten months, to be introduced to it without 
previously being entered to it in any way. The result was in accordance with 
Mr. Pearce's prophecy, for the puppy not only beat his ground in fine style, but 
at the end of a few hours' work began to stand his birds as only a well-bred pointer 
or setter will do, without any artificial education of any kind. Of course the report 
of this trial added greatly to Kent's reputation, and, being followed by the successes 
of Eex (the above puppy) at Stafford and Shrewsbury, where he won three cups, 
beating in the final trial Mr. Field's Duke, who had gained a high reputation in 
previous years, Kent had so strong a run at the stud for several years, that it 
would be difficult in the present day to find a black- tan setter without a strain 
of his blood. Mr. Pearce's Eegent had several large litters by him, including 
Eex, Young Kent, lona, La Eeine, Dame, Deal, and Silk all winners at shows 
or field trials. Mr. Stokes's Shot, successful at Birmingham and Islington in 
1868-9, was out of La Eeine ; and Mr. J. H. Salter's Young Eex, winner at 
Brighton in 1876, is by Eex. 

But, in spite of the above successes, it cannot be denied that the general 
opinion of good sportsmen in the south has not been in favour of the breed 



80 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

since the institution of field trials, in which it has been brought into competition 
with the English and Irish setter. Both Rex and Young Kent had shown 
marvellous powers of scent, but exception was taken to their tiring action, and 
it mast be admitted that six hours' work was enough at one time for either of 
them, and probably too much for Young Kent. Both dogs also were headstrong, 
and required severe treatment to keep them under command, and, though neither 
showed the slightest disposition to unsteadiness on the point, yet both were 
jealous behind, and it was difficult to make them work to hand. Among the 
numberless specimens of the breed (black tan) which I have seen at work, not 
one has shown the solicitude to catch the eye of the shooter which is so essential 
to that perfect correspondence of man and dog which ensures sport, The pointer 
or setter ought always to know where his master is, and if put into high covert, 
such as beans, should raise his head at short intervals above them to ascertain 
his whereabouts. Now, as far as my experience goes, black-tan setters, and 
notably the Kents, never do this, and cannot be taken off a scent without very 
great severity, till they have satisfied themselves of its fallacy. Most of those 
tried in the field have been dead slow, including Mr. Stokes's Shot, Mr. Purcell 
Llewellyn's Wick, and Mr. Furner's Dorset ; but Lang, by Reuben, wa.s fast 
enough for anyone, though not showing much nose, and Mr. Adey's Kate in 
her puppy season was fast and clever, showing also an excellent nose, while 
Young Kent displayed fair pace, and Rex was far above the average in this 
respect. On the whole it may be said that the verdict has gone against the 
breed in England, and, as far as I know, no breeder of experience in the south 
adheres to it, with the exception of Mr. J. H. Salter ; nor is it much more approved 
of on the moors by the general public. 

The points of the black-tan setter are very nearly the same as those of the 
English dog, the only deviations being as follows: 

1. The skull is usually a little heavier than that of the English setter, but 
in other respects it resembles it. 

2. The nose, also, is like the English setter's ; but it is usually a trifle 
wider. 

9. The flag is usually a trifle shorter than that of the English setter, which 
it otherwise resembles in shape. 

11. The coat is generally harder and coarser than that of the English or Irish 
setter, occasionally with a strong disposition to curl, as in the celebrated champi -ns 
Reuben and Regent. 

12. The colour is much insisted on. The black should be rich, without 
mixture with the tan, and the latter should be a deep mahogany red, without any 
tendency to fawn. It is admitted that the original Gordons were often black, 
tan, and white ; but, as in all our shows the classes are limited to black-tan, 
the long arguments which have been adduced on that score are now obsolete. 
A. little white on the chest, and a white toe or two, are not objected to ; but a 
decided frill is considered by most judges to be a blemish. The red tan should 
be shown on lips, cheeks, throat, spot over the eyes, fore legs nearly to the elbows, 




ME. MACDONA'S IRISH SETTETI "EOVEE. 



THE IEISH SETTEE. 81 



hind legs up to stifles, and on the under side of the flag, but not running into its 
long hair. 

I have selected Mr. Coath's Lang to illustrate this breed, and Mr. Baker has 
furnished a wonderful likeness of this elegant dog. On the show bench he has 
been very successful since the retirement of his sire Reuben from old age, having 
won first and champion prizes at Glasgow, Edinburgh, Crystal Palace (twice), 
Birmingham (thrice), and Alexandra Palace. At the Shrewsbury field trials of 
1872 and 1873, he was entered, and showed great pace and a fine style of going; 
but in the former year his pace was too great for the absence of scent and covert 
which prevailed there, and he was put out by Mr. Armstrong's Don, in one of 
those unsatisfactory trials to which owners of dogs have so often been reduced 
there. In the next year he showed well at first with Mr. Barclay Field's Rake, 
but was put out from chasing fur. At the same meeting he was bracketed with 
Mr Macdona's Ranger in the braces, but not being quite steady behind, they were 
beaten by Mr. Barclay Field's Bruce and Rose. He is a fine slashing dog, of good 
size, possessing plenty of bone without lumber, and excellent legs and feet. His 
pedigree is an excellent one, being as follows : 



Lang (Mr. Coath's) 



Reuben 



rMilo (Malcolm's) [ Pand y (JoUing'B) 



C (Pedigree unknown. From 
TSuwarrow (Birch's) . . . < Duke of Buccleuch's 

( Kennels ) 

1 fKent (Pearce's) 

(^Bounce ..................... < Old Moll, by Jobling's 

(. Dandy. 

It will be seen that he goes back to Jobling's Dandy, on the side of both 
sire and dam. 

The black and tan setter crosses well with the Irish, and Mr Salter possesses an 
excellent specimen of the cross in his Young Rex, winner of the first prize at Brighton 
in the black and tan class in 1876. This dog is by Rex (son of Kent and Regent), 
out of Sal, a well-bred bitch descended from Major Hutchinson's Bob, and is a 
good looking dog, as well as a fine mover. Mr. Purcell Llewellyn has also crossed 
the Laveracks with it, the result, in 1872, being a very beautiful orange belton 
bitch, Flame, out of Carrie, who was by Pilkington's Dash, out of a daughter of 
Hutchinson's Bob (winner of the champion prize at the Crystal Palace in 1875) ; 
and also a 1st prize winner at the Crystal Palace in 1872, and a 2nd at Birmingham 
in the same year. 

THE IRISH SETTER. 

This breed has long been known to sportsmen throughout Great Britain as 
a good one, especially in point of stamina, and a class was set apart for it at 
Birmingham in 1860, a year before the black and tans were similarly favoured, 
though, I think, hardly from so flattering a cause, and most probably from the 



82 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

circumstance that Mr. Jones, of Oscott, who was then a prominent member of 
the committee, possessed two specimens of the breed, which he had recently 
obtained from Ireland; but, to his disgust, Major Irving, who judged the class, 
awarded the first prize to Mr. E. F. Onslow, of Herefordshire ; Mr. Jones getting 
a second only with his Carlo, with which rlog, however, under the same judge, 
he beat a better class in 1861, including Mr. Watts' Eanger, a slashing one in 
appearance, but, unfortunately with a pedigree which was disputed. In 1863 
Major Hutchinson brought out Bob, whose pedigree exhibits a strain of the 
celebrated La Touche breed, and with him he carried off the chief prizes at 
Birmingham, Cremorne, and Islington in 1864, leading to his selection for the 
illustration of the article on the Irish Setter in 1865. He, was, however, not a 
typical specimen, being too heavy both in frame and head, and obviously over- 
topped, although otherwise useful, and, I have reason to believe, thoroughly 
good in the field. In 1867 Capt. Allaway exhibited his beautiful brace, Shot 
and Grouse, which were generally accepted as showing all the peculiarities of 
the breed, and were of such a fine formation, that Shot, considered by me inferior in 
shape to his brother, obtained the silver cup for the best setter in the show, 
after a warm dispute between the two judges, Messrs. Lang and Walker, in 
which the former, an excellent and experienced judge, stuck to the Irishman 
throughout, while the latter was as strongly in favour of Fred II., a well- 
known Laverack, and I as referee was called on to decide between them. Capt. 
Allaway maintained his position till 1871, when Capt. Cooper brought out his 
Eanger, a son of Hutchinson's Bob, and also straining back on the dam's side 
to the La Touche kennel. At length, in 1873, Dr. Stone came out with his Dash, 
who was admitted to be almost perfect in shape, and of the true type. He took 
every prize until age compelled his retirement in favour of Mr. Hilliard's Palmerston, 
who may now be considered the best public representative of the breed. Dash 
is of Dr. Stone's own strain, which he has kept to himself for twenty-five years, 
in colour blood-red, showing white on his head and toes, and also on his neck, 
with great quality, and a faultless frame. 

There is no reason to suppose that any improvement had taken place in this 
breed in its native country until very recently, when the institution of local shows 
seems to have stimulated Irish breeders to fresh exertions ; but in the exhibits 
which have been made on this side the Channel the chain of progress has been 
unbroken from Carlo to Dash and Palmerston. In the field trials, the Eev. J. C. 
Macdona has raised its character by producing his Plunket at Shrewsbury in 1870, 
after which he was sold to Mr. Purcell Llewellyn, and took prizes at Vaynol, 
Southampton, and Shrewsbury. This dog was very small and bitch-like in ap- 
pearance, and rather light in colour, but his pace was very great, though not 
perhaps quite equal to that of the Laverack Countess, while his style of going 
and his attitude on the point were far superior to hers. He was bred by the 
Hon. D. Plunket, and combines the blood of that gentleman's kennel with the 
La Touche and Hutchinson strains. Mr. Purcell Llewellyn purchased him in 
the height of his successes, and bred several average dogs from him out of Kate 



THE IRISH SETTEE. 83 



(of the Knight of Kerry's strain), including Kimo, Kite, and Kitty ; while another 
litter, out of BuclmeH's Min, contained Marvel, May, and Knowing, less successful 
than the former, both on the bench and in the field. With the solitary exception 
of Plunket and his daughter Music, who was at Vaynol in 1872, however, no Irish 
setter has shown anything like high form in the field trials, Mr. Purcell Llewellyn's 
Samson, who is above the average, being crossed with the Laverack Prince through 
his dam, Carrie, though both are entered in the Stud Book as Irish setters. 

After a great deal of discussion, a separate class has been made in Dublin 
and elsewhere for " reds " and " white and reds," it being shown that there are two 
distinct strains of the Irish setter, of these colours respectively. The white and 
reds stand no chance in the open classes, and yet it was considered hard to debar 
them from all prizes, especially as by some good judges they are thought to 
possess better noses than the reds. According to my judgment the rich red, 
or blood-red colour as it is described, is made a little too much of, and I should 
strongly object to the passing over of excellence in shape because the colour is 
too pale ; a marked instance of which happened at the Brighton show of 1876. 
Here one of the grandest bitches I ever saw in shape, size, and quality, who 
had won several prizes in Ireland, and moreover of excellent blood, succumbed 
to a very moderate animal, simply because her coat was too pale in colour, though 
very little, if any, paler than that of the above-mentioned excellent dog Plunket. 
If this class had been judged by points, the bitch in question would have distanced 
her competitors, because she would have been credited with a full allowance for 
all other qualities, and could only have had ten points altogether knocked off 
for the negative value of colour. 

The old breeds of this dog most celebrated are the O'Connor (generally 
known as La Touche), Lord Dillon's, Lord Clancarty's, Lord Lismore's, Lord de 
Fresno's (usually called the French Park), the Mount Hedges, Lord Eossmore's, 
and the Marquis of Waterford's. In modern days Dr. Stone, Major Hutchinson, 
Capt. Cooper, Capt. French, Mr. H. B. Knox, Hon. D. Plunket, Capt. W. Allaway, 
Mr. Hilliard, Mr. Lipscombe, Mr. C. Brien, and Miss Warburton have been most 
successful on the show bench, but, with the exception of Plunket, none of them 
have proved the excellence of their strains at any field trials. 

In points the Irish setter only differs from the English in the following : 

1. The skull is somewhat longer and narrower, the eyebrows being well raised, 
and the occipital prominence as marked as in the pointer. 

2. The nose is a trifle longer, with good width, and square at the end; nostrils 
wide and open, with the nose itself of a deep mahogany or very dark fleshy-colour, 
not pink nor black. 

3. Eyes, ears, and lips. The eyes should be a rich brown or mahogany colour, 
well set, and full of intelligence ; a pale or gooseberry eye is to be avoided. Ears 
long enough to reach within half an inch or an inch of the end of the nose, and, 
though more tapering than in the English dog, never coming to a point ; 
they should be set low and close, but well back, and not approaching to the 
hound's in setting and leather. Whiskers red ; lips deep, but not pendulous. 



84 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

5 and 6. In frame the Irish dog is higher on the leg than either the English 
or black and tan, but his elbows are well let down nevertheless ; his shoulders 
are long and sloping ; brisket deep, but never wide ; and his back ribs are some- 
what shorter than those of his English brethren. Loin good, slightly arched, 
and well coupled to his hips, but not very wide ; quarters slightly sloping, and 
flag set on rather low, but straight, fine in bone, and beautifully carried. Breeders 
are, however, going for straight backs like that of Palmerston, with flags set on 
as high as in the English setter. 

7. Legs very straight, with good hocks, well-bent stifles, and muscular but 
not heavy haunches. 

8. The feet are hare-like, and moderately hairy between the toes. 

9. The flag is clothed with a long straight comb of hair, never bushy or 
curly, and this is beautifully displayed on the point. 

11. The coat should be somewhat coarser than that of the English setter, 
being midway between that and the black and tan, wavy, but not curly, and by 
no means long. Both hind and fore legs are well feathered, but not profusely, 
and the ears are furnished with feather to the same extent, with a slight wave, 
but no turn. 

12. The colour should be a rich blood red, without any trace of black on 
the ears or along the back ; in many of the best strains, however, a pale colour 
or an occasional tinge of black is shown. A little white on the neck, breast, or 
toes is by no means objectionable, and there is no doubt that the preponderance 
of white, so as to constitute what is called " white and red," is met with in some 
good strains. 

In his work the Irish setter is fast and enduring ; his nose is quite up to the 
average of fast dogs in delicacy, and to those who are limited to a small kennel 
he is an invaluable aid to the gun. His style of going is very beautiful, with head 
well up and feeling for the body scent ; he has a free action of the shoulders; 
hind legs brought well under him, and a merry lashing of the flag on the slightest 
indication of scent often, indeed, without it. His advocates contend that he is 
as steady as any other setter when once broken, but, as far as my experience 
goes, I scarcely think this position can be maintained. Neither Plunket, nor 
any that I have seen of Mr. Purcell Llewellin's breeding, nor indeed any of 
those which I have had out in private, have been always reliable, and I fear that, 
like almost all other setters of such high courage, it must be admitted that he 
requires work to keep him in a state of control fit for immediate use with the 
gun. In this respect, and indeed in delicacy of nose, both the English and 
Irish setter must yield to the black and tan of the best strains; but to do the 
same amount of work, at least a double team of the last mentioned must be kept. 

Having been charged, by Mr. Adcock, in the case of the bulldog, with selecting 
inferior specimens for illustration, it is perhaps necessary that I should explain 
my reasons for choosing a dog without any public reputation to represent the 
Irish setter in preference to Mr. Hilliard's Palmerston, who has taken all the chief 
prizes since the last appearance of Dr. Stone's Dash at the Crystal Palace in 



THE IRISH SETTEE. 85 



1875. As remarked above, no strain but that of the Hon. D. Plunket has been 
tried in the field ; and, as that has done great credit to the brood in the shape of 
Mr. Macdona's (afterwards Mr. Llewellin's) Plunket, his daughter Music, and his 
sons Marvel and Kite, I prefer a portrait of one of this tried strain to that 
of any dog not similarly tested. Both Plunket and his daughter Music were too 
small to serve as a type, while Kite and Marvel have faults which render them 
equally unfit for that purpose. Fortunately, however, I have been able to meet 
with a grand specimen of the breed in an own brother to Plunket, which Mr. 
Macdona has recently obtained from Ireland, and which has never yet been shown. 
The faithful portrait of this dog presented herewith speaks for itself as to his 
external shape ; but for his performances it is necessary to look to his brother 
Plunket, except that I have ascertained on good evidence that in private he has 
been tried to be first class. In colour he is of a beautiful rich red with scarcely 
any white; while he possesses a frame of great size, symmetry, and substance, 
with good legs and feet. He is thus fit to show in any company ; but, as I have 
not been able to compare him with the celebrated Palmerston, and must depend on 
memory alone, I do not pretend to settle their respective merits from a show-bench 
point of view. 

The high form of Plunket and his stock in the field is well known to all who 
have seen the various field trials of 1870-73 ; and for stud purposes his own brother 
may be considered as identical with himself. Mr. Baker's drawing of Rover is 
almost as exact as a photograph, and in particular his rendering of the head is 
wonderfully good, and shows the character of the breed extremely well. Plunket 
first appeared at Shrewsbury in 1870 as a puppy, when he was placed second to 
Mr. Statter's Bruce, by Dash (a Laverack dog) out of Rhoebe. In his first trial 
he was described in the Field as going in fine style, but was afterwards beaten 
on a bare piece of ground by Bruce, who showed a better nose. He was then 
so much admired by Mr. Purcell Llewellyn that he gave 150Z. for him. In the 
autumn of the same year he won the all-aged stake at Vaynol without much 
competition, and he was described in the Field as " greatly improved in appearance, 
having lost none of his grand dash and style," and as having " gained in staunch- 
ness." In 1871 he seems to have been out of form at Southampton, being beaten by 
Capt. Venner's Dandy, a grand dog, in the single stakes, and only dividing the 
second prize in the braces. In the following week he was still more unsuccessful 
at Shrewsbury; but, nevertheless, "he completely outpaced March," who defeated 
him in the single stake, and, though going better in the braces, lost his chance from 
the bad performance of his companion Shot. At Vaynol in the next autumn, 
he was selected by Mr. Purcell Llewellyn as the companion of Countess in the 
Bodfill Stakes for braces ; and here, with the exception of two slight mistakes, 
their performance was described as "faultless," making the large score of ninety 
nevertheless, and winning easily. He also won the Borough Stakes, going " even 
better than before, and not making a single mistake." Finally at Vaynol in 1872 
he appeared with his son Marvel in the braces, and was second_to Countess and 
Nellie, beating Mr. Statter's Rob Roy and Belton. The description given was that 



86 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

"Plunket and Marvel went beautifully together and each did some pretty work 
till towards the end of their time, when Plunket making a point, Marvel drew by 
him, and put the birds up. This, of course, penalised them ten points. Countess 
and Nellie, going in fine style, made no mistake whatever, and, being credited 
with their full quota of points, were made the winners without dispute." Plunket 
therefore lost none of his reputation by this defeat, except through his son Marvel, 
whose fault was moreover dependent on his breaking only ; and as his daughter 
Music, " going in fine form and very merrily," won the Dinorwig Stakes, at the 
same meeting, he gained rather than lost from the stud point of view. 

Plunket (and his brother Eover of the same litter) are by Beauty out of the 
Eev. E. Callaghan's Grouse. This gentleman informs me that Plunket was bred 
by himself, and not by the Hon. D. Plunket, as stated in the " Stud Book" ; Beauty 
by Birtwhistle's Tim out of Hebe ; Grouse by Capt. Hutchinson's Bob. 

Since the above was written, Eover has been placed above Palmerston at the 
Kennel Club Show, where he took the first prize. 



CHAPTER II. 
THE MODERN POINTER-THE DROPPER. 

THE MODEEN POINTEE. 

selecting the setter for the first of the articles on the dog in the 
present series, I have not intended to fix the comparative claims of 
these two dogs to superiority in the field. It is alleged that the field 
trials have not done much towards settling this vexed question, which, 
however, they could only do irrespective of those enduring qualities not 
capable of being tested even at Bala, where, on two occasions, several hours have 
been devoted to a single trial. As far as they go, until this year (1877), the two 
breeds have been nearly equally successful when first-class specimens have been 
tried together, excluding that phenomenon, Sir E. Garth's (now Mr. Lloyd Price's) 
Drake. Countess (setter) and Belle (pointer) have each won once when tried 
together, while the latter and Eanger (setter) have also exchanged wins ; so that, 
exclusive of Drake, who was never pitted against a setter till long past his prime, 
the balance has not been struck, except in so far that, while Belle defeated Eanger 
single-handed, the latter only won from her in the braces. In the present year 




THE MODERN POINTER 87 

however, the setters have gone ahead, both at Shrewsbury and Horseheath. At the 
former trials the two breeds did not come together, but as far as could be judged 
without this, the setters were far superior to the pointers ; and at Horseheath, where 
the same dogs were entered in the Horseheath Stakes, the setters ha.d the advantage, 
two of each breed being left in for the last two rounds, and Dash II. winning 
the first prize, Mr. Whitehouse's Rapid (pointer) being second. Mr. G. Brewis's 
dog also won the club cup which was open to both breeds, Blue Bell III. being 
second to him. 

Among pointers there are no national divisions corresponding with those of the 
setters. There are, however, two distinct varieties, strongly marked by colour, viz., 
the lemon and white and the liver and white, besides the black and white, the whole 
liver, and the whole black strains ; but these last are not common in the present 
day, and the appearance of one on the show bench is almost as rare as a black swan. 
Among the liver and whites the dogs are often too heavy for much speed or 
endurance a remarkable exception being the celebrated Drake, bred by Sir R. 
Garth, and sold by him at a high figure in his seventh season to Mr. R. J. Lloyd 
Price, of Bala, at which advanced age he went as fast, and showed as good a nose 
as most puppies even of high class. This dog was in his day the fastest and most 
wonderful animal that ever quartered a field, and his race up to a brace of birds at 
Shrewsbury in the field trials of 1868, when the ground was so dry as to cause 
a cloud of dust to rise on his dropping to their scent, was a sight which will probably 
never be seen again. He was truly a phenomenon among pointers. His extra- 
ordinary pace compelled his dropping in this way, for otherwise he could not have 
stopped himself in time, but when he had lost pace in his seventh season he began 
frequently to stand up, as represented by Mr. Baker, who never saw him till 
then. In appearance he is not taking, having a plain head with a somewhat 
throaty neck ; but his frame is all through good, and there is no lumber about him. 
He could not, therefore, be considered a model for imitation, and consequently 
I have added a very beautiful and racing bitch to represent the strain in which 
this sex is generally to be preferred for work, being lighter and more active. 
This bitch, Mr. Lloyd Price's Belle, was bred by Lord H. Bentinck, and was bought 
by Mr. Price for 10Z. after winning a third prize at Manchester. She was at first 
fearfully headstrong, and chased hares for many weeks persistently, being far 
beyond her puppyhood and unbroken; but the perseverance of a young, and 
till then unknown, breaker, Anstey, overcame these defects, and being tried in 
private to be good, she was entered at Vaynol field trials in 1872, when she won 
the prize for braces, and also that for bitches, being left in to contest the disputed 
point of priority in the two breeds with Mr. Whitehouse's Priam against Mr. 
Llewellyn's Countess and Nellie, both setters. In this trial she succumbed to 
Countess, but turned the tables on her at Bala in 1873. Being possessed of this 
beautiful and excellent bitch, Mr. Lloyd Price naturally desired to match her, 
and Drake being put up to auction, together with the whole .of Sir R. Garth's 
kennel, he was purchased in his seventh season for 1501., and retained by his new 
owner for his own use alone. Previously, however, Drake had got several dogs 



88 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

of high class, including Viscount Downe's Bang, Drake II., and Mars; but, 
considering the run he had at the stud, his stock could not be said to have come 
out as well as might be expected in public, though in private their character was 
well maintained. Crossed with Belle, a litter considerably above the average was 
obtained, including Mallard and Beau, but none coming up to the form of either 
sire or dam, and not equal to Eos, who was subsequently from her by Mr. Win. 
Statter's Major. A third litter by the old dog died when a few days old, so that 
Mr. Price has been unfortunate with him; but a litter from a bitch bearing the 
euphonious name of Nimble Ninepence promises well, and a younger litter, bred 
the same way, are coming on. Mr. Statter has also bred Dick, successful at 
Bala and Ipswich, from a daughter of Drake by his Major, who was descended 
from the good old-fashioned strains of Lord Derby, Mr. Antrobus, and Mr. Edge. 
Major was a fast, resolute dog, and ranged in beautiful style, but he behaved 
very badly at Bala in 1867 (his only public appearance), having just returned 
from the moors, and not owning the partridge scent, as is often the case with 
even the steadiest grouse dogs. It should be remembered that in these days 
fast pace is demanded far more than in those when pointers were used in the south 
for beating high stubbles in fields of 20 acres or less, and when the heavy breeds 
of Mr. Edge, Lord Derby, and Mr. Antrobus were able to do all that was desired, 
delicacy of nose and steadiness, both before and behind, being the chief essentials 
required. At present the pointer is regarded as a grouse dog rather than a 
partridge finder, and hence he must be not only fast, but enduring. By careful 
selection, however, and some luck, Sir R. Garth was able to breed Drake, and Lord 
H. Bentinck also obtained Belle, while Mr. Statter has been little behind them 
with his Major, Dick, and Rex. In the South Mr. S. Price has produced his Bang, 
Mike, and Wagg, the first not quite up to the pace of the above dogs, but closely 
approaching it. He is descended from Brockton's Bounce, one of the old heavy 
sort, who, however, showed fair pace at Southill in 1865, but crossed with the lemon 
and white strain of Mr. Whitehouse, which I must now proceed to describe. 
Mr. Lloyd Price has recently added Wagg to his kennel for stud purposes, and 
in the present year (1877) has obtained a very fast and clever puppy from 
Devonshire, viz., Bow Bells, by Bang out of Leech's Belle Mr. Whitehouse's 
Eapid is another Devonshire bred dog of recent celebrity, being by Chang out of 
Romp. 

Up to the time of the institution of dog shows, the lemon and whites were 
little valued in comparison with the liver and whites; but Mr. H. Gilbert's Hob 
and Major (the latter sold to Mr. Smith, of Tettenhall, on Mr. Gilbert's death 
in 1862), brought the lemon and whites into notice on the show bench; while 
a son of Bob, Mr. Whitehouse's celebrated Hamlet, took 90 points out of a possible 
100 at the Bedford field trials in 1865, making a tie with Brockton's Bounce, to 
whom I have alluded among the liver and whites. Mr. Whitehouse's Hamlet also 
took several prizes on the show bench, and his stock have quite superseded that of 
Major, which, handsome as they are admitted to be, have not shown much capacity 
for the work demanded from them in the field. Mr. Whitehouse has bred from 




MR. SMITH'S POINTER "MAJOR." 



THE MODERN POINTEE. 89 

this dog Priam, Eap, Joke, Flirt, and Nina, all winners ; besides Macgregor, who is 
by Sancho out of a grand- daughter of Hamlet. From these successes in the 
twofold direction of beauty and goodness in the field, Hamlet was in high fashion 
until the appearance of Sir R. Garth's Drake, since which the contest between 
the stock of those two dogs has been maintained with varying results, there being 
little difference in the number of wins between Viscount Downe's Bang II., Mars, 
Grace II., and Drake II., together with Mr. Lloyd Price's Mallard and Beau, and 
Mr. Statter's Dick; and, on the other hand, Mr. Whitehouse's Priam, Rap, Pax, 
Nora, and Blanche. Besides these may be mentioned Mr. Brackenbury's Romp and 
her produce by Chang, Mr. Whitehouse's Rapid, and Mr. Fairhead's Romp. 
Mr. Birkett's black and white dog Rector is the only addition to these strains 
among the chief prize winners, but he is entirely of blood unknown in the field 
or on the bench. 

During the last five or six years (1875 1882) the liver and white strain 
has gained ground considerably in public estimation, and has outnumbered the 
lemon and whites on the show bench. Mr. Lloyd Price's Wagg and Mr. S. Price's 
Bang have largely contributed to this result ; but, whatever may be the cause, it 
is impossible to dispute the fact. 

Taking, however, these several strains as representing the modern fashionable 
pointer, it must be admitted that the result of recent efforts in breeding has been 
manifested in a great increase of pace, so as to bring the pointer up to the level of 
the setter in that quality, so important to the grouse shooter, for whom both 
pointers and setters are now, as already remarked, chiefly demanded. For this 
reason it is absurd to ignore range and pace in judging at field trials, as has 
been attempted by certain influential members of the Kennel Club. In any case, 
to count up the number of times each competitor finds a brace of birds, and decide 
by that alone, in a trial limited to minutes, is, in my opinion, to give chance too 
great a " pull " ; and, as I before remarked, range and pace, though not necessary 
in the south, are essential for grouse dogs, and it is for that purpose that pointers as 
well as setters are now mainly required. One great advantage in pointers is that they 
do not require water so often as the setter, or to be rebroken every season more or 
less. They are hardier too, and do not succumb so easily to the ravages of distemper. 

In the endeavour to increase the speed and stamina of the pointer, the foxhound 
has been used as a cross by Col. Thornton and others since his time. It is well 
known that the foxhound is far superior to all dogs in the latter capacity, and 
equal to all but the greyhound in the former. I have tried several pointers more 
or less crossed with the foxhound, and most of them have been very fast and 
stout; but in every instance there was unsteadiness behind, however carefully 
the dog was broken, and great difficulty has been experienced in getting any 
"back" whatever. In both the foxhound and the greyhound jealousy is encouraged 
to the utmost, while in the pointer it is a fatal defect. Hence, although I believe 
several of our best strains possess in a remote degree a cross of the foxhound, it is 
not hastily to be introduced, and it takes several crosses back into steady pointer 
blood to neutralise the defect alluded to. 



90 



THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



The most celebrated breeders of the liver and white strain in modern times 
have been Sir R. Garth, facile princeps with Drake, besides a number of lesser 
stars Lord H. Bentinck, Mr. Statter, Lord Lichfield, the Duke of Westminster, 
Mr. Francis (of Exeter), Mr. S. Price (also of Devon), the late Mr. G. Moore, 
Viscount Downe, and Mr. R. J. Lloyd Price (of Bala). Sir Dudley Coutts 
Marjoribanks has a breed of high private reputation, as has also Sir R. Musgrave 
of Edenhall ; but, as far as I know, none have appeared in public. The old, heavy 
sort of the Edge, Antrobus, and Sefton strains are now quite out of fashion, 
except when combined with faster blood. 

The best strain of the lemon and whites has been almost entirely in Mr. 
Whitehouse's hands, he having had a succession of winners from the time of 
Hamlet to the present day, and his sideboard groaning with silver cups. Beginning 
with little Hamlet, he has gradually increased their size and substance, and got rid 
of the delicacy of constitution which was at first a defect in the strain. Priam and 
Rap are both big enough for any work, and, though not over 601b., very nearly 
approaching that standard. Rap is one of the most perfect dogs in symmetry that 
I ever saw, and is a model of the true type. Mr. Whitehouse's Pearl and Nina are 
also full of quality, and symmetrical, as well as all over useful iu shape. There is, 
however, so little difference between their appearance and that of Major, whose 
portrait I gave in the last series, that I have not thought it necessary to super- 
sede it. 

The points are nearly the same in numerical value as those of the setter, the 
only difference made being in the texture of coat, which is not so great a sign of 
breeding in the pointer as the setter. 



POINTS OF THE POINTER. 



Value. 

Skull 10 

Nose 10 

Ears, Eyes, and 

Lips 4 

Neck 6 

30 



Value. 
Shoulders and 

chest 15 

Back, quarters, 

and stifles... 15 



Value. 
Legs, elbows, 

and hocks ... 12 
Feet .. 8 



30 
Grand Total 100. 



20 



Value. 

Stern 5 

Symmetry and 

quality 7 

Texture of coat 3 
Colour 5 

20 



Describing them in detail, they are as follows : 

1. The skull (value 10) should be of good size, but not as heavy as in the 
old Spanish pointer, and in a lesser degree his half-bred descendants. It should 
be wider across the ears than that of the setter, with a forehead rising well at 
the brows. A full development of the occipital protuberance is indispensable, 
and the upper surface should be in two slightly rounded flats, with a furrow 
between. 

2. The nose (value 10) should be long (4in. to 4|in.) and broad, with widely- 
open nostrils. The end must be moist, and in health is cold to the touch. It should 
be black, or very dark brown, in all but the lemon and whites ; but in them it 



THE MODERN POINTER. 91 

may be a deep flesh colour. It should be cut off square and . not pointed known 
as the " snipe nose " or " pig jaw." Teeth meeting evenly. 

3. The ears, eyes, and lips (value 4) are as follows : Ears soft in coat, moderately 
long and thin in leather, not folding like the hound's, but lying flat and close 
to the cheeks, and set on low, without any tendency to prick. Eyes soft and of 
medium size ; colour brown, varying in shade with that of the coat. Lips well 
developed, and frothing when in work, but not pendant or flew-like. 

4. The neck (value 6) should be arched towards the head, long and round, 
without any approach to dewlap or throatiness. It should come out with a graceful 
sweep from between the shoulder-blades. 

5. The shoulders and chest (value 15) are dependent on each other for their 
formation. Thus a wide and hooped chest cannot have the blades lying flat against 
its sides ; and consequently, instead of this and their sloping backwards, as they 
ought to do in order to give free action, they are upright, short and fixed. Of 
course, a certain width is required, to give room for the lungs ; but the volume 
required should be obtained by depth rather than width. Behind the blades the 
ribs, should, however, be well arched, but still deep; this depth of back rib is 
specially important. 

6. The back, quarters, and stifles (value 15) constitute the main propellers of the 
machine, and on their proper development the speed and power of the dog depend. 
The loin should be very slightly arched and full of muscle, which should run well 
over the back ribs ; the hips should be wide, with a tendency even to raggedness, 
and the quarters should droop very slightly from them. These last must be full 
of firm muscle, and the stifles should be well bent and carried widely apart, so 
as to allow the hind legs to be brought well forward in the gallop, instituting a 
form of action which does not tire. 

7. Legs, elbows, and hocks (value 12). These chiefly bony parts, though merely 
the levers by which the muscles act, must be strong enough to bear the strain given 
them ; and this must act in a straight line of progression. Substance of bone is 
therefore demanded, not only in the shanks but in the joints, the knees and hocks 
being specially required to be bony. The elbows should be well let down, giving 
a long tipper arm, and should not be turned in or out ; the latter being, however, 
the lesser fault of the two, as the confined elbow limits the action considerably. 
The reverse is the case with the hocks, which may be turned in rather than out ; the 
former being generally accompanied by that wideness of stifles which I have already 
insisted on. Both hind and fore pasterns should be short, nearly upright and full 
of bone. 

8. The feet (value 8) are all-important ; for, however fast and strong the action 
may be, if the feet are not well shaped and their horny covering hard, the dog 
will soon become foot-sore when at work, and will then refuse to leave his 
master's heels, however high his courage may be. Breeders have long disputed 
the comparatively good qualities of the round cat-like foot, and the long one, 
resembling that of the hare. In the pointer my own opinion is in favour of the 
cat-foot, with the toes well arched and close together. This is the desideratum of 



92 THE BOOS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

the M.F.H., and I .think stands work* better than the hare-foot, in which the 
toes are not arched but still lie close together. In the setter the greater 
amount of hair to a certain extent condones the inherent weakness of the 
hare-foot ; but in the pointer no such superiority can be claimed. The main 
point, however, is the closeness of the pads combined with thickness of the horny 
covering. 

9. The stern (value 5) must be strong in bone at the root, but should at once 
be reduced in size as it leaves the body, and then gradually taper to a point like 
a bee's sting. It should be very slightly curved, carried a little above the line 
of the back, and without the slightest approach to curl at the tip. 

10. Of symmetry and quality (value 7) the pointer should display a goodly 
proportion, no dog showing more difference between the " gentleman " and his 
opposite. It is impossible to analyse these essentials, but every good judge 
carries the knowledge with him. 

11. The texture (value 3) of coat in the pointer should be soft and mellow, 
but not absolutely silky. 

12. In colour (value 5) there is now little choice, in point of fashion, between 
the liver and lemon and whites. After them comes the black and whites (with 
or without tan), then the pure black, and lastly the pure liver. Dark liver-ticked 
is, perhaps, the most beautiful colour of all to the eye. 

THE DEOPPEK. 

This breed, between the setter and pointer, is often very good in the field ; 
but after the first cross it does not succeed. The two varieties do not seem to 
amalgamate ; as in the same litter may be found a portion looking like true 
pointers, while the rest resemble the setter. The dropper is generally a hardy, 
useful dog of all work, and is specially good for snipe bogs, single-handed. 



THE MODERN FIELD SPANIEL. 93 




CHAPTER III. 
SPANIELS. 



THE MODERN FIELD SPANIEL THE MODERN COCKER THE SUSSEX SPANIEL 
THE CLUMBER SPANIEL THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL THE ENGLISH 
WATER SPANIEL. 

THE MODEEN FIELD SPANIEL. 

!jj? MONGr the earliest records of venerie in England, the spaniel is alluded 
If to as used for hawking and netting, and he claims, with the greyhound, 
, a3t tne bulldog, and the mastiff, the honour of having been the first of 
/ 3Jjj\ his species introduced into this country. I do not pretend to settle this 
}e moot point ; but there can be no doubt that in this century he is 
remarkable among his compeers for tenderness of nose, high intelligence, devotion 
to his master, pluck, stamina, and perseverance in the pursuit of his game. 
Possessed of these high qualities, he is not only useful as a " dog of all work," 
but he is also a sagacious and faithful companion. Nevertheless, for some years 
past the spaniel has been supplanted in general estimation by the pointer, setter, 
or terrier, partly owing to the superior speed of the first two better suiting our 
modern ideas, and partly also to the fact that the terrier will not only hunt game, 
but vermm, about which the spaniel is comparatively indifferent. Still there are 
many excellent sportsmen who adhere to the spaniel, and who use nothing else 
for beating -hedgerows, small coverts, and even turnips or clover, where, of course, 
this dog is constantly kept within range of the gun by careful breaking. In 
our modern farming, the large inclosures and the very thin fences which are its 
distinguished feature also lessen his utility ; and even in Wales, Devonshire, and 
Norfolk each of which districts used formerly to possess its peculiar breed 
spaniels are comparatively rare, and these three strains are no longer to be met 
with in a typical form. There is, however, one kind of game the woodcock 
which still demands a couple or leash of spaniels ; and " cock shooting " being 
highly valued, a few good sportsmen, for this and other reasons, have recently 
done their best to improve the breeding of this dog, in externals as well as utility. 
In the early days of dog shows Mr. F. Burdett, the secretary of the Bir- 
mingham Dog Show, and in fact its prime mover, possessed a breed of black 
Cockers, obtained from the neighbourhood of Lutterworth, where they were bred 
by an old family of the name of Footman. They were unrivalled in appearance 
as well as at work, taking every prize for which they competed. Mr. Burdett's 
early death, however, caused their distribution, and the best specimens passed 



94 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

into the hands of Mr. Jones, of Oscott, and Mr. Phineas Bullock, of Bilston, the 
latter of whom has crossed them with the Sussex, and apparently with the water- 
spaniel. In the last ten years he has almost monopolised the prizes in the spaniel 
classes, and without doubt he has deserved his success. I regret that I am unable 
to present to the readers of this book a portrait of any of his dogs, having in 
vain applied to him for the necessary facilities ; but the omission is of the less 
consequence, because he has gradually introduced so much Sussex blood into 
the old strain that the produce are almost exactly of that type, with the single 
exception of the head; and for the illustration of the pure Sussex I prefer the 
original selection, as represented by Mr. Soames's George. In order to obtain 
the genuine field spaniel other than Sussex or Clumber, I have consequently been 
obliged to look outside Mr. P. Bullock's kennel, and have fortunately discovered 
the very best specimen I have ever seen in the possession of Mr. W. Gillett, of 
Hull, together with his dam, the former bred by Mr. W. W. Boulton, of Beverley, 
whose portraits are given with this chapter, associating with them a little old- 
fashioned cocker bitch, bred by Mr. Lort, to serve as a contrast. Brush, the young 
dog above alluded to, has all the bone, symmetry, and quality of Mr. Bullock's 
dogs, with a flatter, softer, and more silky coat, and without the heavy ears, 
which are, in my opinion, faults in the Bilston kennel. His ears are of the true 
spaniel type, lobular in shape without being too heavy, and he has plenty of feather 
for his age, whilst his middle only requires another six months to be perfect. As 
to his head, legs, and feet, I have never seen them equalled, and his colour is the 
finest jet black, with a most beautiful polish. Nell shows signs of age, and has 
too much ear for my taste; but her success on the show bench qualifies her for 
her position in the group. As to Ladybird, I have selected her as the type of a 
working hedgerow spaniel. She is about 181b. in weight, with excellent legs and 
feet, and ears not likely to get in her way in pushing through the brambles or 
gorse. She was bred by Mr. Lort, and combines the Burdett and Lort strains with 
other old ones unknown to fame. 

Since the above was written in 1876 Brush has won several prizes, my opinion 
of him being endorsed by various judges. 

THE MODEEN COCKEE. 

The above title includes every kind of field spaniel except the Sussex and 
Clumber, and it is therefore necessary to allude to the Norfolk Spaniel as well 
as to the Welsh and Devon Cocker. The Norfolk spaniel is still found scattered 
throughout the country, and is generally of a liver and white colour, sometimes 
black and white, and rarely lemon and white; usually a good deal ticked with 
colour in the white. Higher on the leg than the Clumber or the Sussex, he is 
generally more active than either, sometimes almost rivalling the setter in lightness 
of frame ; his ears are long, lobular, and heavily feathered, and he is a very useful 
dog when thoroughly broken, but he is apt to be too wild in his behaviour and 
too wide in his range until he has had a longer drill than most sportsmen can 



THE MODERN COCKER. 95 

afford, and in retrieving lie is often hard mouthed. When thoroughly broken, 
however, he is an excellent aid to the gun ; but he is so intermixed with other breeds 
that it is impossible to select any particular specimen as the true type. With 
regard to the Welsh and Devon cocker of former times, they are now scarcely 
to be met with in a state of purity and of the regulation size (201b. to 251b.) ; 
most of them have been crossed with the springer, or by improved manage- 
ment have been raised in weight to 301b. at the least, which militates against 
their use in some coverts ; and in a vast majority of teams the modern field spaniel 
must be regarded as more like the springer than the cocker. The Welsh and 
Devon cockers are both liver-coloured, not of the Sussex golden hue, but of a 
dead true liver colour. Their ears are not too large for work, and on the show 
bench would by many judges be considered too small ; but they are always lobular, 
without the slighest tendency to a vine shape. Throughout the country there 
are numberless breeds of cockers of all colours, varying from white, black, or 
liver to red and white, lemon and white, liver and white, and black and white. 
Ladybird is nearly all red, but she comes of strains usually all liver or all black. 

The modern field spaniel should be the best made "all-round" shooting dog 
of the day, for he is expected to perform equally well on land and on the water, 
in covert, hedgerow, or turnips. He is also called on to retrieve, whilst he must 
be thoroughly steady, reliable under all circumstances, however trying to his 
nature, and he must never tire. In order to obtain this marvellous combination 
of powers and varied qualifications, our modern breeders have crossed the old- 
fashioned cocker with the Sussex, and then, by careful selection as to size, points, 
and colour, they have established a breed, of which Brush may be taken as the 
type in its best form. 

The following is the numerical allotment of the 



POINTS OF THE FIELD SPANIEL. 



Value. 

Head 15 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

Chest, back, and loins ... 20 

45 



Value. 

Length 5 

Legs 10 

Feet . . 10 



25 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Colour 5 

Coat 10 

Tail 10 

Symmetry 5 

30 



1. The head (value 15) should be long, with a marked brow but still only 
gradually rising from the nose, and the occipital protuberance well defined. Nose 
long and broad, without any tendency to the snipe form. Eye expressive, soft, 
and gentle, but not too full or watery. 

2. The ears (value 5) should be set on low down, lobular in shape, not over- 
long in the leather, or too heavily clothed with feather, which should always be 
wavy and free from ringlets. 

3. The neck (value 5) should be long enough to allow the nose to reach the 
ground easily, strong and arched, coming easily out of well-shaped shoulders. 



96 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

4. Chest, back, and loins (value 20). The chest should be deep, and with a 
good girth ; back and loin full of muscle, and running well into one another, 
with wide couplings, and well-turned hind quarters. 

5. The length (value 5) of the spaniel should be rather more than twice his 
height at the shoulder. 

6. The legs (value 10) must be full of bone and straight ; elbows neither in 
nor out ; quarters full of muscle, and stifles strong, but not very much bent. 

7. The feet (value 10) are round and cat-like, well clothed with hair between 
the toes ; and the pads furnished with very thick horn. . 

8. The colour (value 5) preferred is a brilliant black, but in the best strains 
of the dog an occasional liver or red puppy will appear. 

9. The coat (value 10J is flat, slightly wavy, soft and silky ; the legs are well 
fringed or feathered like the setter, as also are the ears ; there must be no topknot 
or curl between the eyes, indicating a cross of the water spaniel. 

10. The tail (value 10), which is always cropped short, must have a downward 
carriage, and should not be set on too high. 

11. The symmetry (value 5) of the spaniel is considerable, and any departiire 
from it should be penalised accordingly. 

Mr. Gillett's Brush is by Boulton's Eolf out of Gillett's Nell; Rolf by 
Boulton's Beaver (4408) out of his Runic; Beaver by Boulton's Bruce (4412) 
out of Nell; Runic by Rex, brother to Rhea (2228), out of Boulton's Fan. He 
has only been exhibited twice, viz., at the Islington Kennel Club Show, where 
Mr. Lort gave him the second prize, and at Stockton, where he was placed first 
by Major Corven. Mr. Gillett's Nell is of the Burdett strain, but her pedigree is 
not well made out. While the property of Mr. Boulton, she took the first prize 
at Manchester and Stockton-on-Tees, and since she changed hands she has been 
several times exhibited, and always with success. Mr. Langdale's Ladybird is by 
a black Burdett dog out of a bitch by Withington's Dash out of Lort's Fan. 
She has only been exhibited once, when she won the first prize at Whitby in 1876. 
She was purchased by Mr. A. W. Langdale, of Scarborough. 

THE SUSSEX SPANIEL. 

Until the year 1872, Sussex spaniels were never distinguished as a separate 
class at any of our shows, being admitted only as " other than Clumber," or as 
"large spaniels." In that year, bowever, the Committee of the Crystal Palace 
Show instituted a special prize for the Sussex breed, and their example was 
followed in October at Nottingham, where the puce-coloured Rufus, bred by Mr. 
Beesly, defeated Mr. P. Bullock's George, so named from his resemblance to the 
dog selected by me in 1866 as the type of the breed. Mr. Soames' George has 
never yet been surpassed, as far as my opinion and observation go, and I shall 
therefore retain his portrait as efficiently representing the true type of the Sussex 
spaniel. 

Before the above-mentioned constitution of a distinct class under the name 




MB. SOAMES'S SUSSEX SPANIEL " GEORGE " BRED BY MR. FULLER. 



THE SUSSEX SPANIEL. 97 

" Sussex," it was of course impossible to criticise the various liver-coloured spaniels 
exhibited, excepting generally; but almost as soon as the opportunity was thus 
given it was taken advantage of, and in 1874-5 a host of letters appeared in the 
Field on this subject, under the signatures of C. B. Hodgson, J. Blade, " Castra," 
" Ruthwell," J. Farrow, J. H. Salter, W. W. Boulton, " Sussex," Phineas Bullock, 
J. Hughes, and R. Marchant, with a view to show not only that a dog must himself 
possess a proper liver colour to constitute him a Sussex spaniel, but he must also be 
descended from parents of that hue. In illustration of this argument, it was proved 
under protest at Birmingham in 1874, that Mr. Phineas Bullock's G-eorge, though 
himself exhibiting the proper colour and shape of the Sussex breed, was by his 
celebrated Bob, who was of a rich black colour. The result was that George 
was from that time withdrawn from the Sussex classes at the chief shows, and it 
nas been since held that the objection was valid. It may be remembered that a 
portrait of this dog was published in the Field in 1872 as a Sussex spaniel, which 
he closely resembled in appearance ; and, though his pedigree was given in the 
catalogue of the Crystal Palace show, it did not strike me that his sire (the well- 
known Bob) was black, as was afterwards brought out. 

Prom the year 1872 special classes have been given to the Sussex spaniel at 
most of our large shows, and in nearly every case a dog with a golden liver coat, or 
a reasonable approximation to this, has been selected for premier honours ; but still I 
have reason to believe that a good many of the prize winners have been crossed with 
extraneous strains, and that there are very few really pure specimens of the genuine 
Sussex spaniel in existence. In 1859, when I published in " The Dog in Health 
and Disease" the portraits of Mr. Soames's George and Romp, from the Rosehill 
kennels, it was so rare that many good sportsmen had never heard of its existence 
and for several years I looked in vain through the various shows for another good 
specimen of it. At the early Birmingham shows Mr. P. Burdett's blacks were in 
fashion ; and on his death Mr. Jones, of Oscott, took possession of the show bench 
with his Bob, a son of Burdett's dog of the same name. Soon after this Mr. 
Phineas Bullock came to the fore with dogs descended from the same strains, and 
without any infusion, as far as I know, of the real Sussex spaniel at all events, 
not for some years. After a time, Mr Bowers, of Chester, obtained a dog 
(Buckingham) and two or three bitches of the Rosehill strain; and Mr. J. H. 
Salter, of Tolleshunt D'Arcy, in Essex, also purchased Chance and Chloe, of pure 
old Sussex blood. Dr Williams, of Hayward's Heath, Sussex, possesses a bitch 
from which I believe he has bred some good puppies. Mr. Marchant of Dartford, 
and Rev. W. Shield of Kirkby Lonsdale, Mr H. B. Spurgin of Northampton, and 
Mr. A. W. Langdale of Bishop's Stortford, also have the breed; but beyond 
this short list I am unable to go, though no doubt there are others with which I am 
unacquainted. 

In work the Sussex spaniel is somewhat faster, and certainly more lasting 
and persevering, than the Clumber, from whom he also differs in possessing a 
peculiarly full and bell-like tongue, though still somewhat sharp, in note. He is by 
no means noisy, except when first entered to his game, and it is easy to distinguish 

o 



98 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

by his tongue whether he is on " fur " or " feather." He is readily taught to 
retrieve with a soft mouth, but there is sometimes a slight tendency to sulk, and he 
certainly is not so easily kept under command as the Clumber ; but for hard work 
he beats that dog altogether, and is rarely gun-shy. As compared with the indefinite 
strains of liver-coloured spaniels of such symmetry as to be exhibited at our shows, 
but descended from Mr. Burdett's Bob and other black dogs, I have no reason to 
think that the real Sussex is in any way superior to them, either in the field or on 
the show bench, if judged without regard to purity of blood ; and if a class were 
made for "liver-coloured spaniels" without designating them as "Sussex," I can 
see no reason to believe that the first prize would of necessity go to either of the 
gentlemen above named. Classes for "Gordon" setters are now abandoned, on 
account of the difficulty in defining that dog ; and I am by no means sure that it is 
not desirable to follow this example in reference to the Sussex spaniel, as was to 
some extent done 'at the last Brighton show, when a class was formed for " golden 
liver coloured Sussex spaniels." But even then, a dog of the true " golden" colour, 
if proved to be descended from a black strain, would be open to disqualification. 
Clearly, however, the colour alone is no mark of purity, as was proved in the case 
of Mr. Phineas Bullock's George above mentioned ; and, indeed, I know no breed 
of dogs in which colour alone can be relied on. The standard points of the Sussex 
spaniel may be estimated as follows : 



POINTS IN THE SUSSEX SPANIEL. 



Value, i Value. 



Skull 15 

Eyes 5 

Nose 10 

Ears 5 

35 



Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest... 10 
Back and back ribs ... 10 
Legs and feet 10 

35 

Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Tail 10 

Colour ,. 10 

Coat 5 

Symmetry 5 

30 



1. The skull (value 15) should be long, and also wide, with a deep indentation 
in the middle, and a full stop, projecting well over the eyes ; occiput full, but not 
pointed ; the whole giving an appearance of heaviness without dulness. 

2. The eyes (value 5) are full, soft, and languishing, but not watering so as to 
stain the coat. 

. 3. The nose (value 10) should be long (Sin. to 3|in.) and broad, the end liver- 
coloured, with large open nostrils. 

4. The ears (value 5) are moderately long and lobe-shaped that is to say, 
narrow at the junction with the head, wider in the middle, and rounded below, not 
pointed. They should be well clothed with soft wavy and silky hair, but not heavily 
loaded with it. 

5. The neck (value 5) is rather short, strong, and slightly arched, but not carrying 
the head much above the level of the back. There is no throatiness in the skin, 
but a well-marked frill in the coat. 




ME. PRICE'S CLUMBER SPANIEL " BRTJCE." 



THE CLUMBEE SPANIEL. 99 

6. Shoulders and chest (value 10). The chest is round, especially behind the 
shoulders, and moderately deep, giving a good girth. It narrows at the 
shoulders, which are consequently oblique, though strong, with full points, 
long arms, and elbows well let down, and these last should not be turned 
out or in. 

7. Back and lack ribs (value 10). The back or loin is long, and should be 
very muscular both in width and depth. For this latter development the 
back ribs must be very deep. The whole body is characterised as low, long, 
and strong. 

8. Legs and feet (value 10). Owing to the width of chest, the fore legs of 
the Sussex spaniel are often bowed ; but it is a defect notwithstanding, though not a 
serious one. The arms and thighs must be bony as well as muscular ; knees and 
hocks large, wide, and strong ; pasterns very short and bony ; feet round, and toes 
well arched and clothed thickly with hair. The fore legs should be well feathered 
all down, and the hind ones also above the hocks, but should not have much hair 
below that point. 

9. The tail (value 10) is generally cropped, and should be thickly clothed with 
hair, but not with long feather. The true spaniel's low carriage of the tail at work 
is well marked in this breed. 

10. The colour (value 10) of the Sussex is a well-marked but not exactly rich 
golden liver, on which there is often a washed-out look that detracts from its 
richness. This colour is often met with in other breeds, however, and is no certain 
sign of purity in the Sussex spaniel. 

11. The coat (value 5) is wavy without any curl, abundant, silky, and soft. 

12. The symmetry (value 5) of the Sussex spaniel is not very marked ; but he 
should not be devoid of this quality. 

It being generally admitted that no improvement has taken place on Mr. 
Soames' George, whose portrait has already been given in the former editions of 
this book, it is unnecessary to substitute any other for it. 

THE CLUMBEE SPANIEL. 

Since the publication of the article on this spaniel in the year 1865, no change 
is to be recorded in the opinions on its merits nor have the specimens exhibited 
shown any improvement in shape or quality. Mr. E. J. LI. Price's Bruce may, 
therefore, still be regarded as a good type of the breed, and I need not replace him 
by any more modern dog. 

The Clumber spaniel takes his name from the seat of the Duke of Newcastle, 
in Nottinghamshire, where the breed was first established. His distinguishing 
features are a heavy head, long body, very short legs, and consequent slow pace, and 
absence of tongue, being entirely mute. Coupled with these qualities, on the other 
hand, there is a necessity for a team of at least three or four, if sufficient ground 
is to be gone over even for one gun, as the dog never ranges far from his master, 
and is very slow in his work. He has, however, an excellent nose, is easily kept 



100 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

under command by ordinary means, though he does not readily own a new master ; 
and when a team of Clumbers is composed of dogs well broken, excellent sport may 
be obtained from them. Like the Laverack setter, the Clumber has been very much 
in-bred, and is equally difficult to rear, and somewhat inclined to be delicate even at 
the best. Nevertheless, he is no doubt highly prized by those who can afford 
to keep an unlimited kennel for only occasional use. The practice of l>att^^,e shooting 
without dogs by the aid of human beaters has greatly reduced the demand 
for this dog, which was formerly adopted in beating almost all large woodland 
preserves. 

The points of the Clumber spaniel are as follows : 

POINTS OF THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 



Value. 

Head 20 

Ears 10 

Neck . 5 



35 



Value. * Value. 

Length 15 Colour 5 

Shoulders and chest. . . 10 Coat 5 

Back 10 Stern 5 

Legs and feet 15 

50 15 

Grand Total 100. 



1. The head (value 20). The skull of this dog is large in all dimensions, being 
flat at the top, with a slight furrow down the middle, and a very large occipital 
protuberance. Sometimes this part is heavy in excess, but this is far better than 
the opposite extreme. The nose is very long and broad, with open nostrils. 
The end should be of a dark flesh colour, but even in the best strains it is 
sometimes of a cherry or light liver colour. The eye is large and soft, but not 
watering. 

2. The ears (value 10) are peculiar in shape as compared with other spaniels, 
being setter-like or vine-shaped, and indicating that this kind of spaniel is the 
original " setting spaniel " of olden times, now converted into the setter. They are 
slightly longer than those of most setters, and feathered, but not heavily, especially 
on the front edge. 

3. The neck (value 5) is long and strong, but lean, and free from dewlap in 
front, where, however, there is a slight ruff of hair. 

4. In length (value 15) this spaniel should be two and a half times his height. 

5. Good shoulders (value 10) are very important qualities in so heavy a 
dog, who tires in any covert rather too soon, and, with heavy shoulders, 
drops into a walk after a single hour's work. The chest must also have a 
large girth. 

6. A strong bach and loin (value 10) are equally necessary, and for the same 
cause. The latter ought to be free from arch, as the back should be from droop, 
and the back ribs should be very deep. 

7. The legs and feet (value 15) of the Clumber must be carefully attended to, 
being of great importance to him in standing his work. He is very apt to be out 




MR. LINDOE'S IRISH WATER SPANIELS "BAKE" AND "BLARNEY.' 



THE IEISH WATEE SPANIEL. 101 

at his elbows from his width of chest, and occasionally his legs are bowed from 
rickets, to which disease he is especially prone. These defects when present should 
be heavily penalised, as they are faults of great importance. 

8. The colour (value 5) is always white, with more or less lemon ; and 
when the latter is freckled over the face and legs the colour is perfect. The 
face should always be white, with lemon head, and at the best a line of white down 
its middle. 

9. The coat (value 5) must be soft and silky, slightly wavy, and, though 
abundant, by no means long, except in feather. 

10. The stern (value 5) must be set low, and carried considerably downwards, 
especially when at work. 

THE IEISH WATEE SPANIEL. 

In Ireland two breeds of this dog are known, which are distinguished by the 
prefixes North and South, the latter being also named after Mr. McCarthy, a gentle- 
man who, between thirty and forty years ago, alone possessed it in perfection. At 
the present time the M'Carthy strain may be considered to be the type of the Irish 
water spaniel ; and his description published in the Field in 1859 is the standard by 
which the breed is judged, and must therefore be so regarded. 

Most of the prize winners of late years have been more " on the leg " than Capt. 
O'Grady's dog (an engraving of which was published in my first edition in 1865) ; 
but several bitches have been successful even lower than he was. They all show, 
however, in greater perfection one peculiarity of the strain, viz., the total absence 
of feather both on tail and legs ; whereas Capt. O'Grady's dog, though good in tail, 
was feathered considerably on his legs. I shall therefore substitute portraits from 
remarkably good photographs of Mr. Lindoe's celebrated brace, Eake and Blarney, 
which for five or six years shared with Mr. Skidmore's Doctor (half brother to 
Eake) the chief prizes of the various English shows. Eake was descended from 
M'Carthy's celebrated dog Boatswain, on the side of his dam ; but his grandsire on 
the other side, also called Boatswain, was from another kennel. He was considered 
by Capt. Montresor and by Mr. M'Carthy himself to be a good specimen of the 
breed ; and their endorsement must be regarded as final. 

The Irish water spaniel has been imported into England in considerable num- 
bers, but not to such an extent as to become common ; why, I am at a loss to know, 
as from Mr. Lindoe's experience, and that of Mr. Englebach (formerly of Tedding- 
ton), in addition to the account given originally by M'Carthy himself, I am led to 
believe that he is by far the most useful dog for wildfowl shooting at present in 
existence. " Notwithstanding their natural impetuosity of disposition," Mr. Lindoe 
says, "these spaniels, if properly trained, are the most tractable and obedient of 
all dogs, and possess in a marked degree the invaluable qualities of never giving up 
or giving in. From real personal experience of almost every kind of dog," he goes 
on to say, "they are the cleverest, gamest, and most companionable of all." 
Judging from my knowledge of Mr. Englebach's Pat, bred by Mr. Skidmore, to 



102 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

which dog my experience of the breed is confined, I should say he is too quarrel- 
some to be companionable, except to those who are fond of repeated impromptu 
dog fights, and he is admitted to be too impetuous for work on land. England 
appears to have obtained the cream of the strain, as the above-mentioned English- 
bred dogs, Doctor and Pat, took the first and second prizes at the Dublin show of 
1872 ; while young Doctor was first in the champion class at Belfast in 1876, and 
Mr. Skidmore's sister to Barney divided the puppy prize at the same show. The 
chief prizes in England have fallen to dogs belonging to Mr. Skidmore, of Nant- 
wich, Mr. Eobson of Hull, Mr. P. J. D. Lindoe, the Eev. W. J. Mellor, Capt. 
Montresor, and Mr. Engelbach, all being of the McCarthy strain, while Mr. N. 
Morton of Ballymena is at the head of the Irish breeders. The dog is readily 
taught to retrieve, but care must be taken to prevent his impetuosity leading to a 
" hard mouth." Recently (1882) the breed has deteriorated in England, why I am 
at a loss to know, and the classes for Irish Spaniels have been almost empty at most 
shows. 

The points of the breed are as follows : 

POINTS OF THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL. 



Value. 

Head 10 

Face and eyes 10 

Topknot 10 

Ears 10 

40 



Value. 

Chest and shoulders. . . 7| 
Back and quarters ... 7 
Legs and feet 10 



25 

Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Tail 10 

Coat 10 

Colour 10 

Symmetry 5 

36 



1. The head (value 10) is by no means long, with very little brow, but 
moderately wide. It is covered with curls, rather longer and more open than 
those of the body, nearly to the eyes, but not so as to be wigged like the 
poodle. 

2. The face and eyes (value 10) are very peculiar. Face very long, and quite 
bare of curl, the hair being short and smooth, though not glossy ; nose broad, 
and nostrils well developed ; teeth strong and level ; eyes small and set almost flush, 
without eyebrows. 

3. The topJcnot (value 10) is a characteristic of the true breed, and is 
estimated accordingly. It should fall between and over the eyes in a peaked 
form. 

4. The ears (value 10) are long, the leather extending, when drawn forward, a 
little beyond the nose, and the curls with which they are clothed two or three inches 
beyond. The whole, of the ears is thickly covered with curls, which gradually 
lengthen towards the tips. 

5. Chest and shoulders (value 7|). There is nothing remarkable about these 
points, which must, nevertheless, be of sufficient dimensions and muscularity. 
The chest is small compared with most breeds of similar substance. 



THE ENGLISH WATEE SPANIEL. 103 

6. The lack and quarters (value 7|) also have no peculiarity, but the stifles are 
almost always straight, giving an appearance of legginess. 

7. Legs and feet (value 10). The legs should be straight, and the feet large, 
but strong ; the toes are somewhat open, and covered with short, crisp curls. In all 
dogs of this breed the legs are thickly clothed with short curls, slightly pendent 
behind and at the sides, and some have them all round, hanging in ringlets for 
some time before the annual shedding. No feather like that of the setter should 
be shown. The front of the hind legs below the hocks is always bare. 

The tail (value 10) is very thick at the root, where it is clothed with very short 
hair, and is well shown in the portrait of Blarney. Beyond the root, however, the 
hair is perfectly short, so as to look as if the tail had been clipped, which it some- 
times fraudulently is at our shows ; but the natural bareness of tail is a true 
characteristic of the breed. 

9. The coat (value 10) is composed of short curls of hair, not woolly, which 
betrays the poodle cross. A soft, flossy coat is objected to as indicative of an 
admixture with some one of the land spaniels. 

10. The colour (value 10) must be a deep puce liver without white; but, as 
in other breeds, a white toe will occasionally appear even on the best-bred litter. 

11. The symmetry (value 5) of this dog is not very great, and I have conse- 
quently only estimated it at 5. 

Mr P. J. D. Lindoe's Eake is by Eobson's Jock out of Duck, by Tuffnell's Jack, 
a son of McCarthy's Boatswain, Jock by Lord Eglinton's Boatswain out of Flush. 
He has won nine first prizes, besides several seconds. Blarney is by Tollemache's 
Boatswain out of Skidmore's Juno, and has won three first prizes, besides seconds 
and highly commendeds. 

THE ENGLISH WATEE SPANIEL. 

Although a class for this variety of the spaniel is often included in the prize 
lists of our shows, the exhibits are generally of a most miscellaneous character, and 
I do not pretend to be able to settle the points of the breed with anything like 
accuracy or minuteness. The following description will probably serve to include 
all the variations : 

Head, long and narrow ; eyes, small ; ears, long and clothed with thick curls ; 
body, moderately stout and barrel like, but not so much so as the field spaniel; 
legs, rather long, straight, and strong; feet, large and spreading; stern, bushy 
and curly-coated; colour, liver and white, varying in the proportion of these 
colours. 



104 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 




CHAPTER IV. 
RETRIEVERS. 



THE RETRIEVER PROPER THE WAVY-COATED RETRIEVER THE CTJRLY- 
COATED BLACK RETRIEVER RETRIEVERS OTHER THAN BLACK WILDFOWL 
RETRIEVERS THE DEERHOUND. 



S there are several purposes for which, dogs are required to retrieve, so 
there are special breeds which fulfil those various requirements in the 
best manner. Thus a dog may be wanted to retrieve partridges in a 
turnip field; or he may be required to road a running grouse on the 
moors ; or again, a winged pheasant or a broken-legged hare in covert 
may test his nose and tender mouth. For these several purposes, what is now called 
the retriever is the fashion of the day, and the same animal may sometimes be called 
on to take water in order to fetch a wounded duck or widgeon, or even a wild goose 
or swan. Lastly, the red deer, when wounded by the rifle ball, and not killed, 
sometimes goes away at a great pace, and tries the speed, and even the stamina, of 
the deerhound or other dog which is slipped after him. Hence it is necessary 
under this article to describe (1st) the retriever proper, including (a) the wavy- 
coated black, (&) the curly-coated black, (c) the retriever other than black, (d) the 
wildfowl retriever ; and (2nd) the deerhound. 

1. THE RETRIEVER PROPER. 

Until within the last twenty years, many good sportsmen were not satisfied unless 
their pointers and setters retrieved the game shot to them, and G-en. Hutchinson 
still maintains that it is a good plan to teach them to do so. Fashion is, however, 
altogether against this last-mentioned combination, partly because no southern 
shooter can do without a retriever in walking up birds in turnips ; and, as he must 
have such a dog for part of the year, the more practice that dog has, the better, and 
consequently, the shooter seldom goes out without one either on the moors or 
elsewhere. My own experience is, that with a pointer or setter of very high courage 
it is almost impossible to keep him steady at " down charge " if he is allowed to 
retrieve ; but, on the other hand, a slack worker will no doubt be encouraged if he 
is permitted to go to his bird and bring it to his master. Consequently, there are 
two sides to the argument, as I think; and before attempting to form a reliable 
opinion, it is well to know the breed of pointers or setters which is to be worked. I 
am, however, inclined to believe that no retriever proper possesses as good a nose as 



THE RETRIEVER PROPER 105 

the pointer or setter, though there are some dogs of these latter breeds who seem 
incapable of trying for anything but a body scent and they, of course, are useless 
as retrievers. Some years ago I endeavoured to devise a plan of trying retrievers 
in public, and in my experiments I used an old worn-out pointer, which happened 
to be the only retrieving dog at hand. Constructing a trap on a tripod, which, 
on pulling a string, would drop a bird with its wing feathers cut in a field of turnips 
or other covert, I found the old dog invariably bring it to hand, although ori one 
occasion the bird had reached the next field, fully three hundred yards from the 
trap ; and, as the result of these private experiments, I produced the machine at 
Vaynol in 1871, in full confidence that it would serve the purpose of the retriever 
trials. But there the retrievers proper could do nothing with a winged partridge 
dropped on turnips exactly as I had done in private, and if the bird happened 
to get away more than fifty yards, the scent was very seldom taken up ; and if found 
at all, the success was owing to perseverance in seeking at random, and to accident, 
rather than nose. Mr. R. J. Lloyd Price's Devil, a curly liver-coloured dog, 
apparently a cross between the Irish water- spaniel and the poodle, bred by Sir P. 
Nugent, is the only dog I have ever seen perform in public to my satisfaction, 
showing great perseverance in hunting, with a good nose, but not coming up to the 
level of the old pointer above alluded to. With this exception, the best private 
retrieving I have ever seen has been with crosses of the terrier and beagle ; for with 
one of these little dogs I never yet lost either fur or feather, though of course he could 
not carry a hare across a brook or over a gate. Still, we must take the world as we 
find it, and the world now demands a retriever proper, black by preference, and 
either wavy-coated or curly. 

In the early shows up to 1864, the classes for retrievers were open to all, and 
it was not till after the second and third held at Birmingham that any decided 
opinions began to be expressed. In 1860 the celebrated Wyndham was brought 
out by Mr. R. Brailsford with success, and he was at once accepted as the type of 
the wavy-coated strain, being apparently nearly or quite pure Labrador. Next year, 
at Leeds, Wyndham was second to Mr. Riley's Sam, a curly-coated dog, of good 
shape, but inferior to that gentleman's Royal, afterwards winner of several prizes in 
England, and of the gold medal at Paris. In 1861 Mr. Riley again succeeded in 
taking the first prize with his Cato, of about the same pretensions as Sam ; the 
second prize being awarded to a curly-coated dog exhibited by myself, bred by Mr. 
Whitbread's keeper at Cardington, with an admitted colley cross, and, though 
handsome in shape, without any of the points which would now be demanded by the 
judges of the strain, and notably deficient in that bareness of face at present 
considered a sine qua non. At Islington in 1862 Mr. Riley's Royal was in high form ; 
but at Birmingham in the same year Wyndham again came out first. In the 
following year Mr. Hill bought Wyndham, and showed him with his Jet at 
Islington, with which latter he took the first prize, Wyndham only getting the 
third. In 1863 Wyndham came out as champion at Birmingham ; and, after these 
ups and downs of the wavy and curly coats, the committee of the Chelsea Show 
decided on dividing the retrievers into distinct classes, their example being followed 



106 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

at Birmingham and elsewhere. In this year Wyndham and Jet again changed 
hands, Mr. Gorse, who had long before been engaged in breeding retrievers, 
becoming their new master, and succeeding in getting first at Birmingham with Jet 
in the curly-coated class, but, curiously enough, being only second in the wavy- 
coated class to another Wyndham, belonging to Mr. Meyrick, of Pembroke, but bred 
by Capt. Sparling. The two Wyndhams were much of the same type, nearly or 
quite pure Labrador, and were about equally successful on the show bench. For 
some years Mr. Gorse carried all before him in the curly-coated classes of the 
various shows with Jet and his son Jet II. ; but in 1872 Mr. Morris, of Rochdale, 
brought out True, a magnificent specimen of the breed, with which he has since that 
time swept the board in the champion classes, his grand bitch X L being almost 
equally successful in her own class. From the year 1870, when Meyrick's 
Wyndham only took a third prize at Birmingham, Mr. Gorse, Mr. Shirley, and the 
various owners of Morley have shared the prizes in the smooth-coated classes, 
Major Allison's Victor being their chief competitor. This dog shows more of the 
setter than is approved of by Dr. Bond Moore, who takes the lead as a retriever 
judge, and who has apparently influenced his coadjutor, whether Mr. Lort or Mr. 
Shirley, in the case of Victor ; but has nevertheless, in conjunction with those 
gentlemen respectively, at the Alexandra Palace and Birmingham Shows of 1874, 
and more recently at the Islington Show of 1877, awarded a first prize to Melody, a 
bitch showing even more of the setter than Victor, according to my judgment. In 
each case the class was a large one, and that at Birmingham was noted by the judges 
as " extraordinarily good." With such conflicting fiats, it is difficult to arrive at any 
definite opinion of the strain considered by the cognoscenti to be the proper type 
of the smooth-coated retriever, and I have therefore selected one of each kind, 
my own impression being decidedly in favour of the setter cross, as likely to possess 
the best nose. Melody is a beautiful bitch, no doubt, but she has no pretensions 
to superiority in any respect over Victor, and hence the above-mentioned decisions 
are the more incompatible. Both Paris and Morley are said to be pure Labradors, 
the former being by Sir Henry Paulett's imported Labrador Lion, out of Bess, 
an imported Labrador bitch. Paris has won repeatedly the champion prizes at the 
Crystal Palace and Dublin shows. Melody's pedigree is unusually long in com- 
parison with other retrievers, and is as follows : 

AC -i fn \ f Moses by Nap (West). 

-m~ . , M1/1 f Sailor (Gorse) ......... [ Di (Adm. Curry). 

Mr. G. Brewis's Melody ............ ImLuUMM ^ f Wyndham (Mejrick). 

(Shirley) ... [? Bounce (Hull). 



How she gets her setter blood I am at a loss to know, but her ears, flag, and 
feather show it in a most unmistakable manner. 

(a) THE WAVY-COATED RETRIEVES,. 

It is generally supposed that this breed is a cross between the Labrador dog, or 
the small St. John's, Newfoundland, and the setter ; but in the present day the most 
successful on the show bench, as above remarked, have been apparently, and often 



THE WAVY-COATED EETEIEVEE. 107 

admittedly, pure. In the belief that the nose of the pure Labrador is inferior to 
that of the setter, I certainly should advise the cross-bred dog for use ; but to be 
successful on the show bench, under such judges as Dr. Bond Moore, Mr. Handley, 
and Mr. Lort, the competitor should display as little as possible of the setter. In 
all other respects Major Allison's Victor was perfect, his symmetry being of the 
most beautiful order; but Dr. Bond Moore could not forgive his setter-like ears, 
and his fiat was against him. According to my general rule, I shall therefore 
describe this breed in its show form, the following being the numerical value of the 
points : 

POINTS OF THE BLACK WAVY-COATED RETRIEVER. 

Value, j Value. 



Value. 

Skull 10 

Nose and jaws 10 

Ears and eyes 5 

Neck 5 

Loins and back 10 

40 



Quarters and stifles ... 10 

Shoulders 6 

Chest 4 

Legs, knees, and hocks 10 

Feet 5 

35 

Grand Total 100. 



Tail 5 

Coat 5 

Colour 5 

Symmetry and tem- 
perament 10 

25 



1. The skull (value 10) should be long, wide, and flat at the top, with a very 
slight furrow down the middle. Brow by no means pronounced ; but the skull is 
not absolutely in a straight line with the nose. 

2. The nose and jaws (value 10) are to be considered from two points of view 
first, as to the powers of scent ; and secondly, as to the capacity for carrying a hare 
or pheasant without risk of damage. For both purposes the jaws should be long, 
and for the development of scenting powers the nose should be wide, the nostrils 
open, and its end moist and cool. 

3. The ears and eyes (value 5). The ears must be small to suit the ideas of the 
Labrador fancier. With the setter cross they are considerably larger. In any case 
they should lie close to the head, and be set on low. With regard to the hair on 
them, it must be short in the Labrador ; but in the setter cross it is nearly as long 
as in the setter itself. The eyes should be of medium size, intelligent-looking, and 
mild in expression, indicating a good temperament. 

4. Neck (value 5). Whatever be the breed of this dog, his neck should be long 
enough to allow him to stoop in seeking for the trail. A chumpy neck is especially 
bad ; for, while a little dog may get along on a foot scent with a short neck, a 
comparatively large and unwieldy dog tries himself terribly by the necessity for 
crouching in his fast pace. 

5. The loins and lack (value 10) must be wide and deep, to enable the retriever 
to carry a hare over a stone wall, a brook, or gate. 

6. The quarters and stifles (value 10) must be muscular, for the same reason ; 
and, to enable the retriever to do his work fast enough to please the modern sports- 
man, with ease to himself, the stifles should be set wide apart. 

7. The shoulders (value 10) should be long and sloping ; otherwise, even with a 
proper length of neck, the dog cannot stoop to a foot scent without fatigue. 



108 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

8. The chest (value 4) should be broad as well as deep, with well- developed 
back ribs. 

9. Legs, knees, and hocks (value 10). When tolerably fast work is to be done by 
a heavy dog, it is important that these parts should be strong and free from disease 
in their joints. Hence the legs must not only be long and muscular, but they must 
be clean and free from gumminess. The knees should be broad, and the hocks well 
developed, and clean. 

10. The feet (value 5) are rather larger proportionately than in the setter, but 
they should be compact, and the toes well arched. Soles thick and strong. 

11. The tail (value 5) in the " Bond Moore " type should be bushy, and not 
feathered, which is a sign of the setter cross. It should be carried gaily, but not 
curled over the back. 

12. The coat (value 5) is short, but not so short as in the pointer or hound ; 
set close, slightly wavy, and glossy. 

13. The colour (value 5) should be a rich black, free from rustiness. In many 
good imported dogs there is a white star on the breast, and a white toe or two ; but 
the fashionable breeders now go in for a total absence of white, and this point is 
therefore to be estimated accordingly, as long as Dr. Bond Moore and his coad- 
jutors maintain their position. That the public do not agree with him is plain from 
the fact that, in answer to an advertisement offering to give away several puppies 
bred by him with white on their toes, &c., he received more than 150 applica- 
tions. It also shows that even his own breed cannot be depended on for absence 
of white, and that it is purely an arbitrary sign, altogether independent of race. 
Hence, in my opinion, it is absurd to disqualify a dog absolutely because he 
shows a small white star or a white toe, but it is quite within the powers of 
the judge to penalise him to the extent of the allowance for colour in the scale of 
points. 

14. Symmetry and temperament (value 10). The symmetry of this dog is often 
considerable ; and, though there is no grandeur, as in the large Newfoundland and 
St. Bernard, still there is a due proportion of size and strength, with elegance all 
through, which takes the eye, and should be valued highly. The walk of the 
Labrador is not so loose and shambling as that of the large Newfoundland. The 
evidences of good temperament should be regarded with great care, since the utility 
of this dog mainly depends on it. A sour-headed brute, with a vicious look about 
the eyes, should at once be penalised to the full extent of this point, and a retriever 
shown with a muzzle on, as has often happened, should be regarded with great 
suspicion. Of course a dog may be so savage in a show as to require a muzzle, yet 
perfectly mild and inoffensive in the field ; but such cases are exceptional, and a 
judge ought always to satisfy himself of the general good temper of a retriever 
requiring a muzzle. 

Mr G. Brewis's Paris has been very successful on the show bench, and has a 
fine body and good coat, but I confess I neither like his head nor his short jaw. 
Nevertheless, it is impossible at present to find a better type of the pure Labrador. 
Melody is a beautiful specimen of the setter cross. 




pq 



THE BLACK CUELY-COATED EETEIEVEE. 



109 



(6) THE BLACK CUELY-COATED EETEIEVEE. 

Little or nothing seems to be known of the history of this dog, now so exten- 
sively bred throughout the United Kingdom. At all events, there is no getting at 
the exact source of the breed, and on that account I am led to think that some 
non-sporting dog, such as the poodle, has been used. Possibly successful breeders 
do not like to give information which may lead to a repetition of their success in 
other hands; but my experience does not lead me to place much reliance on this 
interpretation of their secresy. It is admitted that the curly-coated dog is remark- 
ably sagacious, and more " tricky " than the smooth, and this confirms the above 
suspicion ; but I confess that I have no proof whatever to allege in its support, and 
my theory must be taken for what it is worth as such. The general belief is that 
the water spaniel and small Newfoundland have been used in establishing the 
breed, and there is little doubt of the truth of the theory. 

This variety of the dog has certainly not increased in numbers of late years, or 
improved in symmetry, and has notably gone off in the shape of head, which is now 
too narrow by far. The falling off numerically is probably due to the fact that the 
public have pronounced in favour of the Labrador, which has been largely imported 
by " Idstone " and others, as well as extensively bred by Dr. Bond Moore and Mr. 
Shirley, who have with Mr. Lort and Mr. Handley, composed the goodly company of 
judges in this department. From whatever cause, however, the curly-coated dogs 
of the present day are not exhibited in such large and good classes as they were 
about ten years ago, and they are notably deficient in those indications of good 
temper which should always be looked for in the retriever. There is some little 
difference in the points of the two breeds, the main ones being those connected with 
bareness of face and texture of coat. I insert the altered scale : 

POINTS OF THE CUELY-COATED EETEIEVEE. 



Value. 

Skull 10 

Nose and jaws 10 

Ears and eyes 5 

Neck 5 

Loins and back 10 

Quarters and stifles 5 

45 



Value. 

Shoulders 6 

Chest 4 

Legs, knees, and hocks 5 

Feet .' 5 

Tail... . 5 



25 

Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Texture of coat and 
bareness of face ... 15 

Colour 5 

Symmetry and tem- 
perament 10 



30 



11. The tail (value 5) is the first point in the list above given wherein the 
curly-coated dog differs from the wavy-coated retriever. In the latter, as described 
in the points of that variety, it may be either bushy or setter-like ; but in the 
curly-coated retriever the hair must be short and curly, and though not quite bare 
as in the Irish water spaniel, it should be nearly so towards the tip. The tail also 
should be stiff, and only slightly bent, without any approach to a curl beyond a 
very gentle bend, as shown in the illustration which accompanies this chapter. 



110 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

12. The texture of coat and bareness of face (value 15) constitute the chief 
difference between the two breeds. The texture of coat should be intermediate 
between wool and hair, like that of the Astrakan sheep, with even a crisper curl, 
each of which should be quite distinct. The breed has naturally a very oily coat, 
which serves to protect the skin when in the water ; but for show purposes artificial 
oil is often added to such an extent as to soil the hand considerably when stroking 
the dog. This fraud though not so great as dyeing or clipping, is still one which 
should be deprecated, and, if clearly established, ought to disqualify a dog from 
competition. On the whole face, up to nearly the middle of the ears, the coat 
should be quite short, without the slightest wave even ; and here clipping is some- 
times resorted to, and should be punished in the same way it can easily be detected 
by the absence of bloom at the parts clipped. Plucking is useless, as it leaves the 
skin bare. With the above exceptions, the whole body should be clothed with short 
curls, and the occurrence of a patch of uncurled hair on the back, called a " saddle," 
is greatly objected to. 

The illustrations accompanying this chapter are portraits of Mr. Bartram's Nell 
and Mr. Morris's True. Nell obtained the remarkable distinction of being placed 
above True as "the best retriever in the show" at Birmingham in 1875, by Dr. 
Bond Moore and Mr. Shirley, and I have therefore coupled her with that dog in 
the most prominent position. The following is her pedigree : 

Mr. Bartram's Nell f Oscar (Schofield) ... C Sweep (Hodgson) C Hector (Riley). 
(late Mr. E.W. Bichardsj (j e t (Mr. J. Holmes) [ Bess (Gill) (.Old Bess (Ferrand). 

Mr. Morris's True is by Challoner's Sam, of the Duke of Portland's breed, 
out of Watson's bitch. He is a winner of a host of first and champion prizes, 
including that of the Kennel Club Show, at Islington, in 1877. 

(c) THE KETRIEVEKS OTHER THAN BLACK. 

Classes defined as above have been made specially with a view to include those 
liver-coloured specimens which are met with constantly in litters bred from black 
curly-coated parents, indicating the spaniel cross. Thus, in 1866, Mr. Jones and 
Mr. Harrison took the first and second prizes at Birmingham with Neptune and 
Sailor respectively, both being by the celebrated Jet, and the former out of a 
black daughter of that dog, while the latter was out of Gorse's Gyp, also black. 
Both were liver-coated dogs ; and in 1865 Sailor was placed second to Mr Gorse's 
Jet, Mr. Harrison asserting his superiority to that dog in all other respects, and on 
that account a separate class was made next year ; but the result was not more 
favourable to the then treasurer and prime mover of the show, as he only got a 
second to Neptune, as above stated. This class is not defined at all, so that the 
judges may have to decide between curly-coated of both, colours, wavy-coated of 
a black, brindled, black and tabby, black and tan, or red colour ; and, of course, can 
have no rule but the rule of thumb to guide them. In such a class, colour must be 




MR. FIELD'S DEEEHOUND " BEAN." 



THE DEEKHOUND. HI 



left out of consideration ; but a well- coated and finely-shaped curly-coated liver dog 
would generally achieve success. 

The weight of the modern retriever proper is about 801b; height, 25 to 26 

inches. 

(d) WILDFQWL RETBIEVERS. 

A great difference of opinion exists as to the comparative merits of the Labrador 
and the curly-coated retriever for water. In any case, the latter is not improved by 
the setter cross for this purpose, as - the coat of that dog is not nearly so oily as the 
Labrador's. As far as I can learn from wildfowlers, there is no reliable evidence 
to found an opinion on. 

In tenderness of mouth the wavy-coated dog is said to be superior to his rival, 
but without doubt there are many curly-coated retrievers whose mouths are tender 
enough. Notably Mr. Gorse's Jet was so ; and, indeed, from " information received," 
I am led to believe that he was far above the average in this respect as well as 
in nose. The Irish water spaniel makes an excellent water retriever, as does the 
poodle also. 

2. THE DEERHOUND. 

This dog is now more ornamental than useful, his former trade of retrieving 
wounded deer in Scotland being often entrusted to colleys, whole or half-bred, 
and cross-bred dogs of various kinds, but in the south his grand size and outline 
make him a great favourite with country gentlemen, and more especially with 
the ladies of their families. For this fashion Sir Walter Scott with his Ban and 
Buskar, immortalised in " Waverley," is mainly responsible, as with the Dandie 
Dinmonts in " Gruy Mannering." 

There is no doubt that the Scotch deerhound and the thorough Scotch grey- 
hound were identical in shape, and could scarcely be distinguished by good judges, 
and even by them only when at work, the deerhound galloping with his head 
considerably higher than the greyhound. Pari passu with the disappearance of 
the rough greyhound has been the rarity of the deerhound in modern days, the 
former being displaced by the smooth breed, and the. latter by various crosses, 
e.g., that between the foxhound and greyhound advocated by Mr. Scrope; the 
mastiff and greyhound cross of the Earl of Stamford, and all sorts of crosses 
between the colley and greyhound, rough as well as smooth, as mentioned above. 
In the present day pure deerhounds kept for the retrieving of deer are comparatively 
rare, and I believe even those in Her Majesty's kennel are not used for that 
purpose. Hence it is idle to attempt to describe this dog solely from the deer- 
stalker's point of view, and he must be estimated rather from an artistic stand- 
point, in which capacity he rivals, and perhaps surpasses, all his brethren, having 
the elegant frame of the greyhound united with a rough shaggy coat, which takes 
off the hardness of outline complained of by the lovers of the picturesque as 
attaching to the English " longtail." Still, though the deerhound of modern days 
is to be considered as a companionable dog rather than as a deer retriever a 
he has always hitherto been regarded as coming under the latter category, and i 



as 
is 



112 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

so classed in all our shows, I shall not attempt to displace him from his old 
time-honoured position. As a companion he must depend for a good character 
on his ornamental appearance, rather than on his utility as a protector of dames, 
in which capacity he is quite useless as compared with the mastiff, St. Bernard, 
or Newfoundland. He is not so quarrelsome as the colley, but when attacked 
defends himself with great power, quickness, and courage. His chief defect as a 
companion is his proneness to chase any moving object, and he will even pick 
up little dogs, especially if they attempt to run away from him ; and if not broken 
early from this habit, he often occasions trouble to his owner. On the other hand, 
he is seldom offensive to strangers, but he does not take to children, and is seldom 
to be trusted with them. Unless well broken, he will chase hares and rabbits, and 
of course deer, and on that account he should not be taken into deer parks or game 
preserves by those who are not sure of being able to control him. 

The disproportion between the sexes is greater than in any other breed of 
dogs, the average difference in height in the same litter being often from five to 
six inches. 

When this dog is slipped at a wounded deer, he pursues it either by scent or 
sight, the latter being, of course, used in preference, but the nose being lowered for 
the trail the moment the deer is lost to the eye. In hunting the trail, however 
hot and fresh, the deerhound does not throw his tongue out as a rule, though, as is 
the case even with some of the highest bred greyhounds, occasionally a low whimper 
is heard. When a stag stands at bay, the dog opens with a loud sharp bark, and 
continues till his master appears to give the coup de grace, unless his quarry is 
sufficiently exhausted by loss of blood to permit his pinioning him; but a stag 
in possession of his full powers is beyond the reach of any dog from the front, 
and a well-bred deerhound does not make the attempt unless he sees an opening 
from behind. A cross with the bulldog was tried some years ago in order to give 
courage, which it did ; but it also gave the peculiar bulldog tendency to go at the 
head of the deer, and led to the loss of so many valuable animals that it was 
abandoned. 

The numerical value of the points of this dog is as follows : 



Value. 

Skull 10 

Nose and jaws 5 

Ears and eyes 5 

Neck _10 

30 



POINTS OF THE DEERHOTTND. 

Value. 

Chest and shoulders... 10 
Back and back ribs ... 10 

Elbows and stifles 10 

Symmetry and quality 10 

40 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 
Legs and quarters ... 7 

Feet 7i 

Colour and coat 10 

Tail 5 

30 



1. In skull (value 10) the deerhound resembles the large coarse greyhound, it 
being long and moderately wide, especially between the ears. There is a very slight 
rise at the eyebrows so as to take off what would otherwise be a straight line from 
tip of nose to occiput. The upper surface is level in both directions. 



THE DEEEHOUND. H3 



2. ~Nose and jaws (value 5). The jaws should be long and the teeth level and 
strong. Nostrils open but not very wide, and the end pointed and black ; cheeks 
well clothed with muscle, but the bone under the eye neither prominent nor hollow. 

3. Ears and eyes (value 5). The ears should be small and thin and carried 
a trifle higher than those of the smooth greyhound, but should turn over at the 
tips. Pricked ears are sometimes met with, as in the rough greyhound, but 
they are not correct. They should be thinly fringed with hair at the edges only ; 
that on their surfaces should be soft and smooth. Eyes full and dark hazel, 
sometimes by preference blue. 

4. The neck (value 10) should be long enough to allow the dog to stoop to 
the scent at a fast pace, but not so long and tapering as the greyhound. It is 
usually also a little thinner than the corresponding part in the dog. 

5. Chest and shoulders (value 10). The chest is deep rather than wide, and in 
its general formation it resembles that of the greyhound, being shaped with great 
elegance, and at the same time so that the shoulders can play freely on its sides. 
The girth of a full sized dog deerhound should be at least two inches greater than 
his height, often an inch or two more, but a round unwieldy chest is not to be 
desired, even if girthing well, shoulders long, oblique, and muscular. 

6. Back and back ribs (value 10). Without a powerful loin a large dog like this 
cannot sustain the sweeping stride which he possesses, and therefore a deep and 
wide development of muscle filling up the space between wide back ribs and some- 
what ragged hips is the desideratum. A good loin should measure 25 or 26 inches 
in show condition. The back ribs are often rather shallow, but they must be wide, 
or what is called " well sprung," and the loin should be arched, drooping to the root 
of the tail. 

7. Elbows and stifles (value 10), if well placed, give great liberty of action, and 
the contrary if they are confined by being too close together. These points should 
therefore be carefully examined. The elbows must be well let down to give length 
to the true arm, and should be quite straight, that is, neither turned in or out. 
The stifles should be wide apart and set well forward to give length to the upper 
thigh. Many otherwise well-made deerhounds are very straight in their stifles. 

8. The high symmetry (value 10) of this dog is essential to his position as a 
companionable dog, and it is therefore estimated accordingly. Quality is also to 
be regarded as of great importance. 

9. Legs and quarters (value 7^). Great bone and muscle must go to the 
formation of these parts, and the bones must be well put together at the knees and 
hocks, which should be long and well developed. The quarters are deep but seldom 
wide, and there is often a considerable slope to the tail. Some of the most suc- 
cessful dogs lately exhibited, and notably Mr. Musters' s Torunn and Mr. Beasley's 
Countess, have been nearly straight backed, but this shape is not approved of by 
deerstalkers. 

10. The feet (value 7^) should be well arched in the toes and catlike a wide 
spreading foot is often met with, but should be specially condemned. 

11. Colour and coat (value 10). The colours most in request are dark blue, 



114 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

fawn, grizzle, and brindled, the latter with a more or less tint of blue. The 
fawn should have the tips of the ears dark, but some otherwise good fawns 
are pale throughout. The grizzle generally has a decided tint of blue in it. 
White is to be avoided either on breast or toes, but it should not disqualify a dog. 
The coat (value 5) is coarser on the back than elsewhere, and by many good 
judges it is thought that even on the back it should be intermediate between 
silk and wool, and not the coarse hair often met with ; and there is no doubt that 
both kinds of coat are found in some of the best strains. The whole body is clothed 
with a rough coat sometimes amounting to shagginess, that of the muzzle is longer 
in proportion than elsewhere, but the moustache should not be wiry, and should 
stand out in irregular tufts. There should be no approach to feather on the legs 
as in the setter, but their inside should be hairy. 

12. The tail (value 5) should be long and gently curved, without any twist. 
It should be thinly clothed with hair only. 

The most successful exhibitor at our shows for the last ten years is Mr. 
Chaworth Musters, of Kirk Langton, with his two Torunns, father and son. The 
old dog was of the Monzie strain, and was the sire of several prize winners, including 
Brenda, Hylda, Meg, Mr. Parkes's Be vis, Hilda and Teeldar, the younger Torunn, 
and Mr. Fitt's Bruce, all which (except the first two) were from sister to Morni, 
his chief competitor on the show bench. Next to him comes Mr. J. N". Beasley, 
of Brampton House, Northampton, with Alder and Countess, both with unknown 
pedigrees; and third, very nearly approaching them indeed, is Mr. Hickman, of 
Birmingham, whose Morni alone has taken eight first or champion prizes, whereas 
Old Torunn stopped short at five. Countess was undoubtedly, in my opinion, the 
most beautiful deerhound I ever saw, and quite unapproached by either dog or 
bitch ; Mr. Allen's fawn bitch Hylda (the dam of Morni), who took the second 
prize to her at Birmingham in 1867, being also a splendid specimen of the breed. 
The latter was by a dog in Her Majesty's kennels. Bran, whose portrait is 
retained as showing well all the points of the deerhound, was by Mr. Stewart 
Hodgson's Oscar, son of a dog belonging to Colonel Lennard, of Wickham-cross, 
and of the breed of Mr. M'Kenzie, of Applecross, Ross- shire. His dam was Mr. 
Cole's (Her Majesty's keeper) Hylda, by his Old Kieldar out of Tank ; Old Kieldar 
by Hector, a dog presented to Her Majesty by Mr. Campbell, of Monzie. 

The measurement of Bran was as follows : From nose to setting on of tail, 
47 inches; tail, 22 inches; height, 32 inches; length of head, 12 inches; circum- 
ference of head, 17^ inches; round arm at elbow, 9| inches; girth at chest, 33| 
inches ; girth at loin, 24 inches ; round thigh, 17^ inches ; round lower thigh 
hock, 7 inches ; knee, 7 inches. 



ftfHRsL. 

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' '. ! ': 








GBEYHOUNDS. MB. W. LONG'S "DAVID" AND MB' C. EANDELL'S " EIOT." 




BOOK II. 
HOUNDS AND THEIR ALLIES. 



CHAPTER I. 
THE GREYHOUND. 



S ITS NAME IMPLIES, this variety of the dog must be classed with 
the hounds, but it differs from all the others of this division in being 
used for the pursuit of hares by the eye alone. Its congener, the 
deerhound fills up the gap between the two being encouraged to take 
up the scent of its game when it loses view. But it must not be 
supposed that our modern greyhound is entirely without the power of scent, 
as there are numberless proofs to the contrary in the shape of pure-bred dogs 
of this kind which are used as lurchers. A good dog of this sort will run from 
view to scent and back again as often as is required by the nature of the ground, 
and will account for every hare he is allowed to hunt undisturbed. Indeed, the 
chief difficulty with the trainer of greyhounds is to keep his charge from using 
their noses, which many strains are very apt to do, to the great disgust of the 
public courser ; though the tendency of this development of the olfactory organ 
is so much in favour of " currant jelly " that the private courser does not always 
object to it. On the whole, however, the greyhound may be defined as the only 
British dog hunting its game by the eye alone. 

As the points of this dog have been fully described in " The Greyhound," and 
as it is desirable to keep them before the public without any alteration, I shall 
insert them in the ipsissima, verba which are introduced in that book. 

" Experience has convinced all coursers that a dog with plenty of length from 
his hip to his hock is likely to be speedy, because there is a greater than usual 
length of muscle to act upon the hock, and also a longer stride. The same 
unerring criterion has also led us to believe that a good back will give increase 
of power; in fact, that, cceteris paribus, size is power. But this law must not be 
taken without exceptions, since there must of necessity be a due proportion of 
parts, or else the successive actions necessary for speed will not take place in due 
order and with the proper regularity of stroke, and also because, by a well-known 
mechanical law, what is gained in power is lost in speed or time. This framework, 
then, of bones and muscles, when obtained of good form and proportions, is so 



116 



much gained towards our object; but still, without a good brain and nervous 
system to stimulate it to action, it is utterly useless ; and without a good heart and 
lungs to carry on the circulation during its active employment, it will still fail us in 
our need. Again, even if all these organs are sound and formed of good proportions 
by nature, if mismanagement or other causes interrupt their proper nutrition by 
digestion and assimilation, the framework speedily falls away, and our hopes are 
irrecoverably wrecked." 

The following are the points in the greyhound : 



Value. 

Head 10 

Neck 10 

Chest and fore quarters 20 

40 



Value. 
Loin and back ribs ... 15 

Hind quarters 20 

Feet 15 

50 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Tail 5 

Colour and coat... 5 



10 



1. The head (value 10). " I have already said that in my opinion, the head 
should be large between the ears, and in a dog from 25in. to 26in. high, should 
measure at least 14f in. in circumference midway between the eyes and ears. This 
point is one which is not usually insisted on, many coursers preferring the narrow 
and elegant head, which will easily allow the neck- strap to slip over it. My own 
conviction is so strong that I do not hesitate to advise the selection of the head with 
a wider neck to it, and as narrow and low as it can be obtained between the eyes. 
Very little intelligence is required in the greyhound ; and if it were possible to obtain 
the full development of the appetite for his game (the seat of which is no doubt in 
the back of the brain) without any corresponding increase of intellectual faculties, 
it would be desirable to do so. But, unfortunately, this is not attainable without 
some slight drawback ; for, though it may be possible to selact heads in which there 
is very great increase in volume in the back of the head, in proportion to the en- 
largement of the forehead, still the latter part is more or less developed, and in 
these animals greater care is necessary in the rearing to prevent them, from self- 
hunting, or from assisting the sheepdog of the farm in finding and killing what 
rabbits and hares are in the neighbourhood. But when that care has been taken, 
this greyhound is really valuable ; his courage is immense ; no amount of injury 
or work seems to cow him (though he is not necessarily stout, for this quality, 
I believe, resides in the whole nervous system, and not in any part of it), and even 
the whip only subdues for a time his appetite for blood. The jaw can hardly be 
too lean, but the muscle should be full, and there should be little or no development 
of the nasal sinuses. I am not fond of long-nosed greyhounds ; but I have seen 
good ones possessing that appendage in almost every variety of shape. The eye 
should be full and bright, giving the idea of high spirits and animation. As to the 
ears, there is a very great variety in the different breeds, from the large upstanding 
ones of the Heatherjock variety to the small and elegantly-falling ear of most of our 
modern greyhounds. The bitch has always a neater and more compact head than 
her brothers, and there is generally a livelier look about the eye ; but, though the 



THE GEEYHOUND. 117 



head is smaller, it is still in the same relative proportion to the whole body, which 
is more neat and elegant also. No courser should omit to examine the teeth, 
which require to be strong and long enough to hold the hare when taken." 

2. The neck (value 10) of the greyhound, in the old rhyme, was compared 
to that of a drake, and of all the comparisons therein contained this is the nearest to 
the truth. It certainly is not so long or so round as a drake's, but sometimes 
approaches very nearly to it. This form will enable the greyhound to seize his game 
while in full stride without losing his balance ; but I have known many good killers 
with short necks, almost like that of a bull ; still, as a rule, a long neck is of great 
importance, and should be well considered in selecting a cross. Too often the thick 
compact form has also the bull neck ; but in some breeds, as in the Curler and 
Vraye Foy family, which are very muscular, the neck is proportionally long. 

" The points I have been considering are not immediately connected with speed ; 
but now I have to describe the framework by which locomotion is effected. It 
must be apparent to anyone who watches the gallop, that its perfection depends 
upon the power of extending the shoulders and fore legs as far as possible, as well 
as of bringing the hind legs rapidly forward to give the propulsive stroke. Upon 
the due relation between these two parts of the action everything depends ; and if 
the one part is more perfect than the other that is to say, if the hind quarters are 
well brought into action, while the shoulders do not thrust the forelegs well forward 
the action is laboured and slow ; whilst, on the contrary, if the shoulders do their 
duty, but the hind legs are not brought well forward, or do not thrust the body 
onwards with sufficient force, the action may be elegant, but it is not powerful- and 
rapid. For these various purposes, therefore, we require good shoulders, good 
thighs, a good back, and good legs, and, lastly, for lodging the lungs and heart, 
whose actions are essential to the maintenance of speed, a well-formed and capacious 
chest." 

3. Chest and fore quarters (value 20). "With regard to the chest, there are 
two things to be considered namely, capacity for the lodgment of the lungs and 
heart, and the attainment of that form most conducive to speed and working. 
It must not be too deep, or the animal is constantly striking it against obstacles ; 
it must not be too wide, or the shoulders are unable to play smoothly upon it, as 
they must do in the action of this quarter; but it must be of sufficient capacity 
to lodge the heart and lungs. A just relation between these three counterbalancing 
essentials is therefore the best form neither too small for good wind, nor too wide 
for speed, nor too deep to keep free from, the irregularities of the ground, but that 
happy medium which we see in our best specimens, and which the portraits of most 
of our best dogs will exhibit to the eye of the courser. The shoulders must be so 
formed as to thrust the forelegs well forward, and to do this the shoulder-blade 
must be as oblique as possible. The reason for this is, that its muscles may be able 
to exert their full power upon the true arm, in bringing it into a straight line with 
the axis of the shoulder-blade. This alone is a great advantage ; but, by the greater 
angle which it forms with the arm, it also enables the greyhound to bear the shock 
of a fall upon his legs in coming down from a leap without injury, which is another 



118 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

most important feature. An oblique shoulder is likewise usually accompanied by a 
longer true arm, because the point of the shoulder must be raised higher from the 
elbow to allow of the obliquity, and in proportion to the increased length will the 
fore foot be extended forward ; thus this form gives longer levers with greater power 
of leverage, and more space for the lodgment of muscles. If then, we have this form, 
combined with good length from the elbow down to the knee, compared with that 
from the knee to the ground, and with a good development of bone and muscle in 
addition, perfection in this essential part of the frame is insured. In this last point 
(from the elbow to the knee) there is a very great difference in greyhounds ; but, by 
a careful measurement of various well-formed legs, I am inclined to think that from 
the elbow to the knee ought to be at least twice the length from the same point 
to the ground. In this measurement the dog would be standing on a level surface 
with his weight bearing upon both legs, and I think the measure should be taken in 
this way, and not from the base of the two middle nails, because in the stride the 
action is from the ball of the foot, and not from the end of the toes. In variously- 
formed feet there is a difference of nearly an inch in length of toes , and many a 
dog with short toes would measure from the ground nearly an inch less than 
another with long toes ; which latter would nevertheless measure, from his toe- 
iiails to his knee, nearly an inch more than the former. 

" Such are the general points of importance in the fore-quarter ; the minor 
ones are, good bony and well-developed shoulder points, elbows neither turned in 
nor out, muscular arms, good bony knees, not too much bent back, and large strong 
pasterns, the bones composing which are of full size." 

4. Loin and ~back ribs (value 15). " In order to unite the hind and fore 
quarters, and to assist in fixing the pelvis, from which the muscles composing the 
haunch take their fulcrum, a good back is required, and when of a good form it has 
been compared to a beam. Now the back is composed of a series of vertebrae, 
having the ribs attached to the sides of the first thirteen, but in those of the loins 
depending alone upon the hip bones and lateral processes for the lodgment and 
attachment of muscles. It must be self-evident that every additional inch in length 
of back increases the stride by that amount exactly, and therefore if prolonged 
indefinitely it would be advantageous till counter-balanced by the disadvantages 
inseparably connected with this form, in consequence of the diminished strength. 
The length of back should therefore be looked for between the neck and the last 
rib, rather than between the last rib and the hip bone, and this is a very important 
consideration too often neglected. The back ribs should be well spread and 
deep ; for, unless they are in this form, a sufficient attachment cannot be afforded 
to the muscles of the loins, which constitute the chief moving power in drawing the 
hind legs forward, and in fixing the pelvis. The loins must therefore be broad, 
strong, and deep, and the measure of their strength must be a circular one. Breadth 
alone will not do, since the lower muscles require to be well developed as well as the 
upper, but a good measurement round the loin is a good test of power in that 
quarter. It was the fashion from 1840 to 1850 to select flat and straight backs, and 
these certainly are handsomer than the high-arched backs previously so much in 



THE GEEYHOUND. 119 



vogue. Either form may be qualified to do its duty, if there is only the power of 
straightening the line in the arched back; but if permanently arched it becomes 
what is called the ' wheel back,' and the power of extension in the gallop is very 
much limited. Since the time of Bedlamite, who was very drooping in his quarters, 
and possibly partly in consequence of the attention which he drew to this point, the 
very level back is not so much in fashion, and the arched loin, coupled with the 
Bedlamite quarters, is much sought after." 

5. Hind quarters (value 20). These are of "more importance than the fore 
quarters, and are composed of three separate divisions, varying greatly in total and 
comparative length in different individuals. These three divisions are the true 
thigh between the hip and stifle joints ; the false or lower thigh, answering to the 
leg of a man, and situated between the stifle and hock ; and, lastly, the leg, between 
the hock and foot. The first two of these divisions should be nearly equal in length, 
and in most well-proportioned greyhounds are each about one-fifth longer than the 
lower arm; whilst the leg, from the hock to the ground, should bear about the 
same relation to each of the thigh bones as the fore pastern does to the arm that is 
to say, it should be about one-half, generally rather more than less. Many good 
greyhounds vary much in these proportions ; and the stifle joint is often placed far 
from midway between the hip joint and the hock generally it is a little nearer the 
hip but I have seen it much lower than the mid-point, but never in a greyhound of 
good pace and performance. With a greyhound thus formed, having both the upper 
and lower thigh bone one-fifth longer than the lower arm, with the hock also placed 
a little above the level of the knee, and the top of the shoulder-blade only the length 
of the thigh bone above the elbow, it follows either that the top of the hind quarter 
will be considerably higher than the fore, or that the hind legs will be bent at the 
hock and stifle joint considerably out of the straight line. Either of these forms is 
conducive to speed ; but the latter is the more elegant, and also appears to be the 
best calculated for preserving the equilibrium in the turn. If the hind legs are 
straight, and yet the back is level, the fore legs must be long, or else there can 
scarcely be sufficient speed. This form is, however, inferior to the bent hind legs, 
and correspondingly short anterior extremities. The type of the best formation is 
seen in the hare, in which there is a still greater disproportion ; and as the grey- 
hound has to cope with her in speed and working, he must to a certain extent be 
formed upon the same model, and so he really is when the proportions are carefully 
examined in a skinned hare. In the portraits of Mr. Eandell's Euby and Mr. 
Brown's Bedlamite (given in "The Greyhound"), the best form of stifles may be 
seen. The latter dog himself possessed remarkably developed stifles, which have 
been transmitted to many of his descendants, and on which I believe much of their 
success has depended. This peculiarity consists in the stifles being set on wide 
apart, so that they can be brought well forward in the stride without any difficulty. 
Good bony stifles and powerful hocks are essentially requisite for the attachment 
and leverage of the various muscles ; and unless these are large and powerful in the 
haunches and thighs no greyhound can be of first class powers. This point is, 
however, so well known, that it is scarcely necessary to insist upon it." 



120 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

6. The feet (value 15) of the greyhound are met with in two varying but 
useful forms, namely, the catlike and the hare foot. In the former case they are 
round and close with upstanding knuckles, and by many people they are much 
preferred. Such toes are, however, very likely to "break down;" and for use the 
hare foot, longer and natter, is by many coursers preferred. In any case a flat 
open foot is to be discarded. 

7. The tail (value 5) should be fine and nicely curved ; but this point is only 
to be looked at as a mark of good breed. 

8. The colours (value 5) preferred are black and red, or fawn with black 
muzzles. Black-tan is very rarely seen, but almost every other colour is occasionally 
met with. White greyhounds are by many disliked, being considered delicate ; but 
I do not know that this objection is founded upon reliable premises. The brindled 
colour is also supposed, without reason, to be a mark of the bulldog cross, as I am 
satisfied it existed before there is any evidence of that cross having been used. 

The relative value of these several points varies a good deal from those of dogs 
whose breeding can chiefly be arrived at by external signs e.g., the stern, colour, 
and coat in the pointer and setter. Here the pedigree is well known for many 
generations ; and therefore, although the breeding may be guessed at from the 
appearance of the individual, it is far better to depend upon the evidence afforded 
by the Coursing Calendar, or, if that is not forthcoming, to avoid having anything 
to do with breeding from the strain. 

" In measuring a dog I should take only the following points, which should 
be nearly of the proportions here given in one of average size : 

" Principal points : Height at the shoulder, 25in. ; length from shoulder point 
to apex of last rib, 15in. ; length of apex of last rib to back of buttock, 13in. to 
15in. ; length from front of thigh round buttock to front of other thigh, 21in. 

" But to be more minute, it is as well to measure also the subordinate points as 
under : Circumference of head between eyes and ears, 14|in. to 15in. ; length of 
neck, 9in. to lOin. ; circumference of chest, 28in. to 30in. in condition ; length of 
arm, 9in. ; length of knee to the ground, 4|in. ; circumference of the loin, 18in. to 
19in., in running condition ; length of upper thigh, 10|in. ; lower thigh, llin. ; 
and leg from hock to ground, 5|in. to 6in. 

" In taking these measurements the fore legs should, as nearly as possible, be 
perpendicular, and the hind ones only moderately extended backwards." 

The specimens selected to illustrate this chapter are Biot and David, which 
were perhaps the best greyhounds for all kinds of ground which ever ran, not even 
excepting the two treble winners of the Waterloo Cup, as they were not tried over 
the downs. Riot was the property of Mr. C. Randell, of Chadbury, and was not 
only the winner of seventy -four courses in public, with the loss of only ten, but she 
was also the dam of several good greyhounds. David had also the same double 
distinction, but was not quite so celebrated in the coursing field as the bitch. He 
had, however, the advantage at the stud, as might be expected from his sex, and a 
goodly list of winners are credited to him. Curiously enough, both were bred in 
the same kennel, from which they were transferred as whelps, in the case of the 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



bitch, to Chadbury, and in that of the dog to Mr. W. Long, of Amesbury, both 
distinguished in the south as public coursers, and pitted against one another in 
many a stake. 

I might point to the numerous descendants of Beacon and Scotland Yet, and 
to Cerito and Master McG-rath, as having been more successful over the plains of 
Altcar; but I believe that no strain of blood has done more over all sorts of 
ground than the combination of Bedlamite and Blackfly in Riot, and that of Motley 
and Wanton in David, and again in his son Patent. 




CHAPTER II. 
MODERN HOUNDS HUNTING BY NOSE. 



GENERAL REMARKS THE BLOODHOUND THE FOXHOUND THE HARRIER THE 

BEAGLE THE OTTERHOUND. 



NDER this general heading are included by sportsmen those varieties of 
the dog which pursue and kill their game by the nose only, and above 
ground. As a consequence, greyhounds, deerhounds, pointers, setters, 
/3 fiS- spaniels, and terriers are excluded from the list greyhounds, because 
they do not ordinarily hunt by scent ; deerhounds, because they are 
only used to retrieve their quarry when wounded by the rifle ; pointers, setters, and 
spaniels, for the reason that though they find their game by the nose they leave the 
gun to kill it; and terriers, because they work underground as well as above it. 
From the latter half of the word greyhound and deerhound, it might naturally 
be inferred that they could be considered hounds ; but in sportmen's language they 
are not so, and if a man was heard to say that he saw a lot of hounds out on a 
certain farm, when it turned out that they were greyhounds, he would at once 
be set down as ignorant of sport and its belongings. The term is therefore 
confined in the present day to the bloodhound, staghound, foxhound, harrier, 
beagle, and otterhound. Except in Devonshire and Somerset, the staghound is not 
allowed to kill his quarry, being whipped off as soon as the deer stands at bay; 
and in all other packs either a pure foxhound of full size is used, as in Her 
Majesty's, or a bloodhound, as in Mr. Nevill's and Lord Wolverton's, and hence 
these last are included under the bloodhound or foxhound classes. The Devon, 
and Somerset are, however, said to be of the pure old Southern hound strain 

R 



122 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

drafted for speed until they are now able to go such pace as fits them for the 
modern ideas of hunting, which demands a good gallop as the essential to sport. 
Never having seen them, I can only form an opinion of them on second-hand 
testimony, but it appears to me from this evidence that they only differ in colour 
from Mr. Nevill's black tans, being in fact light and corky bloodhounds, and in 
all probability derived from the same source. It is quite clear, from the series 
of portraits published in the Field, three years ago, that in France a much greater 
variety has been developed in the hound than in England, where the foxhound 
has absorbed nearly all the others into its own capacious net. Even the harrier 
is now very seldom met with pure, and the old-fashioned beagle is equally rare. 
Patience is no longer a virtue cultivated by English sportsmen, by whom the dash 
and forward cast of the foxhound are greatly preferred, to the careful puzzling 
out of a cold scent on which our forefathers set so much value. Many good 
sportsmen contend that a modern foxhound, even of the fastest strains, can make 
out a cold scent as well as a bloodhound or a beagle, and that it is the change 
in our farm management from that of former times which makes the existing 
foxhound appear to have a worse nose than his predecessors. That there has been 
such a change is indisputable in the corn districts, but in the grass lands at all 
events during a wet season no such excuse can be made, and yet it is notorious 
that after the lapse of a very few minutes there is now little chance of doing any 
good with a fox, whereas a hundred years ago no huntsman would think of giving 
up, if he was sure of the line a full hour after a fox had been viewed. All 
the hounds pure and simple have heads of average size, long and broad noses, 
and full pendulous ears. They all give tongue when on a scent, and their note 
is musical, not like that of the terrier, shrill and squeaky. With the exception of 
the otterhound and the Welsh harrier, which closely resemble one another, all our 
modern hounds have stout coats, but their sterns show a fringe of hair underneath. 
All carry their sterns " gaily," that is, with a considerable upward tendency, but 
not curled over their backs beyond a right angle. With these characters in common, 
I now proceed to distinguish each breed from the others. 

As the series of articles in the present edition of the "Dogs of the British 
Islands" is confined to the description of existing varieties, I do not include 
among them any of those which, though formerly common enough, are now extinct. 
Consequently, no notice is taken of the Talbot, or of the old Southern hound. 

THE BLOODHOUND. 

The majestic head of this dog has frequently attracted the notice of the poetical 
and pictorial artist, and, without doubt, he is deserving of it ; indeed, from this 
point of view, he probably excels the whole animal creation as far as the greyhound 
surpasses them in elegance of outline and grace of movement. It is somewhat 
remarkable that these two attributes, so different in themselves, should be possessed 
to this full extent by two members of -the canine race. The prefix "blood" has 
been given to this hound in consequence of his being used to track deer and sheep 




MR. BAY'S BLOODHOUNDS "ST. HUBERT'' AND "BARONESS.' 



THE BLOODHOUND. 123 



stealers by the scent of the blood dropped on the line ; but his fine nose was also 
employed to follow the body scent, whether of man or animals; and in this way 
he was employed in former days to pursue runaway slaves, but being rather 
unmanageable when he reached them, the Cuban mastiff, or a cross between this 
mastiff and the bloodhound, was generally preferred on account of his greater 
amenity to the discipline and control of 'his master. At present the bloodhound is 
little used in this country, two packs of staghounds comprising the whole extent 
to which his employment in hunting reaches; Lord Wolverton's is said to be 
pure, but Mr. Nevill's differs greatly in appearance from the recognised type of 
the breed. The bloodhound in the hands of our chief exhibitors is now kept for 
ornament only, or for the purpose of exhibition and prize taking; and it must 
be estimated accordingly from the artistic point of view alone. 

Until within the last twenty years, or thereabouts, the bloodhound has been 
almost entirely confined to the kennels of the English nobility ; but at about that 
distance of time Mr. Jennings, of Pickering, in Yorkshire, obtained a draft or two 
from Lord Faversham and Baron Rothschild, and in a few years, by his skill and 
care, produced his Druid and Welcome, a magnificent couple of hounds, which he 
afterwards sold, at what was then considered a high price, to Prince Napoleon for 
breeding purposes. In the course of time, and probably from the fame acquired by 
these dogs at the various shows, his example was followed by his north- country 
neighbours, Major Cowen and Mr. J. W. Pease, who monopolised the prizes of the 
show bench with successive Druids, descended from Mr. Jennings' s dog of that 
name, and aided by Draco, Dingle, Dauntless, &c., all of the same strain. Up to 
1869 the only other largely successful dogs in this class were the two Rufuses 
(Mr. Boom's and Mr. Brough's), whose pedigrees are chiefly composed of Faversham 
and Rothschild blood, either through Jennings's -Druid or other channels. In 1869, 
however, another candidate for fame appeared in Mr. Holford's Regent, a magnifi- 
cent dog, both in shape and colour, but still of the same strains, and until the 
appearance of Mr. Reynold Ray's Roswell in 1870 no fresh blood was introduced 
among the first-prize winners at our chief shows. His pedigree is not well 
ascertained, but no doubt from his stock it is a good one. This dog, who died in 
1877, maintained his position for the same period almost without dispute, and even 
in his old age it took a good dog to beat him. The head of the bitch is so 
very inferior in majesty to that of the dog, that, as this is the peculiar feature 
in the breed, it is by the male alone that it is adequately represented. 

As above remarked, the bloodhound must now be regarded chiefly as a 
companionable dog, though he is always included at our shows in the division 
comprising the " Dogs Used in Field Sports." He is in considerable demand 
amongst country gentlemen ; but, having been much in-bred for many years, there 
is a great difficulty in rearing puppies in this country, though in France and 
Germany, probably from the change of climate and soil, bloodhounds have been 
successfully bred and reared from the stock imported from England. From the keen 
nose possessed by this hound, he has no doubt been employed as a cross for the 
black and tan setter, and some mastiff breeders have resorted to him to give 



124 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



majesty to the heads of their favourites ; but in both cases I think there has been 
a loss in point of temperament ; for there can be no doubt that the bloodhound is 
not very amenable to the discipline required in these two breeds. Occasionally an 
exception is met with, in which a pure bloodhound is controllable under all 
circumstances ; but, as a rule, I have no doubt that he is a very unmanageable dog, 
and can only be employed usefully by letting him have his own way, to work out 
his own instinctive promptings and appetite. The Hon. Grantley Berkeley's 
celebrated dog Druid was beyond even his control when excited, and, with the 
long experience of dogs and well-known pluck of that gentleman, it must be 
something out of the common that would make him give way to any animal. 
Like the bulldog, the bloodhound is amiable enough when not excited ; but once 
get his " hackles up," and he is not easily turned from his object. It is sometimes 
asserted that this character only belongs to badly-bred animals ; but whenever I 
have had the opportunity of visiting a kennel of highly-bred bloodhounds, I have 
put the matter to the test by asking the master to show a whip to his dog, and, 
with the exception of Mr. Ray's dogs, which seem remarkably amiable, the result 
has always satisfied me that he dared not use it that is to say, if the dog was 
at liberty. Personally, I have had no experience of the breed except in the case 
of the bitch, two of which (both very highly bred) I have possessed at different 
times, and certainly their tempers were not to be depended on, though they would 
not turn on me, as I have more than once seen a dog hound do on his master. 
My experience and the evidence afforded by that of others lead me, therefore, to 
conclude that the temper of the bloodhound is not of such a nature as to make 
him a pleasant and safe companion ; but I am bound to state that several breeders 
who have considerable practical acquaintance with this dog have recently given an 
entirely opposite opinion in the columns of the Field, and the question must 
therefore be considered undecided. In his style of hunting he usually carries his 
head very low, and is slow in his quest, dwelling on the scent when at all doubtful 
until he has assured himself of its truth. In pace and stamina he cannot compare 
with the foxhound, who could beat him by one-half at the very least in both 
respects. His voice is full, deep in tone, and melodious; and this in itself is 
regarded by many as a claim entitling him to very high consideration. 
The points are numerically as follows : 



POINTS OF THE BLOODHOUND. 



Yalue. 

Head 15 

Ears aud eyes 10 

Flews 5 

Neck . 5 



Chest and shoulders... 10 
Back and back ribs ... 10 
Legs and feet 20 

40 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. | Value. 

Colour and coat 10 

Stern 5 

Symmetry 10 

26 



1. The head (value 15) is the peculiar feature of this breed ; and I have 
accordingly estimated it at a very high rate. In the male it is large in all its 



THE BLOODHOUND. 125 



dimensions but width, in which there is a remarkable deficiency. The upper 
surface is domed, ending in a blunt point at the occiput; but the brain case is 
not developed to the same extent as the jaws, which are very long and wide at 
the nostrils, hollow and very lean in the cheeks and notably under the eyes. The 
brows are moderately prominent, and the general expression of the whole head 
is very grand and majestic. The skin covering the forehead and cheeks is 
wrinkled in a remarkable manner, wholly unlike any other dog. These points are 
not nearly so fully developed in the bitch ; but still they are to be demanded in 
the same proportionate degree. 

2. Ears and eyes (value 10). The ears are long enough to overlap one another 
considerably when drawn together in front of the nose ; the " leather " should be 
very thin, and should hang very forward and close to the cheeks, never showing 
the slightest tendency to " prick " they should be covered with very short, soft, 
and silky hair. The eyes are generally hazel, rather small, and deeply sunk, 
showing the third eyelid or " haw," which is frequently but not always of a deep 
red colour ; this redness of the haw is, as a rule, an indication of bloodhound cross 
wherever it is met with, whether in the mastiff, Gordon setter, or St. Bernard, 
though occasionally I have met with it in breeds in which no trace of the bloodhound 
could be detected. 

3. The flews (value 5) are remarkably long and pendant, sometimes falling fully 
two inches below the angle of the mouth. 

4. The neck (value 5) is long, so as to enable this hound to drop his nose to 
the ground without altering his pace. In front of the throat there is a considerable 
dewlap. 

5. Chest and shoulders (value 10). The chest is rather wide than deep, but in 
any case there should be a good girth ; shoulders sloping and muscular. 

6. The back and back ribs (value 10) should be wide and deep, the size of the 
dog necessitating great power in this department. The hips, or " couples," should 
be specially attended to, and they should be wide, or almost ragged. 

7. Legs and feet (value 20). Many bloodhounds are very deficient in these 
important parts, owing to confinement. The legs must be straight and muscular, 
and the angles of full size; but it is not to be expected that the upright and 
powerful pasterns so dear to the M.F.H. should be found in the bloodhound. The 
feet also are often flat, but they should be, if possible, round and catlike. 

8. Colour and coat (value 10). In colour the bloodhound is either black and 
tan, or tan only, as is the case with all black and tan breeds. The absence of black 
is a great defect, but many well-bred litters contain one or two tan puppies 
without it. The black should extend to the back, the sides, top of the neck, and 
top of the head. It is seldom a pure black, but more or less mixed with the tan, 
which should be a deep rich red. There should be little or no white. The coat 
should be short and hard on the body, but silky on the ear and top of the head. 

9. The stern (value 5) is, like that of all hounds, carried gaily in a gentle curve, 
but it should not be raised beyond a right angle with the back. The lower side is 
fringed with hair about two inches long, ending in a point. 



126 



THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



10. The symmetry (value 10) of the bloodhound as regarded from an artistic 
point of view should be examined carefully, and valued in proportion to the degree 
in which it is developed. 

The engraving of the celebrated Druid, which originally illustrated this breed 
in the "Dogs of the British Islands," gives a good view of his frame and legs; 
but it is on too small a scale to convey an adequate idea of the remarkable 
head which the bloodhound possesses. I have therefore confined Mr. Baker's 
attention to this feature alone, and have selected that of Mr. Bay's St. Hubert 
as the type of the male, while his Baroness is an excellent example of the female, 
the contrast between the two being, as usual in this breed, very great. St. Hubert 
is a son of Roswell, and presents the most wonderful head I have ever seen, 
but, having deformed legs, from, a bad attack of distemper, he has never been 
exhibited. Mr. Baker's sketch is a wonderfully careful copy of this dog's head ; 
and I think bloodhound breeders generally will admit that the choice I have 
made is fully deserved. Baroness is good throughout, and has taken two prizes. 

The following are the pedigrees of this fine couple of bloodhounds that of 
Roswell is given in the Kennel Club Stud Book as by the Duke of Beaufort's 
Warrior out of sister to Field's Rufus; but I believe this pedigree is not very 
reliable, and, therefore, I have not included it in that of either : 

ST. HUBERT 



Champion Roswell (58) 


Luna 
1 


Warwick 
1 


Mona (4v/33) 



Champion Regent (50) 



Mona (4033) 



Trimbush (64) 



Stella 



Cowen's Druid (16) 



Empress Cowen s Druid (16) 



Breuda (5) 



Boom's Rufus 




Welcome. 

BAKONESS 
1 






Baron (4028) 
1 






Magdala 


Champion Champion 
Roswell (58) Peeress (46) 


Cuba 




1 

Vepo 



Champion Regent (50) 



Holford's Duchess 



's Druk 



Cowen's Druid (16) 



Rushton's Countess. 




LORD POLTIMORE'S FOXHOUND "LEXICON. 



THE FOXHOUND. 127 



THE FOXHOUND. 

No dog has for so long a time been carefully bred, reared, and trained in 
large numbers as the English foxhound. Up to the time of the passing of the 
present Game Laws, the public greyhound was confined to a very few kennels, and 
in them only were pedigrees preserved with anything like care ; but in many fox- 
hound kennels careful records have been kept of the breeding of every litter for, 
at least, 150 years; and, I believe, there is no instance in which a cross of any 
kind has been tried masters being content with improving the breed by selection 
of the best within its limits, taking care to go out of their several kennels for 
sires to prevent the close in-breeding which would otherwise inevitably lead to a 
delicacy of constitution inconsistent with the severe work demanded from the 
foxhound. When it is remembered that this hound is often kept moving for 
eleven or twelve hours without food, and after a fast from the previous noon, 
and that during the greater part of that time he is either forcing his way through 
thick covert in "drawing," or running at his best pace in pursuit of his game, 
the amount of stamina required is at once apparent. To be sure of obtaining 
this constitutional quality, it is necessary to attend carefully to pedigree ; for, 
without it, a handsome and useful hound, as far as appearance goes, might often 
be preferred on account of his exterior to another of lesser pretensions to beauty, 
who might yet from his breeding prove to be far the better animal when both 
had been entered to their game. As in the case of the racehorse, with regard 
to the Darley Arabian, most of our best hounds now trace back to the Osbaldeston 
Furrier, Sir E. Button's Hercules, or the Belvoir Comus ; but since their days 
masters of foxhounds in every hunting country have vied with each other in 
breeding, not only a single hound of that form and quality, but a whole pack 
so " suity," as to vie with them in all important points. Nose combined with 
speed and stoutness have always been considered as the essentials for the fox- 
hound ; but of late years, owing to the enormous " fields " which have attended 
our leading packs, and the forward riding displayed by them, another feature 
has been demanded, and the supply in the " grass countries " has been obtained 
in a remarkable manner. I allude to the gift peculiar to our best modern hounds, 
of getting through a crowd of horses when accidentally " slipped " by the pack. 
This faculty is developed to a very wonderful extent in all the packs hunting 
" the shires," varying, of course, slightly in each ; and it is no less remarkably 
absent in certain packs otherwise equal to the Quorn and its neighbours, or 
even superior to them. The peculiarity is well known to hunting men ; but no 
little annoyance is felt by the members of the several hunts to which I allude 
when reference is made to individuals; and having great respect for the tender 
feelings of every master of foxhounds and his followers, I shall not venture to 
make any attempt to allude more particularly to this matter. 

The appearance of the modern foxhound is greatly altered by the universal 
practice of " rounding " the ears, which has existed during the whole of the present 



128 



THE DOGS OP THE, BEITISH ISLANDS. 



century, if not longer. That the ciistom is useful in preventing " canker," either 
from foul blood or mechanical injury, is clear enough, and I can see no possible 
objection to it except from Mr. Colam's point of view. " Idstone " dislikes it on 
the score that the full ear " is a natural protection to the eye . in drawing a covert 
or thorny brake, and that it is given by Nature for that purpose ;" but I confess 
I cannot understand how this can be the case unless the drawing is performed 
in a retrograde manner, as, even when at rest, the ear does not approach the 
eye; and in drawing a thorny brake, it must be pushed back some inches 
behind the organ which, he says, it covers. The sole use of an abnormally large 
ear, as far as I can see, is to aid the internal organ of hearing, and it is only 
found in hounds which depend on co-operation for success that is to say, who 
hunt in packs. In this kind of hunting, the ear is required to ascertain what is 
given out by the tongues of the leading hounds, so as to enable " the tail " to come 
up; but whether or no "rounding" diminishes the sensitiveness of the organ of 
hearing, I am by no means prepared to say. It is, however, admitted by physio- 
logists that the external ear aids the sense of hearing, and as this large folding 
ear is confined to hounds hunting in packs, which, as above remarked, depend 
on hearing for co-operation, it is reasonable to suppose that the hound's large 
ear is given him to aid in this kind of hunting ; and, if so, it is by no means 
clear that rounding is an unmixed good, but that it has not the disadvantages 
attributed to it by " Idstone," is as clear to me as noonday. 

Another mental peculiarity of the foxhound is his superior " dash " and 
tendency to cast forward rather than backward, for the bloodhound, otter hound, 
and old-fashioned heavy harrier still have a tendency to dwell on a scent, and 
sitting on their haunches mark their enjoyment of it by throwing their tongues 
heavily and with a prolonged series of notes, during which their game is getting 
away from them. Such a deed would sentence any foxhound to the halter if 
seen by his master, and undoubtedly it is by selection, or possibly by crossing 
with the greyhound, that the change has been effected. However produced, 
there is no doubt that it exists, and that the foxhound is distinguished by it 
from all other varieties of his class. 

The points of the foxhound are as follows : 



Yalue. 

Head 15 

Neck 5 

Shoulders 10 

Chest and back ribs 10 

io 



POINTS OF THE FOXHOUND. 

Yalue. 

Back and loin 10 

Hind quarters 10 

Elbows 5 

Legs and feet 20 

45 
Grand Total 100. 



Colour and coat. 

Stern 

Symmetry 



Value. 
.. 5 
.. 5 
5 



15 



1. The head (value 15) should be of full size, but by no means heavy. Brow 
pronounced but not high or sharp. There must be good length and breadth, 




THE NORTH WARWICKSHIRE FOXHOUND "Eosy. 



THE FOXHOUND. 129 



sufficient to give in the dog hound a girth in front of the ears of fully 16in. The 
nose should be long (4|in.) and wide with open nostrils. Ears set on low and lying 
close to the cheek. 

2. The neck (value 5) must be long and clean, without the slightest throatiness. 
It should taper nicely from the shoulders to the head, and the upper outline should 
be slightly convex. 

3. The shoulders (value 10) should be long and well clothed with muscle 
without being heavy, especially at the points. They must be well sloped, and the 
true arm between the front and the elbow must be long and muscular, but free from 
fat or lumber. 

4. Chest and back ribs (value 10). The chest should girth over 30in. in a 
24in. hound, and the back ribs must be very deep. 

5. The back and loin (value 10) must both be very muscular, running into 
each other without any contraction or " nipping " between them. The couples 
must be wide even to raggedness, and there should be the very slightest arch 
in the loin, so as to be scarcely perceptible. 

6. The hind quarters (value 10) or propellers are required to be very strong, 
and as endurance is of even more consequence than speed, straight stifles are 
preferred to those much bent, as in the greyhound. 

7. Elbows (value 5) set quite straight, and neither turned in nor out, are a 
sine qua non. They must be well let down by means of the long true arm above 
mentioned. 

8. Legs and feet (value 20). Every master of foxhounds insists on legs as 
straight as a post, and as strong ; size of bone at the ankle being specially 
regarded as all important. The desire for straightness is, I think, carried to 
excess, as the very straight leg soon knuckles over, and this defect may almost 
always be seen more or less in old stallion hounds. The bone cannot, in my 
opinion, be too large, but I prefer a slight angle at the knee to a perfectly 
straight line. With the exception, however, of Mr. Anstruther Thompson I never 
yet met with a master of foxhounds who would hear of such an heretical opinion 
without scorn. The feet in all cases should be round and cat like, with well 
developed knuckles, and strong horn, which last is of the utmost importance. 

9. The colour and coat (value 5) are not regarded as very important, so 
long as the former is a " hound colour," and the latter is short, dense, hard, 
and glossy. Hound colours are black tan and white black and white, and the 
various " pies " compounded of white and the colour of the hare and badger, or 
yellow, or tan. In some old strains the blue mottle of the southern hound is 
still preserved, but it is generally voted " slow." 

10. The stern (value 5) is gently arched, carried gaily over the back, and 
slightly fringed with hair below. The end should taper to a point. 

11. The symmetry (value 5) of the foxhound is considerable, and what is called 
" quality " is highly regarded by all good judges. 

Lord Poltimore's Lexicon, and the North Warwickshire Rosy may still serve 
to illustrate the foxhound as well as any modern specimen. 

8 



130 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



THE HARRIER. 

In the present day it is very difficult to meet with a harrier possessed of 
blood entirely unmixed with that of the foxhound, though many a master will 
no doubt put in a claim to that distinction. The most beautiful pack I have ever 
seen is that of Sir Vincent Corbett, which is said to be pure, and no doubt has 
as good a claim to be so distinguished as any other, and if their breeding had 
been confined within the limits of their own kennels during the lifetime of their 
master, I should accept his statement to that effect as proving their purity, but 
he has had recourse as all masters must to other strains for occasional crosses, 
and in that way the evidence is rendered somewhat doubtful. In any case the 
modern harrier is very unlike his predecessor of forty or fifty years ago, and is 
assimilated in appearance and style of hunting to the foxhound, from which he 
differs very slightly, even in the most pure specimens, in either particular. Breeders 
still take special care to have a combination of intelligence and high scenting power 
sufficient to meet the wiles of the hare, which are much more varied than those 
of the fox, and hence in most good harriers the head will be found wider and 
altogether heavier than that of the foxhound, and the nose longer and broader. 
The ears also are set on rather more backward, and are not usually rounded, 
but with these exceptions there are no distinguishing marks between these two 
hounds, and even they are often exceedingly small. In the field there is often a 
marked and peculiar style differing from that of the foxhound, but I have seen 
it displayed almost equally in packs admitted to be of pure foxhound blood, and 
believe it to depend more on the huntsman than on the hound. If hounds are 
not interfered with as long as they are industrious, they work very differently from 
the style they show when constantly capped and lifted. The modern harrier which 
should sit down on his haunches and " lift up his voice " on a scent would not suit 
even the most bigoted " thistle whipper," and yet our ancestors rather liked it than 
otherwise so long as the sitting was not too prolonged and that it was only 
exhibited when first owning the scent especially that left in a form from which 
" puss " had just gone. The tongues of these old-fashioned harriers were full and 
melodious, and I confess, until I once more hear the " merry peal " which I can so 
well remember in my youthful days, I shall not believe in pure harrier blood. 

The points of the modern harrier with the above slight difference are the same 
as those of the foxhound, and I need not, therefore, repeat them. In height he 
varies from 16in. to 20in. 

Mr. Evans' Clamorous, which illustrated the article on the harrier in the first 
edition of this book, will serve the purpose now as well as any that I know. 

The BOUGH WELSH harrier still exists in a state of comparative purity, and 
resembles in appearance the otter hound, which will presently be described, when 
unmixed with other strains. When so crossed, every intermediate condition occurs, 
some being only slightly rough, and others approaching the otter hound in that 
respect as well as all others. 




MB. EVANS'S HARRIER "CLAMOROUS. 




WELLS. DEL 



ME, CRANE'S BEAGLES "GIANT" AND " KINGLET." 



THE BEAGLE. 131 



THE BEAGLE. 

This little hound is probably as old a breed as the northern hound, being, in 
fact, a miniature specimen of it. It was formerly very much in demand for hunting 
the hare on foot ; but went out of fashion for some years, to be again revived as a 
form of modern athletics. The intention has always been to obtain a hound of 
delicate nose, united with so slow a pace as to allow of "the field" keeping up 
without the aid of horses. With the exception of the head and ears, the modern 
beagle has all the points of the foxhound. The former is much larger proper- 
tionally, both in width and height, while the latter are almost like those of the 
bloodhound in size and hanging. Foot beagles should not much exceed nine inches 
in height; but for "Young England" they are now often used up to eleven and 
even twelve inches, going a pace which requires a good runner, in. prime condition, 
to keep up with them. A great many packs of " foot beagles " are now kept 
throughout the country, some for hunting rabbits, others for hare, and others 
again for "drag." Usually these little packs are of a "scratch" character, and 
would not show to advantage by the side of Mr. Crane's beauties, two of which 
served to illustrate the article in the last edition, and cannot well be improved 
on, and which I have therefore retained. The following description of the pack 
is reproduced from the last edition : 

" A diminutive pack of rabbit-beagles, the property of Mr. Crane, of South- 
over House, near Bere Regis, Dorset, contains the best 'patterns' we have ever 
known. We have seen them on a cold bad scenting day work up a rabbit and run 
him in the most extraordinary manner, and although the nature of the ground 
compelled the pack to run almost in Indian file, and thus to carry a very narrow 
line of scent, if they threw it up it was but for a moment. Mr. Crane's standard 
is 9in., and every little hound is absolutely perfect. We saw but one hound at all 
differing from his companions, a little black-tanned one. This one on the flags we 
should have drafted, but when we saw him in his work we quite forgave him for 
being of a conspicuous colour. Giant was perhaps the very best of the pack, a 
black-white-and-tanned dog hound, always at work and never wrong. He has 
a capital tongue, and plenty of it. A bitch, Lily, has the most beautiful points 
we have ever seen, and is nearly all white, as her name implies. Damper, Dutch- 
man, Tyrant, are also all of them beautiful models. We give the measurement 
of Damper : Height, 9in. ; round the chest, 16in. ; across the ears, 12in. ; extreme 
length, 2ft. 4in. ; eye to nose, 2|in. 

" The beagle was in great force in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and ' singing 
beagles ' were bred as small as possible. A pack of the Virgin Queen's (it is said) 
could be carried in a man's glove. 

" Mr. Crane's standard is kept up with great difficulty. He has reduced the 
beagle to a minimum. Many of his mothers do. not rear their offspring, and 
distemper carries them off in troops. Single specimens may occasionally be 
found excessively dwarfed and proportionately deformed. These hounds would 



132 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

perhaps be wanting in nose or intelligence if they could be produced ia 
sufficient force to form a pack ; but Mr. Crane's are all models of symmetry 
and power, and are as accomplished and as steady as Lord Portsmouth's 
hounds. 

" The Southover beagles are as small as it is possible to breed them (in 
sufficient numbers to form a pack) without losing symmetry, nose, intelligence, 
and strength; and we hold those to be the best which possess all the requisites 
for rabbit hunting in the smallest compass. Our experience warrants us in 
asserting that it would not be prudent to attempt forming a pack of less height 
than 9in. 

" We sincerely wish every pack of beagles was multiplied by twenty ; and 
we express this wish, not only because we believe hunting on foot a most healthy 
and inspiring exercise, but because we "are bitter foes to the rabbit, which 
has been the bane for years of the English yeoman. A pack like Mr. Crane's, 
steady from hare and hunted on heath and common with ability and discretion, 
could in no way injure fox or hare hounds, and would provide recreation for 
many an embryo foxhunter. We believe we are correct in stating that ten or 
more of the most celebrated masters of the day learnt their first lessons with the 
merry beagles. 

" The dwarf beagle should be formed on the model of the foxhound. He 
should be a ' Pocket Lexicon.' As in the case of the harrier, it is not customary 
to round his ears. He should be of a hound colour, and smooth-coated. The 
rough beagle is similar to the smooth in all but coat, which, like the Welsh harrier's, 
resembles that of the otterhound." 

Since the above was written, Mr. J. Grimwood, of Stanton House, near Swindon, 
and Sir Thomas Davin Lloyd, of Bromwyd, Carmarthenshire, have been the chief 
prize winners in the beagle classes of our various shows, Mr. Crane, having, however, 
been 1st and 2nd in 1865, with Pilgrim, Crafty, Gossip, and Famous ; Mr. D. 
Everett, and Mr. E. Loftus Bevan, have also shown some very neat little hounds of 
this breed. 

The points of the beagle are similar to those given for the foxhound, except 
as to head and ears mentioned above, and I must refer to the article on that 
animal for their numerical value. 

THE OTTEE HOUND. 

This hound, by an oversight, was entirely overlooked in the first edition of the 
" Dogs of the British Islands," although there are few breeds of a more distinct 
character and type. Packs of these hounds possess a great advantage in being able 
to show sport during the summer, and by some it is alleged that otter hunting and 
angling may be made to dovetail with each other on alternate days of the week ; 
but this is scarcely practicable, inasmuch as the artificial preservation of the otter, 
in any considerable numbers, is antagonistic to the preservation of the fish on 
which he wastefully feeds. The angler consequently shows him no mercy, and 




MR. CARRICK'S OTTER HOTTND " STANLEY. 



THE OTTER HOUND. 133 



on " good rivers " the appearance of an otter is the signal for a foray against 
him with gun, trap, and spear. In Cumberland, Devonshire, and some parts of 
Wales there are, however, many large brooks and embryo rivers, where the fish 
run too small for good sport with the rod, and yet afford the otter sufficient food. 
Here hunting him is prosecuted with great zest, and no one can possibly object to 
such an amount of preservation as will not supply the adjacent districts with more 
than a casual visitor, whose appearance is soon signalled to the master of the 
nearest pack, and a short shrift is given him when once his " spraint " is discovered 
there. It is alleged by many good sportsmen that the otter does little or no damage 
to a fishery, but the above is the general impression among the angling fraternity. 

The otter hound is no doubt a lineal descendant of the southern hound, 
with his coat roughened by a long process of selection and careful breeding. He 
evidently has not been crossed with any breed other than hound, or he would have 
lost some one or more of the characteristics peculiar to the hunting dog, either in 
shape of body, length of ear, style of hunting, or tongue. In all these, qualities 
he is a southern hound to the letter, with the addition of a rough coat, the history 
of which is not known. In many cases a pure foxhound has been used with 
success against the otter, and, as far as the mere hunting goes, he fulfils the task 
set him admirably ; but it has usually been found that in a very short time the wet 
tells on him, and he either becomes rheumatic or is attacked by disease of the chest 
in some shape. It is not the long hair of the true otter hound which saves him 
from these penalties, but the thick woolly under-coat, with which he is furnished for 
the same purpose as in the colley and Dandy Dinmont terrier. He also strongly 
resembles the southern hound in his style of hunting, which is low and slow, but 
very sure, his nose being of the tenderest kind, and often owning an air bubble 
or " vent " at the distance of some yards. Like him, he is apt to sit down o/n 
his haunches and throw his tongue with delight at first touching on a scent, as 
is shown in the engraving in a most characteristic manner. Subscription packs of 
otter hounds are kept at Carlisle under the mastership of Mr. Carrick; in North- 
umberland, near Morpeth, under Mr. A. Fenwick; and at Cockermouth, hunted 
by a committee. In South Wales, Col. Pryse and Mr. Moore have each a pack; 
while in England the Hon. Geoffrey Hill hunts the otter from his kennels at 
Hawkeston, Salop, and Mr. Collier's from Culmstock, near Wellington. In the 
west, Mr. Cheriton and Mr. Mildmay also pursue the sport. 

The points of the otter hound are like those of the bloodhound, except 
as to the coat, which should be composed of hard and long hair, somewhat 
rough in its lying, and mixed with a short, woolly under-coat, which serves 
to keep the body warm even when wetted by long immersion. The colour 
differs also in not being confined to black-and-tan or tan the former, however, 
being often met with, as in the case of Mr. Carrier's Stanley, whose portrait 
accompanies this article. This dog is of a grizzled black-and-tan colour, and of a 
very fine shape both in head and body. He is by Mr. Carrick's Bingwood out 
of Harrison's Glory, and took several first prizes at Glasgow, Birmingham, and 
Nottingham in 1872-3. 



134 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 




CHAPTEE III. 

THE FOX TERRIER (SMOOTH AND ROUGH) AND THE 
DACHSHUND. 

THE SMOOTH FOX TERRIER. 

EOM the very commencement of foxhunting in this country, small terriers 
were kept at each of the various kennels, for the purpose of bolting the 
fox from his earth when run to ground by the hounds. Originally these 
dogs were for the most part black and tan in colour; but from this 
cause they were so frequently mistaken for a fox when drawing a covert, 
that they were bred white or pied. 

The dogs used for bolting foxes by some of the most famous masters of hounds 
and their families for generations were similar to the old English terrier, and were 
many of them white, slightly wire-haired, and with no more of the bulldog in them 
than in the Italian greyhound, that cross making them so savage as to kill rather 
than bolt the fox ; they had plenty of pluck ; their noses were sharp, and they were 
small enough to go to ground wherever a fox or badger could go indeed, they 
would " lay on " either, if they could not bolt them, till they were dug out. A 
terrier was a thoroughbred animal per se, but it could only be called a fox terrier 
when fit to be used for the bolting of a fox. 

About forty years ago, Sir Watkin Wynn and Mr. Foljambe were famous for 
their breeds of fox terriers. These strains closely resembled each other, and were 
short-headed, full in the eye, with fair stop, and what would be called well chiselled 
out under the eye. They were remarkably strong indeed, rather inclined to be 
cobby and bull-necked, with very short straight legs. They were particularly wide 
sprung in their ribs and broad in the brisket, short-backed, light in the hind 
quarters, and generally with the stern carried too high. Their colour was invariably 
white, with red ears or patch, and often a spot in the centre between the ears. 
The coat was very thick, and somewhat coarse. Mr. Ffrance, of Cheshire, had 
another breed, which were very different, being rather leggy, with fine light oval 
bone ; and they had a sharp foxy face, showing more of the Italian greyhound style, 
with small eye and fine coat. 

After a time the Badworth blood was crossed with the Wynnstay, the result 
being a coarser dog altogether, with black ears or spot on the head. In those days 
a black and tan headed fox terrier was never seen. The late Duke of Rutland is 
said to have used some of his black and tan terriers to cross with the Belvoir 
terriers, and so produced the coloured head so much coveted in the present day ; but 
the deep red is the original Foljambe and Wynnstay colour. Jack Morgan's dogs 



THE SMOOTH FOX TERRIER. 135 

had all red ears, till Grove Nettle appeared. The celebrated Old Jock was by a 
black and tan dog, and he and Old Trap brought out the coloured heads, being very 
much used to every kind of fox terrier bitch. 

During the last ten years the fox terrier has risen into great celebrity; but 
among the multitude of his admirers and patrons there is a strange difference about 
his necessary qualifications, as evidenced by the various distinct types which meet 
with favour at dog shows. It is important, therefore, to recall attention to the 
purposes for which the dog is intended, and consider how far they can be carried 
out by the possession or otherwise of certain points in his make ; and in discussing 
the subject I shall confine myself to this feature, and exclude his fighting and killing 
merits, which among many people seem to be the chief objects of their desire in 
breeding this dog, though they are a positive disqualification for his intended use 
in bolting the fox. When brought up and employed solely for fighting and cat 
slaughter he ceases to be a fox terrier. 

With regard to size, I cannot describe what it should be better than in the 
language of a letter which has recently appeared from that old and thoroughly 
experienced master of foxhounds, the Hon. Grantley Berkeley, who says : " What is 
wanted with foxhounds is a terrier so small as to be well able to go to ground, with 
pluck enough to keep to or bark at a fox, to bolt the fox, or prevent his earthing 
further." For real work that is, going to ground to fox or badger no terrier 
should be higher than 13in. to 14in. at the shoulder, or heavier than 161b. With 
the Trelawny hunt small terriers of lOlb and 121b. are used, and in the S.D.H. 
country the late master had them of 121b. and 141b. Mr. A. F. Boss, the present 
master of the latter hunt, is using a brace by Mr. Murchison's old dog Lancer which 
are about 141b. each, with plenty of bone and quality, and he is very fond of them, 
as they work wonderfully well. The chest, also, should not be too wide, as it is 
impossible for such dogs to go to ground in most rabbit earths, or up drains 
frequented by foxes, so as to reach the end. The Wynnstay and Grove terriers of 
forty years ago did not exceed 151b. to 161b. at the outside, though the Yorkshire 
dogs were larger ; but the former were very plucky, and in those days cherry noses 
and red eyes were not uncommon. 

The question of length of leg depends much upon the configuration of the 
dog, and it is difficult to lay down any defined " hard and fast " line as to their form 
per se. For instance, a dog with a deep brisket, sloping shoulders, and elbows well 
let down, can race away with short forelegs ; for the pace comes from the loins and 
hind legs as the propelling power. Again, a long-backed dog, always remembering 
he is well loined, so as to give breadth enough, does not require such length of leg 
as a short-backed dog. The famous bitch Grove Nettle was very long in her back. 
A dog to race must have freedom of action, and this he gets from length ; but the 
fox terrier must also have good back ribs, as well as muscular development in 
shoulders and loins, to do his work well underground. The legs should be good 
round-boned ones, and strong at the pasterns (the part immediately above the toes), 
to enable them to travel easily over wet or rough ground. 

It is not absolutely necessary that the fox terrier should be a fast galloper, and, 



136 



THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



indeed, it can scarcely be expected that he can keep up with foxhounds, particularly 
in a long run ; and if he could, it would scarcely be fair to send him half exhausted 
to hard work underground. In some countries they do run with the pack, but in 
most cases they are either carried on horseback, or are taken in panniers, a boy 
riding on a pony with them ; while sometimes a man is sent out with them, to follow 
on foot, otherwise, in many instances, their presence when required could not be 
depended on. A long-legged terrier cannot travel over all descriptions of ground 
like a short-legged one, nor can he last out a long day so well. The smooth-coated 
dog is generally preferred to the wire-coated fox terrier ; but he should be stout in 
constitution, so as to withstand wet, cold, or fatigue ; and he must have courage 
enough to face punishment, without showing unnecessary irritation. 

The greatest care should be taken in first entering terriers, as with hounds. If 
a deerhound is not properly entered, he will seize the haunch of a stag, and there 
hold him. A well-known keen sportsman tells me that he used to wound most 
severely a deer, get up to him, and sit on the body if he could, and then enter the 
hound at the neck only. The dog* would always afterwards seize that part. So 
with fox terriers, if entered on large rats, or on a very savage dog fox, or on a vixen 
with cubs, they never do well. The teaching should be gradual till the dog has 
confidence in his own abilities. 

With the exception of some foxhounds and greyhounds, there is not a dog in 
England with an authentic pedigree that will go back to the year 1800 ; but with 
regard to fox terriers their pedigrees are specially obscure, and it is singular that 
most of those which became noted at the commencement of the popularity of the 
breed had no known reliable pedigrees, though they had specific parentage given 
to them. The establishment of the " Kennel Club Stud Book " has to some extent 
remedied this defect, but there are still grave doubts as to the lines in some of 
the best dogs. 

The following are the points of the fox terrier, chiefly as settled by the club 
specially formed for his improvement. I have not altered the numerical value, but 
in the description of one or two points I have changed the wording without greatly 
interfering with the sense. 



POINTS OF THE Fox TEEEIEB. 



Yalue. 

Head and ears 15 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest 15 

Back and loin 10 

45 



Yalue. 

Hind quarters 5 

Stern 5 

Legs 10 

Feet -. 10 

30 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Coat 5 

Colour 5 

Size and symmetry ... 15 

25 



1. Head and ears (value 15) : 

a. The skull should be flat and moderately narrow ; broader between the ears 
and gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much " stop " should be 



THE SMOOTH FOX TEEEIEE. 137 

apparent ; but there should be more dip in the profile, between the forehead and top 
jaw, than is seen in the case of a greyhound. 

b. The ears should be V-shaped, and rather small ; of moderate thickness, and 
dropping forward closely to the cheek, not hanging by the side of the head, like a 
foxhound's. 

c. The jaw should be strong and muscular, but not too full in the cheek; 
should be of fair punishing length, but not so as in any way to resemble the grey- 
hound or modern English terrier. There should not be much falling away below 
the eyes ; this part of the head should, however, be moderately chiselled out, so as 
not to go down in a straight slope like a wedge. 

d. The nose, towards which the muzzle must slightly taper, should be black. 

e. The eyes should be dark rimmed, small, and rather deep set ; full of fire 
and life. 

/. The teeth should be level and strong. 

2. The neck (value 5) should be clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair 
length, and gradually widening to the shoulders. * 

3. Shoulders and chest (value 15). The shoulders should be fine at the points, 
long, and sloping. The chest deep and not too broad. 

4. Back and loin (value 10). The back should be straight and strong, with no 
appearance of slackness behind the shoulders ; the loin broad and powerful (and 
particularly so if the back is long), and very slightly arched. The dog should be 
well ribbed up with deep back ribs, and should not be flat-sided. 

5. The hind quarters (value 5) should be strong and muscular, quite free from 
droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful; hocks near the ground, the dog 
standing well up on them, like a foxhound, without much bend in the stifles. 

6. The stern (value 5) should be set on rather high, and carried gaily; but 
not over the back, or curled. It should be of good strength, anything approaching 
a pipe-stopper tail being especially objectionable. 

7. The legs (value 10), viewed in any direction, must be straight, showing little 
or no diminution in the size of the ankles when viewed in front. They should be of 
strong bone throughout, the elbows working freely just clear of the sides. Both 
fore and hind legs should be carried straight forward in travelling, the stifles not 
turning outwards. 

8. The feet (value 10) should be round, compact, and not too large, the toes 
moderately arched, and turned neither in nor out. There should be no dew claws 
behind. 

9. The coat (value 5) should be smooth, but hard, dense, and abundant. 

10. In colour (value 5) white should predominate. Brindle or liver markings 
are objectionable. Otherwise this point is of little or no importance. 

11. Symmetry, size, and character (value 15). The dog must present a generally 
gay, lively, and active appearance. Bone and strength in a small compass are 
essentials ; but this must not be taken to mean that a fox terrier should be cloggy 
or in any way coarse. Speed to some extent, and endurance, must be looked to as 
well as power, and the symmetry of the foxhound taken as a model. The terrier 

T 



138 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

like the hound, must on no account be leggy ; neither must he be too short on the 
leg. He should stand like a cleverly-made hunter covering a lot of ground, 
yet with a broad and powerful loin, as before stated. He will thus attain the 
highest degree of propelling power, together with the greatest length of stride that 
is compatible with the length of the body. Weight, within certain limits is not a 
certain criterion of a terrier's fitness for his work. General shape, size, and 
contour are the main points; and if a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his 
fox up a drain, it matters little what his weight is to a pound or so, though, 
roughly speaking, it may be said he should not scale over 201b. in show condition. 
In my opinion the weight should be little, if any, over 16Z&. 

DISQUALIFYING POINTS. 

1. Nose, white, cherry, or spotted to a considerable extent with either of 
these colours. 

2. Ears, prick, tulip, or rose. 

3. Mouth, much undershot. 

There is no breed of dog that has risen so high and so quickly in popular favour 
and estimation as the fox terrier has done since 1866, but a large proportion of those 
bred at the present day are useless for the practical purpose of bolting a fox or 
badger, from their size alone. 

There was not even a class for this breed at the first two or three Birmingham 
shows ; but in 1862 Mr. Wootton entered there the first fox terriers as such in a 
class for " white and other smooth-haired English terriers (except black and tan)," 
when Jock won. In 1863 a distinct class for fox terriers was given at Birmingham, 
when Mr. Wootton entered a considerable number, and again won with Jock. In 
1864 there were more than forty exhibited at Nottingham; and, if I mistake 
not, it was here that the celebrated Tartar made his debut. At the Dublin 
Show, in the same year, there was a fair fox terrier class, and Mr. Stevenson's 
Patch took the first prize back to Chester a feat she repeated at Birmingham 
soon after. 

In 1867 and 1868 there were respectively 62 fox terriers exhibited at Birmingham, 
being on each occasion about one-twelfth and one-thirteenth of the total number of 
dogs at the show. In 1869 there were 69 at Islington, or one-fifteenth of all the 
dogs exhibited; while at Birmingham that year the number increased to 115, or 
nearly one-seventh the whole exhibition. 

At the Crystal Palace in 1870 the number was 104, or nearly one-ninth of the 
total number of dogs; and in the same year at Birmingham it was 116, or one- 
eighth the whole show. 

In 1876 the number at the Crystal Palace was 141, or one-eighth of all the show ; 
at Brighton 166, or one-fifth ; and at Birmingham 120, or one-ninth. 

Two shows were held in 1876-7 specially for fox terriers (smooth and wire- 
haired), at Nottingham and Lillie Bridge. At the former (of the smooth alone) 
the number exhibited was 157, and at the latter 190. I believe the largest number 



THE SMOOTH FOX TEEKEEK. 139 

at any one show was at Nottingham, in 1873, when it was above 270, or about 
one-third of all the show. 

As regards Scotland, at the Glasgow Show in 1871 there were only 11 fox 
terriers ; at Edinburgh the other day there were 41. 

In the past, the most famous fox terriers as prize winners have been Jock 
(known better perhaps as Old Jock), Trap (or Old Trap), Trimmer, Vandal, and 
Grove Nettle names which have become household words among the fanciers of 
this breed. 

Jock won 33 first prizes (8 of which were champion) and 4 second prizes (one 
of which was champion), beginning at Birmingham in 1862, and ending at the 
Crystal Palace in 1870. He was long 'considered the beau ideal of a terrier, and by 
many people is still referred to as a model. From Mr. Wootton he passed 
into the hands of Captain Kindersley, and thence into those of Mr. Cropper, 
who sold him to Mr. Murchison, in whose possession he died of old age in 
November, 1872. 

Old Trap was not exhibited often, but he won a few prizes, and I believe he 
was about the best fox-terrier dog as to size and make that has yet been seen. 
According to my view, he was a better dog than Jock, and any of his blood is much 
sought after. He also became the property of Mr. Murchison, in whose hands he 
died a few years ago, having lived his full time. 

Trimmer had a splendid career of prize winning from 1868 to 1871, having 
in that time won no less than forty first prizes, nearly the whole of them 
consecutively. On two occasions he won the champion prize at the Crystal 
Palace, and also the special prize for the best fox terrier in the show. Had 
he possessed a little more bone and substance, this dog would have been 
as near perfection as could be. In 1874 Mr. Murchison sold Trimmer 
to Sir E. Kerrison, some time after which the dog was killed through an 
accident. 

Vandal was another of Mr. Murchison's dogs, and a grand one in appearance, 
shape, size, and pluck. He won twenty-four first prizes, and he also was killed by 
an unfortunate accident on his way home from his last victory, in December, 1874, 
being then only in his prime, and a great loss to his owner. 

Grove Nettle, though not much shown, was a prize winner ; but irrespective of 
this, she was considered by far the best bitch of her day. When about 7 years 
old, the late Mr. Bishop, of Nottingham, sold her at a high price to Mr. Murchison, 
and she subsequently died of milk fever. 

At the present time (1877) the most noted show fox terriers are Mr. Burbidge's 
Bitters, Nimrod, Eoyal, Nettle, and Dorcas, Mr. Abbott's Moslem, Mr. Hyde's 
Buffett, Mr. Murchison's Forceps, Olive, Natty, and Whisky, Mr. Gibson's Boxer 
and Joe, Mr. Fletcher's Eattler, and Mr. Whittle's Yorick. The most successful 
breeders of these have been Mr. Luke Turner and Mr. Gibson, the former having 
bred Nettle, Olive, and Joe, besides the first bitch puppy at the Lillie Bridge Show, 
while the latter has bred Dorcas, Buffett, Natty, and Boxer. 

I have selected for the engraving, as the best specimens, Bitters and Olive, 



140 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

the former being, I "believe, the nearest of any of the dogs to the requirements of a 
fox terrier, and the latter more close to perfection as a bitch than any I have ever 
seen. Bitters won his first prize (under the name of Jock) at Ep worth in 1872, and 
has althogether won nine first and nine second prizes. He was first shown by Mr. 
Denton, of Doncaster, who sold him to Mr. Murchison (who changed his name to 
Bitters) ; then he came into the hands of Mr. Gibson, and now belongs to Mr. 
Burbidge. In 1876 Bitters was first in the champion class at Maidstone, and second 
champion at Brighton ; in 1877 he was second champion at Nottingham. He 
is said to be by Tyrant, but the name of his dam is very doubtful. Olive has 
been shown only twice, namely, at Brighton and Bristol, winning first each time, and 
also the special prize at Brighton for the best fox terrier never shown before, beating 
at the same time Burbidge's Nettle, who was first at the Crystal Palace in 1876, and 
at Lillie Bridge in 1877. Olive is by Belgrave Joe Tricksey by Chance ; Belgrave 
Joe by Belvoir Joe Branstone's Vic, great granddam of Burbidge's Nettle. 

THE ROUGH FOX TERRIER. 

Until within the last thirty years a rough or broken-haired terrier, differing 
altogether from the modern Skye, Dandie, and Yorkshire blue-tan, was commonly 
met with throughout England, where, curiously enough, he was often called 
" Scotch " lucus a non lucendo such a dog being almost unknown across the 
Tweed. He closely resembled the dog now called the rough fox terrier ; but had 
usually rather a longer coat on the body, and of a coarser texture, the beard being 
considerably more prominent than that approved of in the present day. Somewhat 
of this kind was the Rev. Thomas Pearce's Venture, whose portrait was given in 
the Field among the " Terriers of no Definite Breed " in 1866 ; but she more nearly 
approached the modern rough fox terrier than the old-fashioned wire-haired breed, 
and indeed was from strains used with foxhounds by Mr. Radclyffe and the Rev. 
J. Russell in the West of England, some of which were rough and others smooth. 
In general character she closely resembled Mr. Lindsay Hogg's Topper, selected by 
me to illustrate the rough fox terrier dog, partly on account of his beautiful shape 
throughout and remarkable quality, and partly from his close resemblance to my 
first pet, a wonderfully game " ratter " and badger terrier. Undoubtedly he is not 
quite deep enough in his back ribs for perfection ; nor, indeed, is Bramble, my other 
selection ; but it would be difficult to find any other fault with either of them, and, 
until I see a specimen of the breed with deep back ribs, united with all their other 
good points, I am content to take them to represent the type of the rough fox 
terrier of the day. A white colour, more or less marked with tan or black, was 
always preferred for vermin terriers ; but a great many black and tans, or rather 
grey and fawn were met with, and also grey throughout, or a very dark grizzled tan, 
brown, or badger-grey, as in Mr. Radclyffe's breed, of Cherwell Grange, Shropshire, 
which last, however, were possessed of tulip ears, a fault no doubt in the opinion of 
the " fancy," and therefore condemning them to private life at the shows, where 
they were exhibited by that gentleman some ten years ago. In the present day 



THE EOUGH FOX TEEEIEE. 141 

(1882) the Scotch terrier proper, as the breed is called, has been resuscitated, in 
which the prick ear is approved of, and Mr. Eadclyffe's Bough closely resembles 
them in every respect. In my young days the broken-haired terrier was always 
cropped ; and, never having seen one au naturel, I am not aware whether the 
ears were originally tulip, rose, or falling; but I imagine they would resemble 
that of the modern dog, many of which are more or less pricked, even in the 
best bred litters. Partly, or wholly, in consequence of the correspondence which 
appeared in the Field some years ago, a special class for rough fox terriers was 
introduced into the Glasgow Show of 1872 ; and this example has been followed 
since then at most of our large shows, the classes being sometimes called " wire " 
or " broken-haired," and at others " rough fox." At Birmingham, in 1872, in 
a broken-haired class, Mr. Sanderson, formerly of Cottingham, now residing at 
Beverley, took a second prize with his afterwards celebrated dog, Venture, the 
first being withheld for want of merit in the opinion of the judge, Mr. S. Nisbet, 
who was here a little out of his element, being specially retained for Skyes and 
Dandies. Next year, at Manchester and the Crystal Palace, Mr. Sanderson 
exhibited a grand team, including Venture, Tip, and Turpin, with which he took 
several prizes, and also the fancy of Mr. Wootton, who purchased the lot, and, 
after gaining prizes with them at the Crystal Palace and Wolverhampton, sold 
Venture to Mr. Carrick, jun., for use with the otterhounds at Carlisle, where he 
is much valued. In the interval, I suppose, Mr. Nisbet has seen his error; for 
at the Birmingham Show of 1874 he gave Venture the first prize in the wire-haired 
class, that dog having previously been awarded a similar honour at Nottingham. 
But time and hard work in the water have told their tale too much for him to 
show the type in perfection ; besides which, he is more leggy than Topper, with 
even less claim to perfection in his back ribs. At the late Show at Lillie Bridge 
several good dogs of this breed were shown, Venture being placed first, Mr. 
Easten's Tip second, and Mr. Lindsay Hogg's Topper third, the three being 
so close together that the choice must always be, in my opinion, a matter of 
fancy. 

The points of the rough fox terrier are the same as those of the smooth 
(described on p. 135), with the exception of the coat, the proper nature of which 
is correctly given in the points of the Fox Terrier Club, quoted in the Field. 
The club description does not, however, I think, sufficiently insist on the thick and 
soft under-coat, which, as in the Dandie Dinmont, should always be regarded as of 
great importance in resisting wet and cold. An open, long coat is even worse than a 
thick, short one for this purpose, as it admits the wet to the skin, and keeps it 
there ; whereas the short coat speedily dries. 

Topper, bred by Sir F. Johnson, is about three years old, white in colour, 
with very slight lemon markings on the ear and hip; and his blood has been 
in the Legard family for more than ninety years, he being by Sir F. Johnson's 
Topper out of Mr. E. Crowle's Vic; she by the Eev. -- Legard's Sam Nettle; 
Nettle by Tartar Missy. He has won the following prizes and commendations, 
never having been elsewhere exhibited, viz. : 1866, h.c. Filey ; 2nd, Maidstone ; v.h.c., 



142 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

Crystal Palace; 2nd, Cork; and 2nd, Brighton. 1877, 3rd, Nottingham; and 3rd, 
Lillie Bridge. 

Bramble, bred by Mr. Wootton, is by Turpin Vic. Besides a third prize 
at Lillje Bridge, she took first prize at Cork in 1876, and the same at Dublin in 
1877. Since the article appeared in the Field she has taken several first prizes. 

THE DACHSHUND, OE GEEMAN BADGEE-DOG. 

This dog is generally considered in Germany to be of a pure and independent 
breed, for a long time confined to the mountain chain and high forests of Southern 
and Central Europe, extending through Germany and into France, where he is 
probably the original of the basset a jambes torses. The old English turnspit 
somewhat resembled him, but differed in his ears, which were more terrier-like, 
and also in his nose, which had even less of the hound character than that of 
the dachshund. 

During the last ten or fifteen years this breed has been largely imported into 
England, where it has also been bred by the Earl of Onslow, Mr. Schweizer, and 
Mr. Fisher (a most successful exhibitor), and to a small extent in the Eoyal as 
well as several private kennels. Several hundred specimens have been imported 
and sold by Mr. Schuller, and the breed has been well tried in England as badger 
dogs, as well as for hare hunting. Opinions differ as to their merits in these 
capacities, some declaring, with Mr. Barclay Hanbury, that they are inferior to our 
own beagles and terriers; while others, including Mr. Schweizer whose German 
proclivities may, however, render him partial maintain that a good one will face 
any badger with as much pluck as our gamest terrier.* The balance of evidence 
in my possession is, however, strongly against this last opinion, and I think it 
may be alleged that any of our terriers will beat him in going to ground to fox 
or badger. As to nose, I am induced to believe that it is, on the average, 
better than that of our modern beagles, who certainly do not equal in that 
respect the old miniature southern hounds, which in my young days used to be 
commonly met with throughout England. 

Dr. L. J. Fitzinger, in his book on dogs, mentions twelve varieties of the 
dachshund, but it is generally believed that all but one of these are cross-bred. 
The one pure strain is that described by him as der Tcrummbeinige, or crooked-legged, 
which is known in this country as the dachshund par excellence, and will be alluded 
to here only. This dog, in proportion to his height and weight, possesses great 
strength ; but his muscular power can be better displayed in digging than in 
running, wherein his remarkable short and crooked fore legs render his gait 
ungainly and rolling to a degree amounting to the ridiculous ; hence his use in 
Germany is mainly to mark the badger or fox to his earth, for which also his keen 
nose is well suited; and, as the entrance to the sleeping chamber of the former 
is kept as small as is consistent with his size, the dachshund is able to dig away 
the earth, so as to reach the exact spot, which his tongue at the same time serves 
to show his master, and thus enable him to dig down to it. In the extensive 




MR. BARCLAY HANBURT'S DACHSHUNDS "FRITZ" AND "DINA,' 



THE DACHSHUND, OR GERMAN BADGER DOG. 



143 



vineyards of Germany and France, which are often on hillsides, the badger makes 
numerous earths, and here he is diligently pursued by the peasants, either from love 
of sport or to get rid of a troublesome intruder. The dachshund is also used for 
driving deer to the gun ; but for this purpose the straight-legged cross, geradbeinige 
dachshund, is most in demand, which variety is generally also larger in size and 
more hound-like in character. In constitution the dog is hardy, but in temper 
somewhat wild and headstrong, so that he is often difficult to get under command 
when once on the scent. He is also snappish in kennel, and inclined to fight on the 
slightest provocation, or often without it. His tongue is loud and shrill, without 
the deep bell-note of the old-fashioned hound. The best breeds are met with in the 
vicinity of the Schwarzwald, Stuttgard, Lonberg, and Eberstein, near Baden Baden. 
Mr. Fisher's celebrated dogs are from the kennels of Prince Edward of Saxe- 
Weimar. 

The points of the dachshund are as follows in numerical, value and description. 
For much valuable information on this breed I am indebted to Dr. Fitzinger's 
work (kindly translated for me by Mr. Perceval de Castro, of Kensington, who is an 
enthusiastic lover of the dachshund), Prince Albert Solms, Mr. Barclay Hanbury, 
Mr. Fisher, Mr. Schuller, and Mr. Schweizer. 



Value. 

Skull 10 

Jaw : 10 

Ears, eyes, and lips ... 10 
Length of body, in- 
cluding neck 15 

45 



POINTS OF THE DACHSHUND. 

Yalue. 

15 

Feet 7| 

Stern 10 

Coat ... 5 



Value. 

Colour 7| 

Size, symmetry, and 
quality 10 



Grand Total 100, 



1. The skull (value 10) is long and slightly arched, the occiput being wide, 
and its protuberance well developed ; eyebrows raised, but without any marked 
" stop." 

2. The jaw (value 10) is long, and tapering gradually from the eyes ; but, 
nevertheless, it should not be " pig- jawed " the end, though narrow, being cut off 
nearly square, with the teeth level and very strong. 

3. The ears, eyes, and lips (value 10). The ears are long enough to reach 
nearly to the tip of the nose when brought over the jaw without force. They are 
broad, rounded at the ends, and soft in "leather" and coat, hanging back in graceful 
folds ; but, when excited, brought forward so as to lie close to the cheeks. Eyes 
rather small, piercing, and deeply set. In the black and tan variety they should 
be dark-brown, or almost black ; but in the red or chocolate deep hazel. Dr. 
Fitzinger has often observed the two eyes vary in colour, and even in size. The 
lips are short, but with some little flew towards the angles ; not at all approaching, 



144 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

however, to that of the bloodhound. The skin is quite tight over the cheeks, and 
indeed over the whole head, showing no bloodhound wrinkle. 

4. Length of body (value 15). In taking this into consideration the neck is 
included: this part, however, is somewhat short, thick, and rather throaty. The 
chest is long, round, and roomy, but not so as to be unwieldy. It gradually narrows 
towards the back ribs, which are rather short. The brisket should be only 2^in. to 
Sin. from the ground, and the breast bone should project considerably. The loin 
is elegantly arched, and the flanks drawn up so as to make the waist look slim, the 
dog measuring higher behind than before. The quarters are strong in muscle as 
well as the shoulders, the latter being especially powerful. 

6. Legs (value 15). The fore legs should be very short, strong in bone, and 
well clothed with muscle. The elbows should not turn out or in, the latter being a 
great defect. The knees should be close together, never being more than 2iin. 
apart, causing a considerable bend from the elbows inwards, so as to make the leg 
crooked, and then again turning outwards to the foot, but this bend at the knees 
should not be carried to the extent of deformity. In order that the brisket should 
approach the ground as above described, the fore legs must be very short. On the 
hind leg there is often a dew claw, but this is not essential either way. 

6. The feet (value 7f) should be of full size, but very strong and cat-like, with 
hard, horny soles to the pads. The fore feet are generally turned out, thus 
increasing the appearance of crookedness in the legs. This formation gives 
assistance to the out-throw of the earth in digging. 

7. The stern (value 10) is somewhat short and thick at the root, tapering 
gradually to the point, with a slight curve upwards, and clothed with hair of 
moderate length on its under-surface. When excited, as in hunting, it is carried in 
a hound-like attitude over the back. Its shape and carriage indicate high breeding, 
and are valued accordingly. 

8. The coat (value 5) is short and smooth, but coarse in texture, and by no 
means silky, except on the ears, where it should be very soft and shiny. 

9. The colour (value 7|). The best colours are red, and black-and-tan, which 
last should be deep and rich, and this variety should always have a black nose. 
The red strain may have a flesh-coloured nose, and some good judges in England 
maintain that this is indispensable, but in Germany it is not considered of any 
importance. In the black-and-tans, the tan should extend to the lips, cheek, a spot 
over each eye, the belly and flank, under-side of tail, and a spot on each side of breast 
bone ; also to the lower part of both fore and hind legs and feet. Thumb marks 
and pencilling of the toes are not approved of in this country ; but they are often 
met with in Germany. Whole chocolate dogs are often well bred, but they 
are not liked in England, even with tan markings, which are, however, an 
improvement. Whole blacks and whites are unknown out of Germany, where 
they are rare. In England white on toes or breast is objected to, but not in 
Germany. 

10. Size, symmetry, and quality (value 10). In size the dachshund should be in 
an average specimen from 39in. to 42in. long, from tip to tip, and in height lOin. to 



THE DACHSHUND, OR GEEMAN BADGES DOG. 145 

llin. at the shoulder ; the weight should be from lllb. to 181b., the bitches being 
considerably smaller than the dogs. In symmetry the dachshund is above the 
average, as may be judged from a reference to the excellent examples belonging 
to Mr. Barclay Hanbury, which I have had drawn by Mr. Baker, who has caught 
the peculiar characteristics of the breed with marvellous truth. Though not 
able to show as many first prizes as Mr. Fisher's Feldmann or the Earl of 
Onslow's Waldmann, they are quite up to the level of those dogs, and being within 
easy reach of Mr. Baker, I have selected them accordingly. Their dimensions are 
as follows : 

FRITZ (red tan). Imported by Mr. Schuller from the royal kennels, Stuttgard 
(pedigree unknown) : Height, lOf in. ; length from tip to tip, 42in. ; head, Sin. ; 
ears, 7in. ; age 1| years. 

DINA (black and tan). Imported by Mr. Schuller (pedigree unknown) : Height, 
lOin. ; length, 40|in. ; head, 7|in. ; ears, 6in. ; age, 2f years. 

I append the following interesting and very valuable letter received from 
Germany, which, in the main, confirms the information previously obtained from the 
various sources above-mentioned; although in unimportant details there is, of 
course, some difference of opinion. I may observe, in reference to Herr Beck- 
mann's insisting on the propriety of regarding the dachshund as used only 
underground in Germany, that I have nothing to do with the intentions of those 
who originally bred the dog ; all that is now within my province is to describe him 
as he exists. 

NOTES ON THE GERMAN TYPE OF THE DACHSHUND. 
(By HERB LUDWIQ BECKMANN, of Dusseldorf .) 

SIR. There has been a great deal of correspondence in the Field and other 
sporting papers regarding the points of the dachshund, and yet the question seems 
to be still unsettled. This uncertainty is rather striking, if we notice that hundreds 
of dachshunds have already been imported into England, and among them certainly 
many well-bred, if not even high bred, dogs, which might serve as a model for the 
real dachshund type every moment. The writer of these lines has bred and worked 
dachshunds all his life, and, as he has given the subject peculiar attention, he 
begs to state his opinion as to what may be the cause of this uncertainty, 
and in what respect some English fanciers might perhaps be in error regarding 
points, size, colours, or employment of this ancient German breed. 

1. The Houndlike Type. The dachshund has had the misfortune, on his intro- 
duction into England, to be confounded by some authors with the French basset. 
This mistake was favoured by the fact that even our modern German and French 
kynologists* make no difference between the two races. M. A. Pierre Pichot, editor 

* Vide Prof. Fit/inger, " Der Hnnd tmd seine Eacen," p. 179 ; and De la Blanchere in his 
excellent book, "Les Chiens de Chasse." De la B. says verbally (p. 110): " Les bassets sont 
extremement nombreux en Allemagne, et qnelqnes races ont les oreilles tellement enormes, qu'elles 
trainent jusqu'a terre." I beg to state here that dachshunds of that kind have never existed. 
The French basset was identical with the German dachshund in days of yore, and was most 

IT 



146 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

of the Revue Britannique, was the first who cautioned the English dachshund fanciers 
against confounding the dachshund with the basset, " the dachshund being quite a 
different breed."* Nevertheless, the desire for "long ears, houndlike head, and 
much throatiness " was going on, though one of our first and most successful 
breeders protested in the Field f against these erroneous points on several accounts. 
Some fanciers of the dachshund breed went even a step further, and regarded the 
bloodhound, with its peaked skull and " drapery-like " ears, as the beau ideal of our 
little dachshunds ! (I beg to state here that the G-ermans have never had a native 
breed of dogs with head and ears like the present English bloodhound, and least of 
all a breed of dachshunds.) 

In recent times those points are somewhat modified, but the desire for " hound- 
like type" seems to prevail still. In the Field of January 13, 1877, I find published 
a short scheme of points on dachshunds, from which I beg to quote the following 
points : " Head thoroughly houndlike, occiput very decided, ears of good length 
and full of fold, lips ' Hppy,' nose large with open nostrils, much throatiness, and 
chest round without much breadth (like the bloodhound)." I suggest that the 
author of this scheme has not at all the intention to create a new breed, but that he 
really is desirous to find out the true type of the German dachshund. If so, I 
am very sorry to say that those points will certainly turn out to be untenable, 
and to be quite opposite to the opinions of most of our sportsmen and breeders. 
Dogs of that kind are no longer " dachshunds," but " dachsbracken " J (in English 
perhaps dachs-talbots) . 

It is much to be regretted that the advocates of the hound-like type in 
dachshunds, who have evidently so much sympathy for these little courageous dogs, 
are endeavouring still to support an imaginary beau ideal of the breed, which 
neither is derived from the antecedents of the breed, nor accords in any respect 
with the points of our present high-bred dachshunds and their chief employment 
" underground work." 

The German dachshund is perhaps one of the most ancient forms of the 
domesticated dog. The fact is that he has for centuries represented an isolated 
class between the hound and the terrier, without being more nearly connected with 
the one than the other. His obstinate, independent character, and his incapacity to 
be trained or broken to anything beyond his inborn, game-like disposition, are quite 
unrivalled among all other races of the dog. Regarding his frame, he differs from 
the hound, not only by his crooked fore legs and small size, but by the most refined 
modification of all parts of his body according to his chief task to work under- 

probably imported from Germany into Flanders, and from there to France (compare Jacques du 
Fouilloux, " Venerie," Paris, 1573, p. 89, et Verrier de la Conterie, "Ecole de Chasse," Rouen, torn. 
ii., p. 172). But, as the dachshund has been employed in France chiefly to hunt above ground, and 
is crossed with most races of the French hound (chien courant), he has lost his original frame and 
character, and has become completely a hound in course of time. HERE L. BECKMANN. 

* In the Live Stock Journal, 1875, vol. ii., No. 87. 

f May 27, 1876, and following numbers, signed " S." 

J Bracke or Braken is the old German hound (from Bracco) ; the German word Hund is 
equivalent to dog in English. 



THE DACHSHUND, OE GEEMAN BADGEE DOG. 147 

ground. It is not possible to imagine a more favourable frame for an " earth dog " 
than the real dachshund type, which I shall describe afterwards. I beg to say that 
some of our high-bred dachshunds are near perfection, according to German 
points ; they do not want much improvement, but propagation, for they are seldom 
met with even in northern Germany. If I had to choose a likeness or model for 
these active little dogs, it would certainly not be the bloodhound, but the weasel ! 

The desire for " hound-like type " in dachshunds would never have originated 
if the natural vocation of this breed (underground work) had not been overlooked. 
The consequence of this erroneous idea will be that well-bred dachshunds will be 
regarded as a " terrier cross," and that it will be next to impossible for many dog 
fanciers to get a clear idea of the real type of the dachshund. 

Having concentrated all varieties of the badger dog to one single class the 
crook-legged, short-haired dog, with head neither hound nor terrier like, weight 
from 81b. to 201b., colour black- tan and its variations we shall still meet here many 
varying forms. With some attention we shall soon distinguish the common breed 
(Landschlag) and the well or high-bred dachshund. The first is a stout, strong 
boned, muscularly built dog, with large head and strong teeth ; the back not much 
arched, sometimes even straight ; tail long and heavy ; forelegs strong and regularly 
formed ; the head and tail often appear to be too large in the dog ; the hair is 
rather coarse, thick set, short, and wiry, lengthened at the underside of the tail, 
without forming a brush or feather, and covering a good deal of the belly. These 
dogs are good workmen, and are less affected by weather than high-bred ones ; but 
they are very apt to exceed 181b. and even 201b. weight, and soon get fat if not 
worked frequently. From this common breed originates the well and high-bred 
dog, which may at any time be produced again from it by careful selection and 
inbreeding without any cross. The well and high-bred dog is smaller in size, finer 
in bone, more elegantly built, and seldom exceeds 161b. to 171b. weight ; the thin 
slight tapering tail is only of medium length ; the hair is very short, glossy like silk, 
but not soft ; the under part of the body is very thin-haired, rendering these nervous 
and high-spirited dogs, rather sensitive to wet ground and rain. These two breeds 
are seldom met with in their purity, the vast majority of dachshunds in Germany 
ranging between the two, and differing in shape very much, as they are more or less 
well bred or neglected. In this third large group we still meet with many good and 
useful dogs, but also all those aberrant forms, with pig snouts and short under jaws, 
apple-headed skulls, deep set or staring eyes, short necks, wheel backs, ring tails, 
fore legs joining at the knees, and long hind legs bent too much in the stifles 
and hocks. 

The following points of the dachshund are fixed by the author, in strict con- 
junction with one of our best connoisseurs, Mr. Gustav Lang, of Stuttgart, and in 
agreement with some of our first breeders, with the judges on dachshunds at the 
dog shows in Hamburgh and Cologne in 1876, and with the editor of the periodical 
Der Hund. As these points are taken from the best existing specimens of the breed, 
and with regard to the employment, anatomy, and history of this dog, they may 
give a true picture of the real dachshund type as far as this is possible at present. 



148 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



Points. 

Head, elongated, large, and combined with the neck in a rather obtuse angle. 
When viewed from the side, the protuberance of the occiput is not much developed ; 
skull not high vaulted ; forehead descending to the eyes without any marked stop, 
but eyebrows raised ; space between eye and ear comparatively much wider than in 
the hound and pointer, owing to the ears being placed high and far back ; nose 
straight or very slightly arched between top and root, nostrils not too large ; jaw 
neither pig-snouted nor square, but moderately pointed by a sloping line from tip of 
nose to the chin, and widening gradually from there towards the throat ; lips short, 
not overlapping the lower jaw, but with a little flew at the angles. The superior 
maxillary bone and the jaw muscle protrude so much as to give the face a hollow- 
cheeked appearance. When viewed from above and in front, the skull is broad 
between the ears, and only slightly vaulted (neither narrow and conical nor 
perfectly flat; the jaw or muzzle tapering gradually from the eyes; skin rather 
tight over the whole head, showing no wrinkles when the dog is not excited. The 
shape of bone and muscles must be marked sharply and distinctly in the head, and 
this lean and plastical appearance (trockner Kopf) must remain in the head, even 
when the body of the dog is laden with fat. 

Eyes, ears, and teeth. In good heads, with long jaw, the centre of the space 
between tip of nose and occiput will be found to be in the hind angle of the eyes. 
The eye should be of medium size, open, bright, intelligent, and fiery (small deep-set 
eyes, showing the " haw," are even as objectionable in dachshunds as protruding 
eyes) ; iris rich brown in black-tan dogs, never brighter than the tan except in the 
bluish varieties (wall eyes). The ear is a very important point in dachshunds, and 
its situation, shape, and carriage are quite peculiar to the breed ; but it should by 
no means be noticeable in the head from its largeness, ornamental folding, and low 
situation. The ear of the dachshund is set on so high that its base is nearly even 
with the outline of the skull and neck; and it is situated so far backwards and 
distant from the eyes (vide head), that it covers a good deal more of the neck than 
of the cheeks ; it should be broad at the base, of equal width, and the lower edge 
bluntly rounded, not filbert- shaped or pointed ; it should hang down quite close and 
smooth to the cheek, without the slightest inclination to any twisting, folding, or 
curl. The ears are of sufficient length if they are half as long as the head; they 
should not over-reach the outline of throat, and should cover about half-an-inch of 
the angle of the mouth when stretched gently towards the nose. There is no 
blemish in their being somewhat longer, but, as long as ears are neither useful nor 
characteristic of the breed, they should never be brought to an excess. The leather 
of the ears should be very thin, but the hair of the upper surface very short, smooth, 
and silky. In fighting and attacking, an ear of this description is drawn back and 
upwards suddenly, and knitted together so much that it is scarcely to be seen in 
front of the dog. When the dachshund pricks his ears they are not lifted above 
their usual level, but only bent forwards, until they stand out rectangularly from 
both sides of the face in their whole usual breadth, without any folding, the fore 



THE DACHSHUND, OR GERMAN BADGER DOG. 149 

edge of the ear lying close to the cheek. The teeth of the dachshund should be 
level, strong, and well shot, with sharp fangs. A peculiar arrangement of the teeth 
is to be found in more than one-third of our dachshunds. The two first or corner 
teeth of the incisors in the upper jaw are developed to a remarkable size and 
strength, so as to form, with the corresponding tusk or fang, a deep and narrow 
notch, in which the fang of the under-jaw glides. These " double fangs " (zan- 
gengebiss) are not to be found in any other breed of German dogs besides 
dachshunds. But as this criterion of the breed seems every year to disappear more, 
and as there are at present so many good dachshunds without this peculiarity, it 
cannot be regarded as a " point," except perhaps in such a case where the judge had 
to decide between two dogs of equal merits. 

The neck should be long, strong, clean, and flexible. When viewed from the 
side, it should be finer where it joins the head, and gradually widening to the full 
proportions of the chest. The upper outline of neck should not be much arched, 
the lower outline sloping from the throat down to the protuberance of the 
breastbone. Throatiness is very objectionable in dachshunds, only the common 
dog having sometimes a tendency to " looseness " of skin in the throat. When 
viewed from above, the neck is wide, strong, and not too much tapering towards 
the broad skull. 

The trunk (including shoulders and haunches) of the dachshund is not at all 
hound-like ; in many respects it is more like that of the pointer, in others like that 
of the greyhound. When viewed from the side, it is long ; the chest very deep and 
roomy, with breast-bone projecting ; back ribs rather short, and the flanks well 
drawn up ; shoulders rather low, with slight drop in back behind, and corresponding 
elegant arch of the long and deep loins ; quarters not very sloping, and stern set 
on rather high, these dogs being somewhat higher in the hind quarters than in 
shoulders. When viewed from the front, the chest is very wide between the joints 
of the shoulder, but, being neither barrel-like nor square, it slopes gradually 
between the forelegs, and is rather narrow beneath at the fore-end of the brisket, 
but widening again towards the belly. When viewed from above, the largest 
diameter of the dog is to be found in the middle of the shoulders behind the 
joint, owing to the powerfully developed muscles of the upper arm and blade ; from 
there the trunk narrows gradually towards the stern. The ribs spring up well 
behind the shoulders, and the muscular haunches project suddenly at the quarters, 
but not to such an extent of width as in the shoulders, even not fully in bitches. 
Dachshunds with narrow chest and wide hind-quarters are unfit for hunting 
underground : they are soon tired, and are very apt to get squeezed in narrow 
passages. 

Forelegs very short, strong in bone ; forearm well clothed with muscles ; knee 
broad and clean ; pasterns strong, broad, and not too short ; feet broad, rounded, 
with thick large toes, hard soles, and strong, long nails. Owing to the original 
employment of the dachshund, his forefeet are much larger and stronger than the 
hind ones. When viewed from the side, the foreleg should appear pretty straight, 
the knees not protruding much, the slope of the pasterns not exceeding a slight 



150 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

deviation from the straight line, the toes not twisted or turned out too much. 
When viewed from above, the elbows should not be turned out (out of shoulders) 
nor in when the dog is standing quietly ; in walking they will always be turned 
out more than in other dogs, When viewed from the front, the forelegs should have 
by no means a crippled appearance, as if the dog had rickets, or as if the legs were 
not able to resist the pressure of the weight of the body, and had broken down so 
much as to join at the knees. Forelegs of that kind will do pretty well for 
bassets and dachsbraken, to prevent their running too fast in hunting above ground, 
but not for our badger dog. His forelegs must appear as firm supports of the body, 
and as powerful shovels in digging away the ground, but without too much 
arresting the movableness of the dog in other respects ; therefore the forearm 
should be bent inwards in a slight regular curve, the inside of the knees not 
projecting too much, and the inner outline of the pasterns (from knee to sole of foot) 
nearly straight. The pasterns should by no means slope too much sideways 
("splayed feet"); if so, they will not be able to support the forearm sufficiently, 
and will give way every year more. All that is wanted is that the foot should be 
turned somewhat outwards; and this turning should begin already in the joint of 
the knee. Therefore, the inner edge of the knee will project very slightly in front, 
while its outer edge is turned more backwards. In some dogs the pastern and feet 
are standing perfectly straight, only the toes being twisted outside, which is very 
bad. The shape of the forelegs in dachshunds has often been mistaken, even by 
German breeders. They should have a simple, pleasing sweep, like that of the 
leg of an elegant but solid piece of rococo furniture. The bending of the forearm 
should harmonise with the shape of the chest, and the pasterns and feet be not 
more splayed and turned out than is required to restore the equilibre. When 
the dog is lying on his back the whole foreleg from elbow to tip of toes should lie 
quite close to his body, like the nippers of a seal. Owing to the movableness 
of the forequarters in dachshunds, it is next to impossible to take exact measures 
from the positions and width of the legs. In regularly built dogs with wide chest 
I always found the distance between the knees to be equal to one-third of the 
diameter (measured across and outside) of the shoulders. The distance between 
the feet (from heel to heel) should never exceed the width between the knees more 
than about half or three-quarters of an inch. The toes should not fully reach 
sideways to a line which is drawn perpendicularly from the most prominent point 
of the shoulder to the ground. 

Hind legs comparatively higher and less powerfully developed than the fore ones ; 
the haunches muscular ; the under thigh remarkably short ; the leg (or that part 
from hock to heel) high ; the feet small, but, like the fore one, round, with thick, 
well-closed toes and strong nails. When viewed from the side, the hind leg 
appears rather straight, as it is not much bent in the stifles and hocks, that part 
from hock to heel standing nearly straight. When viewed from behind, quarters 
wide, the haunches showing great development of muscle ; the legs should be wide 
through them, the hocks being turned in very slightly, and the feet standing out 
a little ; but this deviation from the straight line should not be very noticeable. In 



THE DACHSHUND, OE GEEMAN BADGEE DOG. 151 

common dogs the feet sometimes stand out so much that the hocks touch. This is 
a blemish, though not so objectionable as the contrary, when the hocks are turned 
out and the feet in. Dew-claws are seldom met with in dachshunds, and should be 
removed directly where they appear in a whelp. 

Stern, set on rather high, strong at the root, tapering slightly to a fine point, 
short-haired, length not much exceeding that of the head, and not touching the 
ground when hanging straight down. Carriage of stern : the root or first third 
should be nearly straight, the two remaining thirds bent into a rather wide curve, the 
slender point standing straight again, or even sweeping upwards a little. The tail 
should be carried gaily, like that of the foxhound, either upright over the back, or 
straight down when the dog is tired. Horizontal carriage is not objectionable, 
but it usually indicates a drowsy temper ; if the stern is at the same time very thin 
and long, it gives an objectionable appearance, when it becomes stiff and bare, 
by old age of the dog. The common dog has the stern longer and heavier, the hair 
on its under side longer ; the lower two-thirds of the stern are in some specimens 
nearly straight, and the last third crooked suddenly in a short semi-circle, forming a 
hook at the end of the stern. This is a blemish, as well as the " ring tail " and 
much leaning to the right or left. I have mentioned already the " otter-tailed " 
dachshund, a peculiar old strain but now seldom to be found with short, broad, 
or flat stern, very hairy beneath, and carried straight down. 

Coat (skin and hair) : The skin of the dachshund is (with the exception of the 
head and extremities) rather full, but of sufficient elasticity to prevent looseness, 
which is only to be found in the common dog to a certain degree. The hair should 
be short, glossy, smooth, but wiry not soft and silky, except on the ears, where it 
is extremely short and thin, the " leather " becoming often quite bare and shiny 
when the dog gets old. The longest and coarsest hair is to be found under the 
stern, lying close to the tail in well bred dogs ; and even in the common breed 
it should never form a perfect brush. The hair is often very scarce under the 
chest and belly, which is not at all favourable for a dog standing so close to the 
ground. 

Colour : black and tan is the most ancient and legitimate colour of the class ; 
but this colour is not so constant as to prevent the accidental appearance of a 
puppy whose colour varies into any tinge or shading, produced by combination, 
separation, or blending of the black ground colour and the tan of the marks such 
as Hack, chocolate, light brown, and hare-pied with blackish ears and dark stripes 
along the back, either whole coloured or with tan marks. Sometimes the colour 
of the marks (tan) appears alone, and produces the " whole-coloured tan" with 
all its varieties of shading through red, ochre, fawn, and sandy. In all the darker 
varieties of the black-tan dog the nose and nails should be perfectly black, and 
even in the brightest whole or self-coloured tan, fawn, and sandy dogs, they 
should be at least as dark as possible. Eosy or fleshy noses and nails indicate 
that there is white in the breed ; they cannot be excused by the colour of the coat 
not even in whole-coloured tan and sandy dogs or else the nails in the tan- 
coloured paws of our black-tan dogs must also be changed into fleshy or horn-coloured 



152 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

ones. Besides, the original ground colour of the dog is black, and will appear 
again sooner or later in the whole-coloured tan offspring. The extension and 
design of the marks in black-tan dachshunds is nearly the same as in the English 
terrier. The tan of the cheek should not be divided in dachshunds, but ascend 
abruptly towards the jaw-muscle, so as to give the eye the appearance as if it was 
surrounded beneath by a black semi-circle. On the hind legs the tan is not limited 
to the inside of the legs, but extends over the whole front of them, and the half 
outside of the feet ; from hock to heel runs a black stripe. Pencilled toes in the 
forefeet are nothing else but the imperfect repetition of this black stripe, both 
according pretty well to the position and bending of the extremities during the 
embryonal state of the dog. (The tan marks seem to be limited chiefly to those 
parts which are covered and pressed by the bending of the extremities in the 
embryo.) Pencilled toes appear and disappear in black-tan puppies of any breed 
in Germany ; therefore they cannot be regarded as indicating a " terrier cross " in 
dachshunds, the English terrier being quite an unknown animal in many of those 
remote places in Germany where good dachshunds are bred. On the forearm and 
the under- thigh the black melts gradually into the tan ; but on all other parts of 
the body the two colours should be divided distinctly, and without any blending. 
White toes, and indeed white anywhere, are great blemishes ; but there are few black- 
tan dachshunds to be found without having at least a small greyish tuft of hair on 
the breast-bone, or a narrow line along the brisket, which is only to be seen when 
the dog is sitting on his haunches. 

More rarely met with are the bluish alterations of the black-and-tan (for 
instance, slate-grey, mouse, silvery-grey, and the " tigerdachs "), which are all to be 
regarded as a more or less " imperfect albinism" originating in want of pigment in 
the hair. The " tigerdachs " is nothing else but a black-tan dog whose ground colour 
is altered only on some parts of the coat into a bluish tinge, while other parts have 
preserved the original ground colour (" partial imperfect albinism "), and form now 
irregular black or brown stripes and blotches. None of these bluish varieties can be 
regarded as a distinct breed, nor are they only limited to the dachshund class.* 
Nose and nails of the bluish varieties are dark, fleshy, even rosy or black-spotted, 
as the ground colour of the coat has been altered more or iless. The eyes are 
bluish, or quite colourless (wall-eyed). All these bluish dogs should have no 
white marks, except the tiger-dachs, which should be as variegated as possible, 
and therefore white on the breast and belly of these dogs is no blemish; but 
they should not have white toes or white marks on the head, body, nor end 
of stern. 

White, as a ground colour, with hound-like blotches, spotted or mottled, 
is much disliked by most of our breeders ; and these colours should disappear 
entirely from the dachshund class, and be limited to the basset and the various 
" dachsdracken," White dachshunds are kept and bred as a curiosity, and the 

* The bluish colours are to be found among all possible breeds of German dogs which are not 
crossed too much, and even in black cats. A beautiful specimen of a tiger-dachs-coloured colley I 
saw at Kyle-Rhea, near Skye, in September, 1874. 



THE DACHSHUND, OE GERMAN BADGEE DOG. 153 

origin of most of them is very dubious. The only reason for breeding them 
is that white dogs are easier kept in sight when hunting a covert. But the 
qualification for hunting above ground is not at all the criterion of the dachs- 
hund class. 

The legitimate colours of the dachshund may be divided into four groups : 

1. With tan marks: Black, chocolate, light brown, hare-pied; the brighter 
varieties often showing a blackish stripe along the back, and black ears; 
eyes, rich brown, never brighter than the tan marks ; nose and nails black ; 
no white. 

2. Whole coloured : Black, chocolate, light brown, hare-pied ; and also the tan 
varieties, red, tan, ochre, fawn, sandy ; the brighter varieties often with a darker 
stripe along the back ; ears and muzzle also often darker than the body ; no tan 
marks ; eyes, rich brown or light brown, never brighter than the colour of 
the coat; nose and nails, black, no white. In bright tan and sandy dogs 
the nose and nails should be at least much darker than the coat, and never 
fleshy. 

3. Bluish varieties : Slate, mouse, silver-grey, either whole coloured or with 
tan marks ; eyes, bluish or colourless (wall-eyed) ; nose and nails blackish, fleshy, 
rosy ; no white. 

4. Variegated varieties (tiger-dachs) : Slate, mouse, silvery-grey, with irregular 
black, chocolate or, tan stripes and blotches, with or without tan marks ; eyes, at least 
one of them, bluish or colourless ; nose and nails, fleshy or spotted ; white marks on 
throat and breast are not objectionable in the tiger-dachs. 

In judging dachshunds no difference should be made between the four groups of 
colours, except when there were two dogs of equal merit ; there the black-tan dog 
should be preferred, or that dog would have developed the marks most exactly in 
the richest tone, and with no white at all. 

Size, symmetry, and quality. The height of an average specimen is from 9in. to 
lOin. at the shoulder; the weight should be from 151b. to 171b., bitches being 
always smaller than dogs of the same litter. I have mentioned already that the 
class will most probably embrace dogs from 91b. to 201b. weight, owing to the 
different sized dogs used to hunt underground by our sportsmen. In a regularly 
built dog of 171b. weight I found these proportions : head, from nose to occiput 
over the skull, Sin. ; neck to shoulders, 4f in. ; back, 15in. ; stern, Sin. ; distance 
from ground to brisket, 2|in. ; from ground to elbow, Gin. ; to shoulders, lOin. ; 
to hip, lOfin. 

In judging dachshunds it must be borne in mind that the frame of these 
dogs has preserved pretty well all the proportion of a large or middle-sized dog, 
only the legs are shortened ; while in the terriers all parts of the body have been 
reduced equably. A cross with the terrier will be directly indicated in the offspring 
by alteration of the peculiar proportions of the dachshund, and therefore the 
badger dog cannot be called " dachs-terrier," it not being a cross. We must also 
notice that the reduction of the legs is not quite equal in all parts of the legs, but 
is chiefly limited to the bones of the forearm (radius and ulna) and those of the 



154 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

lower thigh (tibia and fibula). The consequence is that the paws of the fore-feet 
appear large and broad, and the hind-leg (from hock to heel) rather high and 
straight. These peculiar proportions become unfavourable when carried to excess ; 
but even then they are not so bad as the contrary (too long forearms being out 
at the shoulders and joining at the knees, and too long under-thighs being bent too 
much in the stifle and hocks). The disadvantage of the short lever in the hind 
legs must be compensated by powerful arched loins. The dachshund runs pretty 
fast on level ground ; he must even be able to jump and to climb, which will often 
save his life in steep passages underground, where an unwieldy dog is quite 
helpless. 

A good dachshund should be built long and low, but never to such an extent 
as to become unwieldy. The whole outline must be most elegant, something like a 
weasel ; head and neck carried neither quite horizontally nor straight upright. 

The two dachshunds, Fritz and Dina, are pretty good representations of 
the breed respecting their bodies ; and I was very glad to find them not cor- 
responding much to the hound-type scheme of points proposed in the Field 
of Jan. 13. But there is something very strange in their heads, particularly in 
the foremost dog : there the skull is far too much vaulted, the ears are set on too 
low, and not at all of a dachshund-like shape and carriage. The jaw should be 
larger and stronger, and the tail somewhat shorter. Heads of this kind are the 
mistaken qualities (missverstandne Schonheit) in dachshunds, and more fit for house 
pets and for dogs used in hunting above ground than for an earth dog. 

If I had to fix the value of the points, I should rank them thus : 



Value. 

Head 15 

Ears, eyes, teeth 10 

Neck 10 

35 



Yalue. 

Body 10 

Fore legs 15 

Hind legs 10 

35 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Stern 10 

Coat 10 

Size, symmetry, quality 10 

30 



Many particulars will have to remain open to conclusion till we have had a 
show for dachshunds only (e.g., extension or division of the class, white ground 
colour, carriage of stern, and so on). 

Where opinions differ among our fanciers, I have always added the arguments 
for my assertions. Perhaps my description of the dog has become too minute by 
these additions ; but I hope it has not thereby been rendered unintelligible. I 
know very well that there are few dogs to be found that will agree in all respects 
with the particulars I have mentioned in describing the points. But nobody who 
is acquainted with the endless variety of animal forms will expect to find all well- 
bred dachshunds having exactly the same proportions. No dog is perfect, and 
those particulars are taken from the best head, best neck, best leg, &c., which were 
to be found among a number of regularly-built dogs, in order to find out the arche- 
type of the breed, which is rarely, if ever, reached in a single specimen. 



THE DACHSHUND, OE GEEMAN BADGEE DOG. 155 

Before I conclude my writing I may mention shortly some particulars about 
breeding, disposition, and employment of the badger dog. 

I have seldom found bitches whelping more than four or five pups ; they are 
born with straight forelegs only the paws turn outside somewhat more than in 
other dogs. This would lead to the old theory of " hereditary rachitis " in dachs- 
hunds; and I have offered already a number of hopeful puppies for osteological 
researches in this direction, but without any noticeable success. Dachshunds are 
not much subject to distemper if kept in a dry, warm, and clean place. When they 
are full grown say when twelve or eighteen months old they will mostly be ready 
for business, when once seeing an old dog doing his work underground. By 
frequent exercise with rats, foxes, &c., their education will be completed sooner ; 
but they should not be used to badgers before having reached their second year and 
their full development. When going to the burrows the dogs should not be allowed 
to tire themselves out during the walk, but should be carried in a basket in a wheel- 
barrow, or taken in the box of the dogcart when driving. Young dogs should 
always be taken up as soon as they show an indisposition to go to ground, or return 
too often from the earths. Many old dogs have the habit of coming out when they 
have received a first blow from the badger or fox. Some people say, " He comes to 
show his wound " ; but the dog only wants to have a glance round above to see if all 
is right there, and, if so, he will go in again without being asked. There are many 
badger dogs that will kill their fox under ground, and drag the dead body out to 
the surface if possible ; but I remember only two dachshunds who had the strength 
and the will to " draw " an old badger from its den, and this was only managed 
when they had the good fortune to seize the unlucky badger from behind in the 
haunches, the channel at the same time being neither too narrow nor too steep. 
I have already said that this is not at all the task of our dachshund, who has only 
to hunt and to attack his game till it quits the den or stands at bay. For bolting a 
fox (spregen) one small game dachshund will be sufficient when the shooters (for 
the fox is shot in Germany) have been posted cautiously and noiselessly ; but, in 
digging out a badger or fox, one small dog will seldom be able to resist his enemy 
at the moment when the drain is opened, and the badger or fox is frightened by the 
daylight. Therefore, at least one large dog, or two small ones, should be used for 
this purpose. Dogs which are used often to hunt coverts are seldom persevering earth 
dogs ; besides, they are accustomed to give tongue as soon as they come upon the 
track, which is the worst an earth dog can do (weidelaut). On the contrary, we find 
often good earth dogs hunting quite silent above ground till they get sight of the game. 

In hunting above ground the dachshund follows more the track than the 
general scent (witierung) of the game ; therefore he follows rather' slowly, but 
surely, and with the nose pretty close to the ground. His noise in barking is very 
loud, far sounding, and of surprising depth for a dog of so small a frame ; but, in 
giving tongue while hunting, he pours forth from time to time short, shrill notes, 
which are quickened as the scent gets hotter, and, at sight of the game the notes 
are often resolved into an indescribable scream, as if the dog were being punished 
in a most cruel manner. 



156 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

Though not a pack hound, the dachshund will soon learn to run in couples; 
and two or three of these couples, when acquainted with one another, or forming a 
little family, will hunt pretty well together. They do not frighten their game so 
much as the larger hounds, and, when frequently used, they will learn to stay when 
arrived at the line of the shooters, not by obedience to their master, but because they 
are intelligent enough as to see that it is quite useless to run longer after the game. 

For tracking wounded deer or a roebuck a dachshund may be used when no 
bloodhound (schweisshund) is to be had ; but they must be accustomed to collar 
and line for this purpose, and then they are rather troublesome to lead in rough 
ground or coverts. They retrieve better by running free or slipped, but must carry 
a bell, for they are apt to keep silence when they find their game dead ; and 
beginning to lick at the wound where the ball has gone into the body, they will 
slowly advance to tearing and to eating their prey. 

No dog is so sensitive to rain and wet ground as the dachshund. They will 
often steal away from the coverts on a wet day, and sneak homewards. 

Dachshunds are very headstrong and difficult to keep under command ; and, as 
they are at the same time very sensitive to chastisement, it is next to impossible 
to force them to do anything against their will. Many good badger dogs have been 
made cowards for their whole life by one severe whipping. They must be taken as 
they are with all their faults, as well as their virtues. When treated always kindly, 
the dachshund is very faithful to his master, and not only a useful, but a most 
amusing dog a very humourist among the canine family. In spite of his small 
frame, he has always an air of consequence and independence about him ; but, at 
the same time, he is very inquisitive, and always ready to interfere with things with 
which he has no concern. He seems to have an antipathy to large dogs, and, if they 
object to be domineered over, the dachshund will certainly quarrel with them. 
When his blood is up he will care neither for blows or for wounds, and is often 
bitten dreadfully in such encounters. Therefore dachshunds should not be kept in 
kennels with larger dogs. When kept in houses, and accustomed to children, they 
will make good pets, for they are clean, intelligent, and watchful, without being 
noisy, though often snappish with strangers. 

The names which are given to dachshunds in Northern Germany are usually 
the 'same old-fashioned ones, indicating chiefly their employment or their quarrel- 
some disposition. For instance : Names for dogs Bergmann (miner), Erdmann 
(earth-man), Judas, Krup-in (creep-in !),.Kuhlmann (pit-man, miner), Waldmann 
(forester), Zanker (quarreller) ; for bitches, Bergine, Erdine, Hertha, Valda 
Waldine, Zang (tongs, nippers). 

In England the earth dog is already represented by the various terriers, andj 
with respect to the great difference between English field sports and German 
" Jagerei," I doubt if the dachshund will ever become so useful and favourite a 
sporting dog in England as he has for centuries been in Germany. Foxes and their 
cubs are sacred personages in most English districts, badgers are comparatively 
rare, and the destruction of vermin is generally left to the gamekeepers. Therefore 
I believe that dachshunds will be kept and bred in England chiefly for hunting 



THE BASSET-HOUND. 157 



coverts, or to serve as house pets and for show purposes, as an object of fashion or 
fancy. Both employments will inevitably alter the type and disposition of the dog 
as soon as his qualification for underground work is regarded to be only secondary. 
But I believe there are also many sportsmen and fanciers of the dachshund in 
England who would like to preserve these dogs as they are bred originally, and who 
wish to know how we in Germany are going to fix the points of this breed as we 
Germans are desirous of becoming acquainted with the English points of English 
breeds of dogs. 

To describe the real old type of dachshund, and to prevent, if possible, the 
creation of a new cross breed, was my intention in sending these notes. 



THE BASSET-HOUND. 

(By GEORGE E. KBEHL.) 

A few years ago both the name and appearance of this breed were strange 
to the untravelled Englishman. One or two basset-hounds may have been 
imported as curiosities by dog lovers who had come across them in their journeys 
abroad, or on account of their sporting merits by followers of the chase, who 
had seen them used by their continental friends. In either case, they did not 
come to public notice by the medium of the show-bench. Mr. Everett Millais 
was the first to exhibit a specimen of the breed, and its appearance caused no 
little excitement and amusement in canine circles. Many pronounced it a 
turnspit, others an abnormal dachshund, while a few " remembered to have seen 
such dogs in old French hunting pictures." Basset-hounds are one of the 
oldest and purest breeds in France. The earliest French authority, Du Fouilloux, 
gives two illustrations of them in his " La Venerie." In regard to these 
illustrations, I have noticed with some amusement that, although our ancient 
author describes them as " bassets d'Artois," yet a dachshund fancier has claimed 
them to be representatives of his hobby-breed, whereas I should imagine that 
dachshunds (a later off- shoot of the Flemish basset-hound) entered as little 
into the philosophy of Du Fouilloux as our own bull terrier. Du Fouilloux 
explains the title " d'Artois " by telling us that the breed originally came from 
that province and the near-lying Flanders. He divided them into two varieties : 
The Artesian, " with full-crooked forelegs, smooth coats, brave, and having double 
rows of teeth like wolves ;" the Flemish, " straight-legged, rough-coated, black, 
and sterns curled like a horn." This division was confirmed by two later old 
authors, Selincourt and Leverrier de la Conterie. The last-named expressed his 
preference for the Flemish, as being " faster, but they gave tongue badly, and 
were babblers ;" he found the Artesians " courageous in going to earth (as shown 
in Du Fouilloux's engraving), long in the body, and with noble heads." The 
descendants of the Flemish type still exist in the Foret Noire, in the Vosges, and, 
I believe, in the German dachshund, which, according to my theory, is descended 
from basset-hounds that found their way into South Germany (Wurtemberg, 



158 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLAISTDS. 

the home of the dachshund) via Alsace, and were there crossed with the terrier, 
to give them that individual courage that is lacking in the hound. The Artesian 
type is that with which English dog- show lidbitues are now familiar. In the 
many political storms that have swept over France, carrying away her monarchical 
pageantry , and the imposing ceremonies of the chase, many of that country's 
ancient breeds became almost extinct. Amongst them the basset-hound fared a 
little better than its blood neighbours the hounds of Artois, Normandy, Gascony, 
and Sainteonge. Thanks to the sporting and patriotic instincts of a descendant 
of the old noblesse, Count le Couteulx de Canteleu, who spared neither trouble 
nor expense in his purpose, the smooth, tricolour basset-hound of Artois has 
been preserved in all its purity. The breed was not revived ; it had never died 
out, but it was necessary to search all over the "basset" districts to find, in 
sportsmen's kennels, the few true and typical specimens, and to breed from them 
alone. In these efforts on behalf of the old breeds, the Count was greatly 
benefited by the valuable assistance of Monsieur Pierre Pichot, Editor of the 
" Revue Britannique." 

For our purpose it will be sufficient to divide the basset-hounds of to-day 
into two groups the rough and smooth. The former are of Vendean extraction, 
a branch of one of the original breeds. They have rough hard coats, with a 
woolley undergrowth, and are generally white, with lemon markings, or else 
iron grey, like our otter-hounds', which they so closely resemble that, if one can 
imagine an otter-hound reduced in size, and put on short legs, they will have 
the Basset- Griff on before them. 

Their legs are very short, usually straight or demi-torse, bodies low, strongly 
built, and not very long. They are very hardy, and equal to any rough work. Mr. 
Macdona's Eomano, often exhibited in variety classes, is of this type. 

It is, however, with the smooth and nobler race that I will now deal. These 
are inseparably connected with the famous kennel of Chateau St. Martin, and 
hounds of Count Couteulx' s strain are now as highly prized and eagerly sought 
for in England as in France. They are very aptly described by the French writer 
De la Blanchere as " large hounds on short legs." It is the massiveness of these 
miniature hounds that first strikes a stranger's fancy. 

The curious formation of their body and limbs, the grand head, and brilliant 
colouring, combine to make a whole that is quaint and picturesque, and in harmony 
with mediaeval character. They are the dogs one expects to see on tapestries or 
roaming about castle-keeps. 

The following lines from Shakspere are remarkable in their faithfulness to 
this breed : go fl ewe< j 9 so gan a e d ; and their heads are hung 

With ears that sweep away the morning dew, 
Crook -kneed and dew-lapped like Thessalian bulls, 
Slow in pursuit, but matched in mouths like bells 
Each unto each. 

There are few more useful all-round dogs to the sportsman than the 
basset-hound. In France this is well known and appreciated, and in a 



THE BASSET-HOUND. 159 



very short time people in this country will learn to value their marvellous 
powers of scent and peculiar manner of hunting. Deer and roebuck driving is 
their particular work, and no one can fail to see that a little low hound on 
crooked legs, with a nose never at fault, and a throat full of deep melodious 
music, is better than a lame or broken-legged terrier for the purpose. If the 
full-crooked be found slow, the demi-torse will prove to have plenty of pace. 
They are capital to shoot any sort of fur to, hares, rabbits, deer, roebuck, &c. 
Two or three are sent into a covert, and the guns take their positions according 
to the runs, or where the music directs them. They are very clever at " ringing" 
out the game, and in small woods they drive the quarry about so slowly that 
one has plenty of time to get ahead and shoot it in a crossing. Deer and hares 
will actually play before the little hounds, stopping to listen to them coming. 
Though ground game is their special occupation, yet they are also employed to 
put up birds, pheasants, &c. They are chiefly used with the gun abroad, but 
there are several packs which hunt, like our beagles, rabbits, hares, &c. They 
usually kill a hare in two or three hours. They run any sort of drag, and 
many a pleasant go across country has been had with Mr. Millais's little pack 
on a herring drag. I remember in particular one beautiful morning, taking 
with me another denizen of Cockayne, I drove out to Pinner, the little village 
where the dogs are kennelled. An active young fellow, well up to the duty, 
was sent off with the drag; a goodly company assembled to see the laying on 
and start. The hunt was a little poem to those who love the unpretentious ; 
over green meadows, up and down ditches, through the Harrow lanes ; men in 
the fields stopped at their work and scratched their heads in wonder as the 
little pack went by giving tongue merrily. The pace was a good trot, quite 
fast enough for men not in training, and better acquainted with "the shady 
side of Pall Mall" than the towing path or running ring. Anybody with a 
couple of basset -hounds can get up a drag hunt on his own account and for 
the enjoyment of his friends. 

The extent of " crook," and the respective merits of " torse," and " demi-torse," 
have excited some attention amongst breeders. As the result of my inquiries 
made of French sportsmen on this subject, it can be taken that both are equally 
pure, both shapes of forelegs occurring in the same litter, and buyers must 
choose whichever best suits their sport. In the show ring, with two dogs of 
equal merit in all other points, I should decide in favour of the full-crooked as 
being harder to breed, more in keeping with the bizarre appearance of the dog, 
and because the bloodhound character is usually more conspicuous in the torse, 
though I have seen full-crooked specimens without bloodhound type, and half- 
crooked with it. 

The first good specimen exhibited in this country, of the Artesian type, was 
Mr. Millais's " Model," a very handsome dog. The next step was a class at the 
Crystal Palace in 1880, when Mr. Millais and Lord Onslow showed the whole class 
between them. All these hounds were of the "Couteulx" strain. In 1881 I 
imported Pallas, Pino de Paris, and Jupiter. Pallas had just returned from 



160 



THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



winning first prize in Brussels, when I bought her, and I have shown her often 
since then. She has never been beaten, and scores- 97 points in 100 of perfection. 
Fino de Paris is a hound of Continental fame, having been for a long time the 
stud dog of the Jardins d'Acclimatation. He is a very large dog on short 
legs, with grand chest properties and great bone. I subsequently imported 
Guinevere, Vivien, and Hecuba, which are all of Count Couteulx's strain. Besides 
Lord Onslow, Mr. Millais, and myself, Lieut. Monro and Mr. G. Ramsay possess 
the breed, and I suppose a few others who may have purchased home-bred 
stock. These hounds are not quick breeders, and being in-bred require much 
care in rearing. I have lost whole litters at a time from puppy complaints, but 
have not been troubled with distemper since I took to vaccinating them. Though 
basset-hounds are still rare, and good specimens few even in France, yet they 
already fill two classes at the London shows. When I judged them at the winter 
show in 1881 the English exhibits were augmented by the entries of Mons. Lane, 
whose hounds are, from the work he requires of them (hunting wild boar), of a 
larger type than the "Couteulx" strain. 

"With steady and judicious breeding, the basset-hound should in time take a 
unique position in the esteem of the sportsman and the exhibitor, when the pioneers 
of the breed in this country will be able to look back with pleasure and pride 
upon their efforts to gain it an intelligent and lasting recognition. 

The following is the value of the points : 



POINTS OF THE BASSET HOUND. 



Yalue. 
Head, skull, eyes, 

muzzle, and flews ... 15 

Ears 15 

Neck, dewlap, chest, 

and shoulders 10 

40 



Value. 

Forelegs and feet 15 

Back, loins, and hind- 
quarters 10 

Stern . 5 



30 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Coat and skin 10 

Colour and markings ... 15 
"Basset character" 
and symmetry 5 

30 



(1). To begin with the head, as the distinguishing part of all breeds. The 
head of the basset-hound is most perfect when it closest resembles a bloodhound's. 
It is long and narrow, with heavy flews, occiput prominent, " la bosse de la chasse," 
and forehead wrinkled to the eyes, which should be kind, and show the haw. 
The general appearance of the head must present high breeding and reposeful 
dignity; the teeth are small, and the upper jaw sometimes protrudes. This is 
not a fault, and is called the "bee de lievre." 

2. The ears very long, and when drawn forward folding well over the nose so 
long that in hunting they will often actually tread on them ; they are set on low, 
and hang loose in folds like drapery, the ends inward curling, in texture thin and 
velvety. 



THE BASSET-HOUND. 161 



3. The neck is powerful, with heavy dewlaps. Elbows must not turn out. The 
chest is deep, full, and framed like a " man-of-war." Body long and low. 

4. Fore legs short, about 4in., and close-fitting to the chest till the crooked 
knee from where the wrinkled ankle ends in a massive paw, each toe standing 
out distinctly. 

5. The stifles are bent and the quarters full of muscle, which stands out so that 
when one looks at the dog from behind, it gives him a round, barrel-like effect. 
This, with their peculiar waddling gait, goes a long way towards Basset character a 
quality easily recognised by the judge, and as desirable as terrier-character in a 
terrier. 

6. The stern is coarse underneath, and carried hound-fashion. 

7. The coat is short, smooth, and fine, and has a gloss on it like that of a 
racehorse. To get this appearance they should be hound-gloved, never brushed. 
Skin loose and elastic. 

8. The colour should be black, white, and tan. The head, shoulders, and 
quarter a rich tan, and black patches on the back. They are also sometimes 
hare-pied. 




MB. VERO SHAW'S BULL DOGS "SMASHER" AND "SUGAR." 



PART III. 

roi^Tznsra- IDOGHS. 

BOOK I. 
WATCH DOGS. 

CHAPTEE I. 
THE BULLDOG AND MASTIFF. 



THE BULLDOG-. 

NTIL the early part of tlie nineteenth century the bulldog was bred 
with great care in this country for the purpose of baiting the bull, 
which up to that time formed one of the most popular out-of-door 
amusements of the lower orders, to whom also his cross with the terrier, 
then known as " half-and-half," afforded indoor entertainment by means 
of dog-fights and rat-killing. Bear baiting was occasionally added to this list, 
but never to any great extent, on account of the cost of procuring the bear ; but 
the three other kinds of sport, as they were then considered, were extensively 
patronised, and notably in London, Birmingham, and the manufacturing districts 
of Staffordshire and Yorkshire. Bull-baiting was chiefly confined to the potteries, 
but London had still its Westminster dog-pit till the passing of the Act for 
the prevention of cruelty to animals in 1835, which put a stop to all public 
exhibitions of this kind, with the exception of an occasional sly run at a bull by 
the Staffordshire miners during their weekly holiday above ground, and to the 
private cockfights which until very recently were carried on even in circles 
considerably higher. The bulldog was used for the bull-bait, because he was 
exactly suited to the purpose ; his nature being to run at the head of the animal 
he attacks, and after laying hold (" pinning ") to maintain it in spite of any amount 
of punishment, short of insensibility from injury to his brain. Whether this 
peculiar attribute is natural or bred artificially, I believe there is no sufficient 
evidence to prove ; except that if, as I shall presently show, the superior antiquity 
of the greyhound is satisfactorily established, it may be assumed that the bulldog 
is a subsequent production. To permit his keeping his wind while thus holding 
on to the bull, the nostrils must be set back as far as possible behind the level of 




164 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

his teeth, or the soft and yielding substance of the lip of the bull would suffocate 
the dog, and hence the breeders hare always insisted on the necessity of a shortness 
of the face to an extent such as is never seen in any other variety of the species, 
and also on wide and open nostrils. The large head is indispensable to give courage ; 
and though no great amount of intelligence was necessary for bull-baiting, some 
cleverness was required to avoid the horns of the bull. There is no doubt that 
this dog is capable of great attachment to his master, and even of learning tricks, 
as might be expected from the size of his brain ; but he has always been troublesome 
as a companion on account of his losing all control over his actions when excited, 
so as to be beyond the management even of the most determined master, whom, 
when calm, he would fondle like a spaniel. Mr. Adcock, who is an enthusiastic 
lover of the breed, in a letter to me lately announcing the death of his celebrated 
dog Ajax, writes that until the dog came into his possession " he exhibited the 
greatest ferocity, going straight at man, beast, or vehicle, if in motion, and, in the 
case of animals, invariably selecting the head for attack, and becoming the more 
determined if beaten with whip or stick." It was not, he writes, until he engaged 
in a naked-handed contest, in which, by continually throwing him, he showed the 
dog that he was his master, that he could do anything with him in safety. " From 
that time," he goes on to say, " the dog's temper gradually improved, the chain 
was no longer used, and he readily learnt to fetch and carry, and other tricks, such 
as jumping a hurdle, &c." This anecdote certainly would lead one to believe that 
in breeding for size one of the peculiar attributes of the bulldog has been lost or 
greatly reduced ; for, according to the statements of all experienced owners of the 
bulldog in his purity, with whom I have conversed on his temperament both in 
past and present times, such a feat would be impossible with a well-bred animal 
even of 501b. weight or less, whereas Ajax weighed 651b. The notorious account 
published in the Daily Telegraph some years ago of the fight between the man with 
his fist alone, and the dog chained in a room, was asserted to be apocryphal as 
being incredible, although according to my experience perfectly feasible, for in it 
the dog was described as chained, whereas in the above-mentioned contest Mr. 
Adcock with his naked hands must have been fully within reach of Ajax, or he could 
not have thrown him as he states he repeatedly did. Either, therefore, Mr. Adcock 
performed a feat of a superhuman character, or Ajax did not display the average 
courage and tenacity of the pure bulldog ; and if so, his case goes to show that the 
specialty of the breed has been sacrificed to some extent in order to procure the 
increase of size, which made him the champion of his day in the various dog shows. 
This accords with my own opinion of him, as I considered him deficient in length 
of skull, though no doubt for his size I thought him a grand specimen of the breed, 
knowing as I do how difficult it is to procure ' increased bulk in all parts of the 
body of any animal. Giants are almost invariably out of proportion in some part 
or parts, and to this rule I fear I must contend that Ajax was no exception, malgre 
his owner's opinion that he was the " finest example of the breed ever exhibited." 
In comparison with the head of Lamphier's King Dick or Eomanie, or with that 
of Henshall's Duke, the skull of Ajax would, I think, be found greatly reduced in 



THE BULLDOG. 165 



size, taking into consideration tie difference in the respective weights of their whole 
bodies. However, de mortuis nil nisi bonum, and I should not have alluded to 
this asserted deficiency except for the purpose of considering size per se in this 
breed, of which, as I think, too great importance has been made. 

Tip to the stoppage of the above-mentioned amusements, which are now 
generally stigmatised as brutal, the bulldog might justly be estimated by the points 
he exhibited which were best adapted to the office he was required to fulfil. At 
present he is " out of place," and is only wanted to impart some portion of his 
extraordinary courage to other breeds; and here, indeed, the demand is more 
theoretical than practical, as the crosses in which he has been used are now 
established ; and it is very seldom indeed that a new infusion of his blood is 
required. These crosses are chiefly that with the mastiff, resulting in the keeper's 
night dog ; with the greyhound, in which after several generations the cross retains 
a certain degree of additional courage and power of bearing punishment ; and with 
the terrier, the result of which, after many generations, is the modern bull terrier 
one of the most companionable of all the dogs of the present day, and gradually 
creeping into favour with the public. In the cross with the greyhound the peculiar 
shapes of the bulldog are soon lost in the elegant lines of the longtail ; and this 
bears strongly on another point in his natural history, to which I shall now allude. 
Before proceeding to that subject I may, however, wind up the present one by 
stating that, for the reasons given above, the bulldog is only to be regarded as a 
remarkable curiosity in natural history ; but as such it would be a great pity to 
lose him. 

A warm controversy has long been maintained among dog fanciers as to the 
antiquity of the bulldog ; but the above-mentioned fact would serve to show that 
the greyhound, at all events, is the older and purer variety of dog, since it is 
admitted by all experienced breeders that whenever a cross is attempted between 
two animals of a different strains, the older and purer strain very soon shows and 
maintains a marked predominance. In my first attempt at defining our various 
breeds of dogs, published in the year 1859, I describe a series of crosses made by 
the late Mr. Hanley, who was an enthusiastic courser of that period, with a view 
to further improve the greyhound by a second infusion of bull blood, which 
had previously been found advantageous by Lord Orford and others. Putting a 
high-bred bull-dog "Chicken" (by Burn's Turk out of sister to Viper) to a greyhound 
bitch, the produce showed very little of the bull, having not the slightest vestige of 
" stop," no lip, and a pointed muzzle, with a body nearly as light as that of the 
dam. The produce of the next cross with the greyhound were wholly greyhound- 
like in appearance, but, though they were moderately fast, they could not stay a 
course, and this defect continued to the last, when the experiment was terminated 
in the sixth generation by Mr. Hanley's death. His want of success has most 
probably prevented a repetition of the cross ; but, as far as one example goes, it 
tends to show that the bulldog is not, what many of his admirers contend he is 
the oldest and purest breed of modern dogs. 

Soon after the enforced cessation of bull-baiting, the breeding of bulldogs was 



166 THE DOGS OP THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

in great measure put a stop to, and indeed was confined to a very limited number, 
including, in London, the celebrated dealer in dogs, familiarly known as "Bill 
George," and a few of the prize-fighting fraternity, who, however never attempted 
a " bait ; " while around Birmingham, as already stated, and in the Potteries, a 
sly run at the bull was still occasionally held. Gradually, however, for want of 
encouragement, the pure breed became more and more rare, even with the aid of 
the original Bulldog Club, and its acknowledged head, Mr. H. Brown, of Hampstead, 
who was enthusiastically supported by the late Mr. Mundell, Q.C., Mr. Stockdale, 
and one or two others of similar position ; but, with these exceptions, the breed in 
London fell into the hands of the publicans, who from time to time held shows in 
their tap rooms, to draw custom ; and mainly for the same purpose it was kept up 
at Birmingham, which has always rivalled London in its breed of these dogs as well 
as Sheffield, where the late Mr. Lamphier long held undisputed sway. Still, however, 
it has been artificially stimulated as a variety of " the fancy," and, consequently 
its value cannot now be tested by any rules founded on a special purpose for it, as 
is the case with the various kinds of sporting dogs and with its congener the mastiff 
as well as with the St. Bernard and Newfoundland; in which size forms an 
element of great importance when regarded as protectors of man. Nevertheless, 
it has lately been assumed by Mr. Adcock and his followers that this point is to 
be taken as per se a mark of superiority ; and that gentlemen has at great trouble 
imported a dog from Spain to improve his strain, for the sole reason, as it appears 
to me, that he is of great size, which he undoubtedly is; but, being already in 
possession of Ajax, a dog confessedly of full size, being 651b. in weight, I cannot 
understand why he should wish to increase the bulk of his breed by crossing with 
a dog exhibiting no single bulldog point in anything like perfection. Nevertheless, 
his example has been followed by Mr. Dawes, of Leamington, and one or two 
other noted breeders of the bulldog, but hitherto without producing anything fit for 
the show bench, as far as I know ; and, as before remarked, the description of his 
encounter with Ajax would lead me to consider that dog as showing anything 
but a good example of the courage and tenacity of purpose which are the 
attributes specially insisted on, even by Mr. Adcock himself, as all-important. 

With a desire to stop this attempt at improvement (after a short interval from 
the death by inanition of the old Bulldog Club above-mentioned) , several influential 
breeders lately established the present Bulldog Club, which commenced their 
labours by drawing up a scale of points very similar to that of the old club given 
in the first edition of " The Dogs of the British Islands," the chief difference being 
in the allowance for skull, which is reduced from 25 to 15, the balance being given 
to symmetrical formation. 

THE NEW BULLDOG CLUB'S SCALE OF MARKS FOE JUDGING BULLDOGS BY 

POINTS. 

"In adopting the principle of distributing 100 marks amongst the several points of 
the bulldog, the Bulldog Club has followed the example of the old National Dog Club, 
with whose valuation of the separate points of the bulldog (as given in Stonehenge's 
' Dogs of the British Isles ') the present scale is almost identical. 



THE BULLDOG. 



167 



" The opinions of all (whether members or not) were solicited and received, and the steps 
to define and obtain the establishment of a recognised standard for the breed have been 
carefully and impartially taken." 



Point mentioned in standard. 



Details for consideration of Judge. 



Distribution of 100 
marks for perfec- 
tion in each point. 



1st 
2nd 



7th 
8th 



9th 

10th 
llth 

12th 
13th 
14th 



15th 



16th 
17th 



General appearance 
Skull 



Stop 
Byes 
Ears , 
Face , 



Chop... 
Mouth 



Neck and chest . . 



Shoulders 
Body .... 



Roach back 

Tail 

Fore legs and feet 



Hind legs and feet 



Size 
Coat 



Symmetrical formation; shape, make, style, 
action, and finish 

Size, height, breadth, and squareness of skull ; 
shape, flatness, and wrinkles of forehead ... 

Depth, breadth, and extent 

Position, shape, size, and colour 

Position, size, shape, carriage, thinness 

Shortness, breadth, and wrinkles of face ; 
breadth, bluntness, squareness, and upward 
turn of muzzle ; position, breadth, size, and 
backward inclination of top of nose ; size, 
width, blackness of, and cleft between 
nostrils 

Size and complete covering of front teeth 

Width and squareness of jaws, projection and 
upward turn of lower jaw; size and con- 
dition of teeth, and if the six lower front 
teeth are in an even row 

Length, thickness, arching, and dewlap of 
neck ; width, depth, and roundness of 
chest 

Size, breadth, and muscle 

Capacity, depth, and thickness of brisket; 
roundness of ribs 

Shortness, width at shoulder, and height, 
strength, and arch at loins 

Fineness, shortness, shape, position, and 
carriage 

Stoutness, shortness, and straightness of legs, 
development of calves and outward turn 
of elbows; straightness and strength of 
ankles, roundness, size, and position of feet, 
compactness of toes, height and prominence 
of knuckles 

Stoutness, length, and size of legs, develop- 
ment of muscles, strength, shape, and 
position of hocks and stifles, formation of 
feet and toes as in fore 

Approaching 501b 

Fineness, shortness, evenness, and closeness 
of coat ; uniformity, purity, and brilliancy of 
colour 

Total for perfection in all points 



10 

15 
5 
5 

5 



100 



This scale is given here ' in extenso, out of consideration for the high 
authority from which it emanates; but I cannot help thinking that the skull, 
which is the essential point of the breed, has been sacrificed in favour of 



168 



THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



another, which can far more readily be obtained, and is of comparatively little 
importance. 

If the dog is to be regarded as useful in himself for any purpose whatever 
demanding symmetry, by all means value that point accordingly ; but as I do not 
so regard him for the reasons above given, and as I consider his courage, which 
depends for its development on that of his brain, as the peculiar attribute of the 
breed, I must confess that I do not accept this alteration without protest, and I 
therefore put forth the following scale, in which I have added five points for skull, 
]eaving it still lower than the old estimate : 



Value. 

Skull 20 

Stop 5 

Eyes 5 

Ears 5 

Face, upper jaw, and 
nostrils 5 

40 



PROPOSED SCALE OF POINTS. 

Yalue. 

Chop 5 

Mouth and lower jaw 5 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest ... 10 

Back 5 

Tail 5 

35 
Grand Total 100, 



Yalue. 

Fore legs and feet 5 

Hind legs and feet ... 5 

Size 5 

Coat and colour 5 

Symmetry and action 5 

25 



1. Skull (value 20) should be as large as possible, square in all directions, and 
the skin covering it well wrinkled. The distance between the eye and ear passage 
should be considerable. 

2. The stop (value 5), or indentation between the eyes, should be well 
developed in depth as well as width, and should extend up the skull, or be 
" well broken up the face," as this is called in canine phraseology. This 
term is an appropriate one, the conformation giving the animal possessing 
it an appearance as if his skull was split in two beneath the skin at 
this part. 

3. The eyes (value 5) should be dark and large, but not too full (" goggle "). 
Their setting should be straight across, not oblique or fox-like, and should be 
wide apart. 

4. The ears (value 5) should be small and fine. Three shapes are known, under 
the names " rose," " button," and " tulip." In the " rose " ear, which is considered 
by far the best, the tip laps over outwards, showing part of the inside. The 
" button " shows scarcely anything of the inside, from the tip falling forwards, while 
the " tulip " stands erect like that of the fox. Many dogs are in the habit of cocking 
up their rose or button ears into the shape of the tulip when excited ; but this, 
though objectionable, and sufficient to make a good judge take off a proportionate 
amount from the allotted value of this point, should not make him estimate them 
as if they were absolute tulips. In all cases the ears should be set on at the edges 
of the upper surface of the skull, and not on its top, which gives an unnaturally 
narrow appearance to the head. 

5. Face, upper jaw, and nostrils (value 5). In the upper jaw there should be no 



THE BULLDOG. 169 



falling away tinder the eyes, the cheek-bones "being prominent, showing a good 
girth from depth as well as breadth. The nasal bones and cartilages must be very 
short, so that the end of the nose lies sloping back considerably behind the level 
of the teeth, reducing the distance between it and the eyes to a minimum. The 
" shortness of face," as it is called, is considered of great importance, for the reason 
given in the introductory remarks. The nose itself should be broad, damp, and 
black, with the nostrils wide open, having a cleft between them. A light- 
coloured ("Dudley") or a parti- coloured ("-butterfly") nose is especially ob- 
jected to. 

6. The chop (value 5) or lips should completely cover the teeth, the more the 
better. 

7. The mouth and lower jaw (value 5) must be wide and square. The lower 
jaw should be well turned up, and project beyond the upper. The canine teeth 
(tusks) should be strong and set wide apart, and the incisors in an even row and of 
regular size. 

8. The neck (value 5) should be moderately long, but arched and very muscular, 
and should be clothed with a quantity of loose skin hanging down in the form of 
a double dewlap. 

9. Shoulders and chest (value 10). The shoulder-blades should be long, and 
strongly covered with muscle. The chest must be very wide and deep, giving a great 
girth, the thickness of brisket being specially to be noted as different from that of 
all other dogs in reference to the width between the elbows. 

10. The lack (value 5) must be short, and arched at the loin (" reached "), 
showing a great width of the dorsal muscles running up in a hollow between the 
shoulder blades, which, combined with the arched loin, should make the dog look 
lower before than behind. There is rather a " tucked-up " appearance at the loins, 
from the shortness of the back ribs as compared with those in front, a " cobby " 
shape being undesirable. 

11. The tail (value 5) or stern should be set on low. It should be very fine, 
and by no means long. A twist is considered desirable rather than otherwise, and 
many go so far as to admire what is called a " screw." It must not be carried over 
the back, and a hooked end is a bad fault. 

12. Fore legs and feet (value 5). The legs should be short, straight, and well 
clothed at the arms or " calves " as they are called with muscle. This, being 
chiefly on the outside, often gives the bulldog's forelegs an appearance as if crooked, 
which they ought not really to be, and really are not in a well-made dog. The 
elbows should be set on to the true arm wide apart, the arm itself sloping out from 
the shoulder joint. The ankles, or pasterns, must be as nearly upright and straight 
as possible, showing plenty of bone ; but very few even of the best dogs quite come 
up in this point, and it must not, therefore, be much insisted on. The feet should 
have the toes well split up and arched, but most of the best dogs exhibit rather a 
wide or " splayed " formation of the feet. 

13. Hind legs and feet (value 5). The hind legs should be well turned out at 
the stifles, and in at the hocks, giving an appearance of what is called " cow hocks." 

z 



170 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

The hocks should be straight and near the ground ; the feet should turn out, but in 
other respects resemble the fore feet. 

14. The size (value 5) should, on the average, in the male, not exceed 501b. 

15. Coat and colour (value 5). The coat should be fine, short, even, and close ; 
the colours are white, brindled, fallow, or red, or pied with one of these colours ; 
and white or red smut, fallow or fawn smut that is, with black faces. Black 
is objected to. 

16. Symmetry (value 5) depends on shape, style, and finish, united with action ; 
this last is peculiar, and consists in a lurch or roll, depending on the width of this 
dog's shoulders, and the formation of his hind legs rendering it difficult for him to 
raise them high from the ground. 

Since the last edition of the "Dogs of the British Islands" was published, 
several well-known breeders of the bulldog have either died, or have retired from 
the fancy, as is the case with Mr. H. Brown, Mr. Mundell, and the two Lamphiers. 
Among the latter, Mr. Shirley and Mr. E. J. LI. Price have given up the breed, and 
the names of Messrs. Henshall, Stockdale, Tyser, Fulton, and many others, have 
disappeared from the .prize list. In the present day, Mr. G. A. Dawes, of 
Leamington ; Mr. G. Eaper, of Stockton-on-Tees ; Mr. James Taylor, of Eochdale ; 
Mr. Harding Cox ; Mr. Adcock, of Wigan ; Mr. James Berrie (one of the oldest and 
most enthusiastic fanciers now), Mr. Layton, Mr. T. H. Joyce, and Mr. Vero Shaw, 
of London, have many good specimens of the type I have endeavoured to describe 
in the foregoing notes. 

Mr. Vero Shaw has kindly placed his kennel at my disposal for illustration, 
and I have selected two specimens from it which show the peculiarities of the 
breed in a marked degree. The foreshortened sketch of the dog exhibits the 
formation of the chest, shoulders, width of skull, and " rose " carriage of ears, 
peculiar to the breed, while the bitch's side view shows her wonderfully short face 
and " reached " loin, rarely met with to the same extent. Their pedigrees are as 
follow : The dog, Smasher, by Master Gully out of Nettle, by Sir Anthony. The 
bitch Sugar (formerly Lily), is by the Abbott out of Mr. J. L. Ashburne's Lola, and 
was bred by the latter gentleman. 

THE ENGLISH MASTIFF. 

Like the bulldog, the old English mastiff was bred in this country in the 
earliest times of which we have any reliable record ; but, whether in these former 
ages the two breeds were distinctly separate, and whether the modern bulldog and 
mastiff can be traced to one or the other of them, are points which must ever 
remain unsettled. Mr. F. Adcock and Mr. Kingdon would no doubt write half a 
dozen volumes in support of the superior antiquity and purity of their respective 
proteges ; but, after all, a jury empanelled to deliver a verdict between them would 
probably be discharged without agreement upon it, and I shall not certainly 
attempt to do that which I think a 12-man engine would fail in doing. My 
object is simply to describe the mastiff as I find him; but, nevertheless, I 




L.WELLS 



MR. LUKET'S MASTIFF " GOVERNOR." 



THE ENGLISH MASTIFF. 171 

shall not refuse to lay before my readers Mr. Kingdon's views of the origin 
of the pure breed, which he believes to be now confined to Lyme Hall, in 
Cheshire, and his own kennels, but most of his dogs .are now more or less 
crossed with the modern mastiff. He says : " There appear to be recorded 
only four ancient seats of the mastiff in its purity, and these four most cele- 
brated strains have been preserved, each in its integrity ; the oldest of these, 
pre-eminent for its antiquity and purity, has been thus preserved by the ancient 
family of Legh, at Lyme Hall, in Cheshire, where it seems to have been even 
previous to 1415, and has been handed down by them in its integrity and 
purity ; another at Chatsworth, by the Duke of Devonshire ; a third at Elvaston 
Castle, by Lord Harrington; and a fourth at Hadzor Hall, by the Galtons." 
Two of these four are said to be extinct, and, as he says, " there remains only the 
Lyme Hall and Elvaston breeds in their legitimacy, and of these the Lyme 
Hall stands pre-eminent." But, unfortunately, although it is readily admitted 
that a breed of mastiffs has been maintained at Lyme Hall for many generations, 
there is no written evidence that it has been kept pure, and we may just as well 
depend on the purity of Mr. Lukey's brindled bitch with which he started his 
kennel, and which was bred by the Duke of Devonshire, as on that of the Lyme 
Hall strain. The fact really is, that there is no breed among existing British dogs 
which can be traced through all its generations for 200 years, and very few 
individuals for half that time. Foxhound and greyhound pedigrees are the oldest 
and most carefully kept, but with very few exceptions even they do not extend 
much beyond the latter period ; and excluding them no breed goes back even for 
half a century without a doubtful link in the chain of pedigrees. 

In determining the points which are desired in any individual of a particular 
breed, it is idle to go back for centuries and select some strain of which we have no 
reliable record, and which, if obtained, would probably prove to be very different 
from what we want. For example, the foxhound is admitted to be descended from 
a hound which was very different from him in many important respects ; yet, 
according to Mr. Kingdon, we ought to take the old type and reject the modern 
one. Instead of proceeding in this illogical way, the master of hounds nowadays 
improves upon the old type by every possible means, and the result is a hound 
which does what is asked from him, in a manner which would be far beyond the 
powers of his ancestors. So with the mastiff we want a large and handsome dog, 
possessed of a temperament which will bear restraint under provocation, and, at the 
same time, of courage to defend his master till the death. These mental properties 
were carefully attended to by Mr. Lukey, who may be considered to be the founder 
of the modern English mastiff, and his example has been carefully followed in 
this respect by Mr. E. Hanbury, Capt. Gamier, Miss Aglionby, Miss Hales, Mr. 
M. B. Lynn, Mr. Lindoe, Mr. Nichols, and Mr. W. George. All these eminent 
breeders have taken Mr. Lukey's breed as typical of what they desire to produce, 
and the results of their efforts may be compared with Mr. Kingdon's dogs on 
perfectly equal terms, inasmuch as it is admitted that full attention has been paid 
to the demand for a mild temperament and other mental attributes which 



172 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

are peculiarly essential to this breed. Now Barry is without doubt Mr. Kingdon's 
piece de resistance, and yet he is as a satyr to Hyperion when compared with Lukey's 
Governor or Baron, Hanbury's Prince, Green's Monarch, Wallace's Turk, Field's 
King, Miss Hales's Lion, or Miss Aglionby's Wolf, besides some dozen or more 
other dogs of nearly equal merit and celebrity. For these reasons I shall discard 
all further mention of the Lyme Hall strain, and proced to describe the modern 
mastiff as founded by Mr. Lukey, and improved on by Capt. Garnier, Mr. Hanbury, 
and the other eminent breeders mentioned above. 

Mr. Lukey began to breed mastiffs rather more than forty years ago, taking 
a brindled bitch bred by the then Duke of Devonshire as his foundation. Putting 
her to Lord Waldegrave's celebrated dog Turk, and her puppies to the Marquis 
of Hertford's Pluto, he obtained a strain with which he stood for some years almost 
alone as the celebrated mastiff breeder of the day, without any outcross. At 
length, fearing deterioration by further in-breeding, he resorted to Capt. Garnier's 
kennel for a sire, the produce being that magnificent dog Governor, by Capt. 
Garnier's Lion out of his own Countess, a daughter of his Duchess by his 
Bruce II., who was by his Bruce I. out of his Nell. Of the breeding of his own 
Lion, and Lord Waldegrave's Turk, Capt. Garnier writes as follows, in a 
letter which was published at length in the last edition of " Dogs of the British 
Islands " : 

" About this time I bought of Bill George a pair of mastiffs, whose produce, 
by good luck, afterwards turned out some of the finest specimens of the breed 
I ever saw. The dog Adam was one of a pair of Lyme Hall mastiffs, bought by 
Bill George at Tattersall's. He was a different stamp of dog to the present 
Lyme breed. He stood 30^in. at the shoulder, with length of body and good 
muscular shoulders and loins, but was just slightly deficient in depth of body and 
breadth of forehead ; and from the peculiar forward lay of his small ears, and 
from his produce, I have since suspected a remote dash of boarhound in him. 
The bitch was obtained by Bill George from a dealer in Leadenhall Market. 
Nothing was known of her pedigree, but I am as convinced of its purity as I am 
doubtful of that of the dog. There was nothing striking about her. She was 
old, her shoulders a trifle flat, and she had a grey muzzle, but withal stood 29in. 
at the shoulder, had a broad round head, good loin, and deep lengthy frame. 
From crossing these dogs with various strains I was easily able to analyse their 
produce, and I found in them two distinct types one due to the dog, very tall, 
but a little short in the body and high on the leg, while their heads were slightly 
deficient in breadth; the other due to the bitch, equally tall, but deep, lengthy, 
and muscular, with broad massive heads and muzzles. Some of these latter stood 
33in. at the shoulder, and by the time they were two years old weighed upwards of 
1901b. They had invariably a fifth toe on each hind leg, which toe was quite 
distinct from a dew-claw, and formed an integral portion of their feet. By bad 
management, I was only able to bring a somewhat indifferent specimen with me 
on my return to England from America a badly reared animal, who nevertheless 
stood 32in. at the shoulder, and weighed 1701b. This dog Lion was the sire of 



THE ENGLISH MASTIFF. 173 

Governor and Harold, by Mr. Lukey's bitch Countess, and so certain was I of the 
vast size of the breed in him that I stated beforehand, much to Mr. Lukey's 
incredulity, that the produce would be dogs standing 33in. at the shoulder the 
result being that both Governor and his brother Harold were fully that height. 
In choosing the whelps Mr. Lukey retained for himself the best marked one, an 
animal that took after the lighter of the two strains that existed in the sire ; for 
Governor, grand dog and perfect mastiff as he was, compared to most others of the 
breed, was nevertheless shorter in the body, higher on the leg, and with less 
muscular development than Harold, while his head, large as it was, barely 
measured as much round as did his brother's. I, who went by the development 
of the fifth toe (in this case only a dew-claw), chose Harold, a dog which combined 
all the best points, except colour, of both strains/.and was a very perfect reproduction 
on a larger scale of his dam Countess. This dog was the finest male specimen of 
the breed I have met with. His breast at ten months old, standing up, measured 
13in. across, with a girth of 41in., and he weighed in moderate condition 1401b., 
and at twelve months old 1601b., while at 13^ months old Governor only weighed 
in excellent condition 1501b with a girth of 40in. ; and inasmuch as Governor 
eventually weighed 1801b. or even more, the size to which Harold probably 
attained must have been very great. His head also in size and shape promised 
to be perfect. 

" I will mention three other dogs. The first, Lord Waldegrave's Turk, better 
known as ' Couchez,' was the foundation of Mr. Lukey's breed. This dog has 
frequently been described to me by Bill George and Mr. Lukey, and I have a 
painting of his head at the present moment, He stood about 29^in. or 30in. at 
the shoulder, with great length and muscular development, and, although he was 
never anything but thin, weighed about 1301b. Muzzle broad and heavy, with deep 
flews ; skin over the eyes and about the neck very loose ; colour red, with very black 
muzzle. He was a most savage animal ; was fought several times with other 
animals, and was invariably victorious. The second was a tailless brindled bitch, 
bought by Mr. Lukey from George White of Knightsbridge. She was a very large 
massively built animal, standing 30in. at the shoulder. Her produce with Couchez 
were remarkably fine. ' Long-bodied, big-limbed, heavy-headed bitches. They 
were mastiffs Mr. Lukey had in those days ! ' is Bill George's eulogium of them. 
This bitch was bred by the Duke of Devonshire, and must therefore have been 
one of the Chatsworth breed. The third animal, L'Ami, was a brindled dog of such 
vast size and weight that he was taken about and shown in England, in the year 
1829, the price of admission being one shilling. Of the head of this dog also I 
have a drawing, and it shows him to be very full and round above the eyes, with a 
broad heavy muzzle and remarkably deep flews, the ears being cropped close. This 
dog, with the exception of rather heavier flews, answered exactly to the type of 
Vandyke's mastiff. 

" Now the point to which I wish to draw attention is, that both Couchez and 
L'Ami came direct from the Convent of Mount St. Bernard. The mighty dogs 
which used to be kept at Chatsworth (and one of which stood 34in. at the shoulder) 



174 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

were pure Alpine mastiffs, as also were the two magnificent animals I have 
mentioned as having seen at Bill George's kennels some sixteen years ago ; while 
others that I frequently used to meet with at that time were of the same character. 
These, one and all, presented the same type a strong proof of their purity and 
that type was in all respects the same as the old English mastiff portrayed by 
Vandyke. The same may be said of the dogs in Landseer's picture of Alpine 
mastiffs, which have all the points of the true mastiffs, although their tails, as 
might be expected from the cold climate, are hairier than they should be. At that 
time one used to meet with good English mastiffs also, but they were few compared 
to the number of half-bred animals that went by that name ; and, with the excep- 
tion of Mr. Lukey's breed, the good ones have nearly all come from Lancashire, 
Cheshire, and the north of England generally, where some years ago they were still 
in considerable request for guarding the large bleaching grounds. Between these 
and the Alpine dogs I never could discover the slightest difference except in size 
the best English dogs varying from 29in. to 33in. at the shoulder, while the Alpine 
male specimens were seldom under 32in. 

" Now, it is ridiculous to suppose that the dogs that used to be found at the 
convent, and in a few of the Swiss valleys, were a breed indigenous to that small 
part of the continent of Europe ; and yet it was there only that the breed existed. 
When, therefore, we find the same animal common in England two hundred 
years ago, and still to be met with in considerable numbers, though more rarely 
than formerly, it is only reasonable to conclude that the English and Mount St. 
Bernard mastiffs are identical breeds, and that the monks, requiring large, 
powerful, generous, and high-couraged animals for their benevolent purposes, 
selected the old English dog in preference to all other breeds. It is very easy 
to understand that with the disuse of the breed for combating wild animals they 
should have been allowed to die out and degenerate in England ; and it is equally 
easy to understand that the mastiffs kept at the Convent of St. Bernard for 
a particular purpose, requiring strength and courage, should have been kept 
up, and thus that the best specimens of the breed in modern times have come 
from there." 

According to Captain Gamier, therefore, Mr. Lukey's original breed was 
composed of Chatsworth and Alpine mastiffs, to which was added, by means of 
Lion, a strain of the Lyme Hall ' breed. But, whatever may have been the 
origin, there can be no doubt that no finer specimen of the mastiff than 
Governor has ever been exhibited, and I have therefore retained his portrait, 
which is undoubtedly a faithful one, as representing the true type of the modern 
English mastiff. Mr. Green's Monarch was larger, but his head and ears were 
not so good as those of Governor, who showed moreover no trace of the bulldog, 
supposed to have existed in King and in Miss Aglionby's celebrated litter by 
that dog, including Wolf and Turk, as well as in Lukey's Baron, also by him. 
This cross is traced to Lord Darnley's Nell, supposed to be nearly or quite 
half bull. 

As I stated in the last edition of this book, there is probably no variety of 



THE ENGLISH MASTIFF. 175 

the species which combines so much strength and power of doing mischief with 
such docility and amiability, and hence he is, par excellence, the keeper's dog. A 
well-broken mastiff may be taken out at all hours, and in any company, by the 
most delicate lady, without the slightest fear of leading her into a scrape, and with 
the most perfect confidence in his protection. There are few Newfoundlands 
even, docile as they are generally considered to be, from whom it would be safe to 
take away a bone, but this may be fearlessly done by the master or mistress of the 
mastiff ; and with children he is gentleness itself ; yet when roused, and set at man 
or animal, his courage is second only to that of the bulldog. His sense of smell is 
acute ; Mr. Hanbury tells me that his Duchess will track him with the truth of a 
bloodhound, and he has seen her draw up to a covey of partridges like a pointer. 
These dogs are not good at water, and do not voluntarily take it, except in the heat 
of summer. According to my experience the English mastiff is more reliable in 
temper than the modern St. Bernard, and bears the chain much better, confine- 
ment having a greater tendency to procure disease both of body and mind in 
the latter. Indeed, I know no dog that stands confinement so well as the 
mastiff, and it is probably owing to the unfair advantage taken of this peculiarity 
that we see so many mastiffs deficient in legs and feet, as the result of want of 
exercise. 

A great deal has been written lately, on the bad effect of the bull cross, as 
exhibited in King and his stock ; but I quite agree with Capt. Gamier in thinking 
that the injurious results complained of have been greatly exaggerated, though I 
do not go the full length with him of asserting that a century or two ago the two 
breeds were identical ; for, much as I am inclined to think he is right, there seems 
to be no absolute proof of the truth of his opinion. The sole objection to the 
cross, as it appears to me, rests in the danger of spoiling the temper of the 
produce ; but every one of experience knows that many keeper's dogs, which are 
fully half -bull, are perfectly under control even with severe provocation. Still, 
unless a bulldog is selected of specially amiable temperament, there would be great 
risk of the effect alluded to, and in any case the proportion of bull ought to be 
small, not exceeding one-eighth. Capt. Garnier's opinion of the bull cross for the 
mastiff may be gather from the following remarks, which form part of the letter 
above alluded to : 

" By crossing, then, the bulldog with the mastiff, we merely combine two breeds 
which a century or two ago were identical. This fact is also proved by the 
colour of the two breeds, which are the same, viz., brindled, fallow, and red with 
black muzzles ; while the known effects of domestication and warmth in producing 
white in all animals would have full play in the bulldog the fireside companion 
of the working man and would quite account for the change of a light fallow 
into that colour, and its presence in the bulldog of the present day. In 
using the cross, however, it would, of course, be advisable to select a brindled or 
fallow dog. 

" We have an illustration of the bull cross in King and his produce ; but here 
I think it has proved of but slight use. King combines in him some of the best 



176 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

strains of the pure mastiff, and his good qualities are quite as much derived from 
them as from the bull strain in him. His great-granddam, Mr. Lukey's Countess, 
had a longer and more muscular body than he has, and his head and muzzle are 
not one whit fuller than any of Mr. Lukey's old strain ; while Baron, his son, who 
is the result of another cross with the old strain, has, I think, a slightly fuller 
head than he himself. His ears also are more probably inherited from his great- 
granddam Countess than from the bull cross. The only effects produced by the 
latter are the under jaw slightly underhung, a full prominent eye, short muzzle, 
and square forehead. The two first are objectionable, and the two latter produce 
certain illusive effects on the eye. The shortness of the muzzle makes it look 
broader than it really is, and the squareness of the forehead makes that part look 
fuller. These latter so far are advantages, but mastiff critics should remember that 
the effects produced by them are more apparent than real. Thus Turk's square 
forehead measures no more round in proportion to his size than does Druid's ; and 
yet, while the eye can detect no great fault in Turk's head, the want of breadth 
in Druid's is evident at once. So also the contrast of a strongly-marked muzzle 
with the rest of the head makes it look fuller than it really is. While on this 
subject, I may as well notice another effect. Some of the correspondents in the 
Field have written of Druid as having a narrow and pointed muzzle. If, however, 
they measure the girth of his muzzle and that of King's, they will find that they 
are in the same proportion as the relative sizes of the two dogs, while Druid's 
muzzle is actually more truncated than King's, and as much so as Baron's ; but 
let the owner of Druid slightly lift the skin on each side of his dog's head, so as to 
give the forehead an appearance of greater breadth, and the supposed faults in the 
muzzle will at once disappear. So deceptive are these little tricks of effect, that I 
never depend on my eye alone, but always assist my judgment with the tape. The 
fact that in the particular case of King the bull cross has had no very decided effect 
need not prove an objection to that cross, unless it can be shown that the bulldog 
used was the best of his class. For there are " bulldogs and bulldogs ; " and it is 
only in the best specimens that the head will measure more round in proportion to 
their size than the heads of well-bred mastiffs, the squareness of forehead and 
shortness of muzzle in the bulldog contributing to make their heads look larger 
and fuller in proportion to their size than they really are. From what I know of 
the strain from which the bull cross in King came, I expect that his bulldog 
ancestor was not of the largest-headed type. But take such a dog as Bill George's 
Young Dan, whose head measures 20^in. round, and who stands 22in. at the 
shoulder. If he stood 32in., the height of Peveril, his head would measure nearly 
31in., while Peveril's only measures 27in. ; and the volume of the two heads would 
then be as 3 to 2." 

A much worse stain in the pedigree of the mastiff is the cross with the 
bloodhound, which has been tried in order to give majesty to the expression. The 
result is perhaps in accordance with that object, but the temperament is sadly 
interfered with, and the general size, as well as the relatively large dimensions of 
head to body, are lost. Instead of the peculiar breadth of the head, it becomes 



THE ENGLISH MASTIFF. 177 

long and narrow, the lips are too pendulous, and the eye sunken, with an exhibition 
of the haw in the bloodhound form, often to the extent of being absolutely red. 
I should certainly object to this cross to the full extent of disqualification if 
exhibited. The following is 

THE NUMERICAL VALUE OF THE MASTIFF'S POINTS. 



Value. 

Head 20 

Eyes 5 

Ears 5 

Muzzle 5 

35 



Value. 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest ... 10 

Legs and feet 10 

Loin 10 

35 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 
Size and symmetry ... 15 

Colour 5 

Coat 5 

Tail 5 

30 



1. The head (value 20) is broad, full, and flat in its general character; but this 
flatness is made up of two gentle swells with a furrow between, as well shown in 
the portrait of Governor. Eyebrows well marked but not high. Jaws square 
in outline and broad, moderately long, and without flews ; for though the upper lip 
is full, it should by no means be pendulous, which formation only exists when there 
is a cross of the bloodhound. 

2. The eyes (value 5) are small and somewhat sunken, but mild in expression, 
and without the sad and solemn look exhibited by the bloodhound. They are 
generally hazel or brown. 

3. The ears (value 5) should be small and pendant, lying close to the cheek, with- 
out the slightest approach to a fold, which indicates the bloodhound cross. They 
should be set well back, and should be vine-shaped, neither lobular nor houndlike. 

4. The muzzle (value 5) must be short, with level teeth and square at the nose. 
The flews should be distinctly marked so as to make the square distinctly pro- 
nounced ; but they must not be pendulous to anything like the same degree as is exhi- 
bited by the bloodhound. A slight projection of the lower teeth may be overlooked. 

5. The neck (value 5) is muscular, and of sufficient length to avoid loss of 
symmetry. There is a well-marked prominence at its junction with the head. No 
throatiness should be allowed, as it indicates the bloodhound cross. 

6. The shoulders and chest (value 10) must be taken together, as with a full 
development of the latter there is generally a slight want of obliquity in the 
former. The girth is, however, the important point, and it should always be at 
least one-third greater than the height. Thus a dog 32in. high should girth 41^in. 
In such a case the shoulders are apt to be rather short, but they must in any event 
be well clothed with muscle. 

7. Legs and feet (value 10). Both these important organs are too apt to be 
defective in the mastiff, owing greatly to the confinement in which he is usually 
reared from generation to generation. The consequence is that, however well a 
puppy is treated, even if left at full liberty, his feet are often weak and flat, his legs 
small in bone and bent at the knees, he has frequently cat-hams, and a gallop is 
quite beyond his powers. Hence, these points should be specially attended to in 

A A 



178 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

estimating the merits of any individual. The desideratum for the feet is that of 
the cat round, with the knuckles well up. A dew-claw is often met with behind, 
but it is not considered important either way. 

8. The loin (value 10) must be wide and deep, and should girth nearly as much 
as the height at the shoulder. The back ribs being apt to be short, a nipped loin is 
often met with, but it takes away greatly from the strength of the back. 

9. Size and symmetry (value 15). From the general selection of this breed as 
a guard for his master, size is all-important, and a dog ought to be at least 29in. 
or 30in. high to be considered perfect, while any increase on this, if combined with 
symmetry, is to be counted in his favour. Bitches are usually about 2in. less than 
the dogs of the same litter. Few breeds are more symmetrical in their proportions 
when the best specimens are examined. 

10. The colour (value 5) is regarded as of some considerable importance by 
mastiff breeders, most of whom now confine themselves to a stone fawn, with black 
muzzle and ear tips. It is, however, indisputable that the brindle is a true mastiff 
colour, and if we take Mr. Lukey's breed as the foundation of most of our strains, 
and as his dog Wallace was of that colour, the question is at once settled. Capt. 
Gamier thinks that a cross of brindle is necessary to keep up the black points ; 
but I scarcely think this can be correct, for the black is well marked in the Lyme 
Hall strain, as well as in Mr. Kingdon's crosses, none of which are derived from 
brindled sires or dams. Nor is it the case in greyhounds, in which black muzzles 
occur in certain red and fawn strains without a brindled or black cross, whereas 
they are absent in others, although even a black sire or dam has been used, as in 
the case of Effort and The Brewer, descended from a long line of fawns, although 
crossed with the Bedlamite black in their dam Hopmarket. Sometimes white is 
shown on the face, but this is certainly a defect, though not a great one. A white 
star on the breast, or a few white toes, may be passed over. Red, with black muzzle 
is admitted, but not admired. 

11. The coat (value 5) must be fine and short, even on the tail, which, however, 
may be allowed to be a little more rough than the body. 

12. The tail (value 5) is long and strong at the root, without any curl or twist, 
but carried high when the dog is excited, not otherwise. 

The following are the dimensions, in inches, of Mr. Lukey's Governor, whose 
portrait illustrates this article : Height at shoulder, 33in. ; length, nose to tip 
of tail, 86 ; girth, 40 ; girth round loin, 31 ; round fore leg, lOf ; round thigh, 
22 ; round head before ears, 28 ; skull, 9| ; muzzle, 5^ conjoined, 15 ; ears, 7|. 
Weight, 1801b. His pedigree is as follows : 





'Lion. j 


Adam. 


f Bruce I 


( Couchez. 




(Gamier). 


Eve. 
'Bruce II. ... 


] (Lukey). 


(_ Yarrow. 
(White's Dog. 


Governor . 4 






/Nell 


. ... < Yarrow. 


(Lukey). 


Countess < 




v (Lukey). 
f Tiger. 


(.(Lukey). 




^(Lukey). 


Duchess 


) (Arniitage). 








(Lukey). 


i Countess, 
v (Thompson). 






s 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 179 




OHAPTEE II. 

THE NEWFOUNDLAND, LABRADOR, ST. BERNARD, AND 
DALMATIAN DOGS. 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 

WO distinct types of this breed are now generally admitted one con- 
siderably larger than the other, and known as the Newfoundland, from 
its being generally found on the island of that name ; while the other, 
distributed over the state of Labrador chiefly, though also met with in 
the island of Newfoundland, is now known as the Labrador, otherwise 
called the St. John or Lesser Newfoundland. In addition to these distinct types 
there are numberless nondescript dogs to be found in both of the above districts, 
and notably a breed of black and white dogs with curly coats and fine heads and 
frames, which, from one of them having been selected by Landseer to serve as a 
model for his celebrated picture denominated "A Distinguished Member of the 
Humane Society," are now known as the " Landseer Newfoundland." In spite 
however, of the immortality thus conferred on them, our judges refuse to recognise 
their merits as compared with the whole blacks, and they are relegated to a 
separate class in those shows which recognise them at all. Independently of the 
difference in colour, they also vary from the black type in being more open in 
their frames, weaker in their middles, and generally displaying a more shambling 
and ungraceful gait in walking. All the varieties of the breed are excellent 
swimmers. 

The large black Newfoundland is remarkable for his majestic appearance, 
combined with a benevolent expression of countenance. The latter quality, being 
really in accordance with his disposition, and frequently displayed by his life-saving 
capacities in cases of threatened drowning, has made him for many years a great 
favourite as a companion, especially with those who live near the sea or any great 
river. With these points in view, judges have naturally made a full size of great 
importance, since it not only adds to the majestic aspect of the dog, but renders him 
really more capable of distinguishing himself in the career so beautifully com- 
memorated by Landseer in the picture above alluded to. 

The general opinion now is, as first pointed out by " Index " in the Field, 
that a dog of this breed above 26in. is almost unknown in Newfoundland ; but it 
is also allowed that puppies bred and reared in England of the pure strains, which 
in the island never attain a greater height than 26in., will grow to 30in. or even 32in. 
Such an animal is Mr. Mapplebeck's Leo, who has recently taken the first prize at 
Islington in the Kennel Club Show, after distinguishing himself previously at Bath, 



180 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

Swindon, and other exhibitions. He is, I believe, descended from an imported 
Newfoundland on both sides, and shows his pure descent in all respects, being the 
grandest specimen I ever saw. For this reason I displaced the portrait of that 
fine dog, Mr. Robinson's Carlo, who represented the breed in the first edition of 
" Dogs of the British Islands," although I had intended to retain him ; but Leo 
is so magnificent an animal that I could not leave him in the cold. By many people 
the rusty tinge in his coat is objected to, and no doubt it is slightly against him 
but it is admitted by " Index," Mr. Lort, the late Mr. Wheelwright (" Old 
Bushman "), and others who are acquainted with the breed in its native districts, 
that the rusty black is very common among the best strains, though considered by 
the native breeders to be a slight defect. The last-named gentleman left behind 
him on his death in 1865 a very fine Newfoundland dog of this rusty colour, 
imported by himself, which his sister offered to me, and I gladly accepted the present, 
partly from respect for the memory of so good a sportsman and writer, and partly 
from my fondness for the breed. This dog was fully 28in. high, which militates 
against the truth of " Index's " theory on that point, and had double dew claws on 
both hind legs, in which Mr. Mapplebeck's Leo is altogether wanting, but showing 
marks of their having been removed in his puppyhood. In all other respects he 
closely resembles Mr. Wheelwright's dog, but exceeds him in size by about 2|in. 
to 3in., being nearly 31in. in height. But although not absolutely perfect in colour, 
the texture of his coat is so beautiful, that the rusty tinge on it may be almost 
overlooked ; and, even if penalised, the dog must score fully 97-| points out of a 
possible 100, so perfect is he in all other respects ; and we all know the difficulty of 
getting any dog so nearly correct in all his points as this estimate would make Leo 
to be. " Index," in his final letter, published in the Field of July 31, 1869, writes 
with regard to this tinge as follows : " The black dogs, especially when young, 
often appear to have a brown tinge on their coats. It is to be seen more or' less in 
almost all these dogs, though not in all. Combing will often remove it if the dog 
has not been well kept ; but I don't think much combing is advisable, for it some- 
times would remove the brown-tinged black hair at the sacrifice of the length and 
thickness and beauty of the coat. Nor is the slight brown tinge (not visible in all 
lights) ugly ; nor is it inconsistent with purity of breed, though it would be always 
better absent." This extract is exactly in accordance with the evidence I have 
obtained on this point from Mr. Lort and other good judges who have visited 
Newfoundland. With regard to size, the same gentleman further writes in the same 
letter : " While from 24in. to 26in. is the average height of dogs on the island, I 
have seen that the standard often reached in England is considerably higher ; and I 
cannot, either in theory or as a matter of taste, object to size if it be united with 
perfection of shape. All I have said, and all I maintain, is that size apart from 
colour is worthless, and that very large dogs would often (in my experience almost 
invariably, though I have not had the presumption to advocate any rule on this 
experience) be found much inferior to dogs which stood in height in proportion 
as 24 or 26 is to 31 or 34. Whether young imported Newfoundlands do 
generally or frequently reach 30in. or 31in., or whether such cases as those adduced 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 181 

as being within the knowledge of the Field are exceptional cases, has not been 
discussed by me." 

Numberless anecdotes are told of the sagacity and fidelity of this dog, and 
notably of his desire to save life in cases of threatened drowning. The Eev. S. 
Atkinson, of Gateshead, had a narrow escape in trying to rescue one of two ladies 
who were immersed in the sea at Newbiggin, being himself unable to swim ; but his 
fine dog Cato came to their aid from some considerable distance without being 
called, and, with his help, Mr. Atkinson was safely brought to shore, together with 
his utterly exhausted charge. Hundreds of similar cases, and of ropes being carried 
on shore from wrecked vessels, have been published, so that it is needless to gild 
the refined gold with which these deeds are emblazoned. This dog's fame as a 
member of the Humane Society is as firmly established as that of the St. Bernard 
in the snow ; and as the numbers of the former until recently have been greatly in 
excess of those of the latter, and the area for their operations is almost unlimited, 
while the St. Bernard is confined to a couple of monasteries, it is scarcely fair to 
compare the escapes carried through by the two breeds in point of numbers. Suffice 
it to say that the gratitude of mankind has been earned by both. 

The numerical value of the points in this breeds is as follows : 



POINTS or THE NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Value. 

The head 25 

Ears and eyes 5 

Neck 10 

Chest 5 

45 



Yalue. 



Yalue. 



Back 10 Symmetry 10 

Legs 10 Colour 5 



Feet 5 

Size 10 

35 
Grand Total 100. 



Coat 5 

Tail 5 

25 



1. The head (value 25) is very broad, and nearly flat on the top in each direction, 
exhibiting a well-marked occipital protuberance, and also a considerable brow over 
the eye, often rising three-quarters of an inch from the line of the nose, as is well 
shown in the case of my present illustration, Mr. Mapplebeck's Leo, in which it 
exists to a greater extent than usual. The Labrador shows the brow also, but not 
nearly in so marked a manner. There is a slight furrow down the middle of the 
top of the head, but nothing approaching to a stop. The skin on the forehead is 
slightly wrinkled, and the coat on the face and top of the head is short, but not so 
much so as in the curly retriever. Nose wide in all directions, but of average length, 
and moderately square at the end, with open nostrils ; the whole of the jaws covered 
with short hair. 

2. Eyes and ears (value 5). The eyes of this dog are small, and rather 
deeply set ; but there should be no display of the haw or third eyelid. They 
are generally brown, of various shades, but light rather than dark. The ears 
are small, clothed with short hair on all but the edges, which are fringed with 
longer hair. 



182 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

3. The neck (value 10) is often short, making the dog look chumpy and 
inelegant. This defect should always be attended to, and a dog with a sufficiently 
lengthy neck should have the full allowance ; but, on the other hand, a short 
chumpy one is so often met with that, even if present, the possessor of it should not 
be penalised with negative points. The throat is clean, without any development of 
frill, though thickly clothed with hair. 

4. The chest (value 5) is capacious, and rather round than flat; back riba 
generally short. 

5. The back (value 10) is often slack and weak, but in some specimens, and 
notably in Leo, there is a fine development of muscle ; accompanying this weak back 
there is often a rolling and weak walk. 

6. The legs (value 10) should be very bony and straight, well clothed with 
muscle on the arms and lower thighs. Elbows well let down, and neither in nor out, 
Both the fore and hind legs are thickly feathered, but not to any great length. 
There is also often a double dew claw. 

7. The feet (value 5) are large and wide, with thin soles. The toes are generally 
flat, and consequently this dog soon becomes foot-sore in road work, and cannot 
accompany a horse or carriage at a fast pace. 

8. In size (value 10) the Newfoundland should be at least 25 inches in height, 
and if he is beyond this it is a merit rather than a defect, as explained in the above 
remarks. Many very fine and purely-bred specimens reared in this country have 
been from 30 to 32 inches high. 

9. The symmetry (value 10) of this dog is often defective, owing to the tendency 
to a short neck and weak loin. As a consequence, a symmetrical dog like Leo is 
highly to be approved of. 

10. The colour (value 5) should be black, the richer the better; but a rusty 
stain in it is so common in the native breed that it should by no means be penalised. 
Still, the jet black is so handsome in comparison with it, that I think, other points 
being equal, it should count above the rusty stain in judging two dogs. A white 
star on the breast is often met with. The white and black colour exhibited in the 
Landseer type never occurs in the true Newfoundland. 

11. The coat (value 5) of the Newfoundland is shaggy, without much under- 
coat, and at first sight it would appear unfit for much exposure to wet. It is, 
however, so thick and oily that it takes some time for the water to reach the skin 
through it. There is often a natural parting down the back, and the surface is 
very glossy. 

12. The tail (value 5) is long and gently curled on one side, but not carried 
high. It is clothed thickly with long hair, which is quite bushy, but often naturally 
parted down the middle. 

Mr. Mapplebeck's Leo, whose portrait accompanies this article, is the finest 
Newfoundland I have ever seen, exhibiting all his best points in proportion, without 
the short neck and weak back which are so often met with. He is by Windle's Don 
out of Meg of Maldon, and is a great grandson of Mr. Robinson's Carlo, a first-prize 
winner at Birmingham and Islington in 1864 and 1865. 




THE BEV. J. C. MACDONA'S ST. BERNARD "TELL." 



THE ST. BEENAED DOG. 183 

The Landseer type of Newfoundland differs from the true type chiefly in the 
colour and texture of his coat. The former is always white with black patches, 
and the latter is more woolly, without the gloss of the true Newfoundland. 
He is also generally higher on the leg and more slack on the loin, giving a 
remarkably shambling and awkward gait. 



THE LABEADOE OE LESSEE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG-. 

This dog, also called the St. John Newfoundland, is described in the article on 
the wavy-coated retriever in the 2nd part of this book; and as his use in this 
country is almost entirely confined to retrieving game, he cannot be included among 
the non-sporting dogs. 

THE ST. BEENAED DOG. 

Until about twelve years ago, this variety of the dog was comparatively 
unknown in the British Isles, except on canvas. Landseer and Ansdell had 
repeatedly portrayed the majestic form and benevolent expression which have long 
been traditionally attached to this breed, and some few specimens have been 
imported; but their numbers were so small that it was rare to meet with an 
Englishman who had seen one in this country. About the time above mentioned, 
however, the Eev. J. Gumming Macdona determined to make the attempt to 
naturalise the dog here, and, with that view, twice visited the monasteries of St. 
Bernard and the Simplon, where his enthusiastic efforts were on the first occasion 
rewarded by the attainment of a dog and bitch, which formed the nucleus of his 
subsequent large and valuable collection, aided by subsequent additions from other 
sources. By his unwearied efforts and skill in breeding, the St. Bernard dog has 
now become so generally diffused throughout Great Britain that thirty or forty 
specimens are generally exhibited at each of our large shows ; and these being the 
cream of the whole breed, it may easily be imagined that the milk from which it 
has been skimmed is in abundance. 

In the year 1815 the old and true Alpine breed was reduced to so small a number 
that the monks began to fear it would be exterminated. This result was no doubt 
due to an accident by which several dogs were destroyed in an avalanche ; but 
it was also to be traced to continued in-breeding causing sterility or such delicacy 
of constitution as to end in early death. Consequently they determined to 
introduce a cross with the Newfoundland; but, as this did not answer, they 
procured a couple of bitches descended from the old strain, yet kept distinct from 
it, in other kennels, belonging to gentlemen residing in the adjacent valleys. When 
Mr. Macdona was at the Hospice they had recently obtained a noble dog, named 
after the celebrated Barry, and resembling him in colour and shape, from 
M. Schumacher, belonging to a strain of the old breed, but kept in the family 
of the Baron Youde for half a century. With the aid of this dog, the monks have 
been able to replenish their kennels, and there appears to be at present no necessity 



184 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

for them to reimport dogs from Mr. Macdona's stock, which he promised to allow 
them to do, if necessary, when he obtained his first drafts from them. In 1868 
the monks gave Mr. Macdona a bitch puppy by this dog, which he named Hospice. 
She was rougher in the coat and had more white about her than is approved of on the 
Alps, and was probably on that account undervalued by them. He also obtained his 
Monarque (a smooth-coated dog, brother to Barry), from the Eev. Mr. Dillon, chaplain 
at Berne, who had him from M. Schumacher in the same year, having previously 
imported his celebrated rough dogs Tell and Hedwig, brother and sister, bred by 
M. Schindler, and with a pedigree derived from the original Barry, who died in 1815. 
Mr. Murchinson has imported Thor from M. Schumacher's kennel, and from the 
same source Miss Hales' Jura also came. Mr. Stone's Barry and Mr. Tyler's Thunn, 
said to be bred from a dog at the Hospice, and Mr. Macdona's fine dog G-essler, 
imported by Capt. Eastwood from Switzerland, but without a pedigree, complete 
the list of the chief sources of the present extensive collection of dogs spread 
throughout the length and breadth of the land a very large proportion of which 
are descended from those imported by the Rev. J. Gumming Macdona ; but of late 
years the stock of Thor have been in the ascendant, including Mr. Gresham's very 
strong kennel chiefly composed of Hector, Oscar, The Shah, and Dagmar by this 
dog, with the addition of Monk by Sir Charles Isham's Leo, but who, like his sire, 
has too much of the Newfoundland type for my taste. 

In this country the St. Bernard dog is only useful as a guard and companion, 
being in fact chiefly valued for his ornamental qualities, in which his grand head 
and intelligent expression, coupled with his massive proportions, render him even 
superior to the bloodhound ; though in the case of Hilda, given by Mr. Macdona 
to Lady Frances Cecil, the St. Bernard has proved a very valuable deerstalker, 
well known in the forest of G-lentannar. In the Alpine snows the rough coat 
is considered to unfit the dog for the work he has to do ; but there is not the 
same objection to it here ; and, as it is far more pictorial in its effect, the rough 
variety is preferred in England, as represented by Tell, Hedwig, Thor, G-essler, 
Alp, Hospice, Jura, Hector, Oscar, Chang, and Menthon the last a very fine black 
and tan dog imported by Mr. Macdona, without a pedigree, and not showing all the 
characteristics of the true breed, but still very successful on the show bench, owing 
to his size and beauty of form and coat. 

In order to understand the reason of this preference of the short coat on the 
Alps, it is necessary to consider the work demanded from the dog. Every morning 
during the prevalence of the snow-drifts four monks in pairs, each being attended 
by their servants and a couple of dogs, leave the Hospice at eight o'clock, and 
descend the mountain, one pair on each side. The dogs run on in front, often 
having to clear the path of the snow, and enabled by their instinct and nose to 
keep to it without danger of falling into the drifts, which are not cognisable by the 
eye. For six hours the party daily remain out, continuing their search for 
travellers bewildered and lost, the dogs in stormy weather keeping up a loud 
barking, which is of course easily followed, and serves to instil hope even into 
the breast of the dying. Stone refuges are built at various spots, and these 




MB. MACDONA'? SMOOTH ST. BERNARD "MONARQUB. 



THE ST. BEENAED DOG. 185 

are regularly visited, and their inmates, if any, delivered from death, which 
inevitably follows -on long exposure to the cold of these regions. In their 
arduous struggles to reach these stations, the rough-coated dogs become matted 
with icicles, the weight of which seriously interferes with their efforts ; and, as in 
the case of the over-coated colley, experience teaches that where active work is 
to be done, a short coat is the best. Sometimes the dog is required to follow a 
lost traveller by the scent which he crosses, and for this purpose a keen nose is 
necessary, and there is plenty of evidence that it is well developed. Mr. 
Macdona's Tell (whose portrait illustrates the rough strain described in this article), 
once tracked his master for sixteen miles in the snow, in which his intelli- 
gence was taxed severely to ascertain the mode in which the Mersey had been 
crossed, the scent failing him at the pier. Watching the various steamers as 
they came alongside, he visited each in succession, until by his nose he discovered 
the right one ; and crossing over in that, and again taking up the scent on the 
opposite shore, he followed it for ten miles till he reached the object of his 
persevering search. Most of the St. Bernards will, like the Newfoundland, " fetch 
and carry ; " and, in relation to this habit, an excellent story is told by Mr. Macdona 
of his dog Sultan, which shows their sagacity in a remarkable manner. This dog 
was employed regularly to fetch the daily newspaper from the village, and on one 
occasion he was engaged in this duty, when a Sunday-school boy, who had been 
previously allowed to play with him at a school feast, met him, and, presuming on 
the good temper shown by the dog before, tried to take the paper out of his mouth. 
Sultan at once quietly dropped the paper, to avoid a struggle, and jumped at the 
boy's cap, which he took off and held as a ransom for his paper. The boy, 
objecting to the loss of his cap, quickly made the exchange, and off marched Sultan 
in triumph with it to his master. 

The two strains, rough and smooth, are considered to be distinct enough to 
require separate classes, but sometimes a litter is composed of specimens of each. 
Except in coat, there is little or no difference between them. 

Having enumerated the principal specimens of the rough strain, I may now 
mention that Monarque, now dead (whose portrait accompanies this article, drawn 
by Mr. Baker from an excellent photograph), stands at the head of the smooth 
division; facile princeps. He was bred by M. Schumacher, of Berne, and was by 
Souldan from Diane, being own brother to Schumacher's Barry, above mentioned. 
In colour he was white and yellowish red, of immense size and substance, and with 
wonderfully good legs and feet. Until his death he maintained his supremacy on 
the show bench, being the winner of about a dozen first prizes at the best shows, 
besides those given at smaller ones. In addition to him, Mr. Macdona also 
possessed Victor, Sultan, Bernard (imported from the Monastery), Swiss, Jura, and 
Jungfrau, daughters of Monarque, and several others of lesser note ; while Miss 
Aglionby's Jura (bred at the Monastery of St. Bernard), Mr. Layland's Le Moine, 
and Mr. Gresham's The Shah have met with a certain amount of success. But, 
in spite of the above list of grand dogs, as a lot the smooth-coated St. Bernards will 
not bear comparison with the rough in this country. 

B B 



186 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

Amongst other noted breeders of St. Bernards of both kinds are Lady Emily 
Peel, Lord Lindsay (who purchased the cream of Mr. Macdona's kennels), the Rev. 
G. A. Sneyd, Mr. Greshain, Miss Hales, Dr. Seton, Miss Aglionby, Prince Albert 
Solmes, and the Princess of Wales, who takes a great interest in the breed, having 
at Sandringham several of Mr. Macdona's strain. 

The following are the 



POINTS OF THE ST. BERNARD DOG. 



Value. 

Head 30 

Line up poll 10 

Shape of body and 
neck 10 

50 



Value. 
Size and symmetry ... 20 

Legs and feet 10 

Dewclaws . 5 



35 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Temperament 5 

Colour 5 

Coat ... 5 



15 



The Head (value 30) is large and massive, but is without the width of the 
mastiff. The dimensions are extended chiefly in height and length, the occipital 
protuberance being specially marked, and coupled with the height of brow, serving 
also to distinguish it from the Newfoundland. The face is long, and cut off square 
at the nose, which is intermediate in width between those of the Newfoundland 
and mastiff. Lips pendulous, approaching in character to the bloodhound type, but 
much smaller. Ears of medium size, carried close to the cheeks, and covered with 
silky hair. Eyes full in size, but deeply sunk, and showing the haw, which is 
often as red as that of the bloodhound. 

Line up Poll (value 10). Great stress is laid by the monks on this marking, 
which is supposed to resemble the white lace bands round the neck and waist of 
the gown worn by the Benedictine monks, the two being connected by a strip carried 
up the back. A dog marked with white in the same manner is supposed to be 
peculiarly consecrated to his work, and is kept most carefully to it. Hence it is in 
this country also regarded as a characteristic of the breed, but it is seldom met 
with in anything like a perfect state of development ; Monarque being more perfect 
in this respect than any dog ever exhibited. Being, as I before observed, chiefly 
used for ornamental purposes in this country, there is no rational objection to the 
value apportioned to this point. 

Shape of Body and Neck (value 10). There is nothing remarkable about the neck, 
except that there is generally a certain amount of throatiness, to which there is no 
objection. The body ought to be well proportioned, with a full chest, the girth of 
which should be double that of the head, and half the length of the body from 
nose to tip of tail ; the loins should be full, and the hips wide. 

In Size and Symmetry (value 20) this breed should be up to a full standard, that, 
is to say, equal to the English mastiff. Indeed, excepting in colour, in the dew- 
claws, and in the shape of head, the smooth St. Bernard very closely resembles 
that dog. He is generally more active in his movements, from having been more 
worked than his English compeer, who for generations has been kept on the chain. 



THE ST. BEENAED DOG. 187 

Legs and Feet (value 10). Of course, in so large a dog the legs must be 
straight and strong ; while the feet also must be large, in order to a^oid 
sinking thimigh the snow. The last point is greatly insisted on by the monks, 
who prefer even what would be considered here a splay foot to a small and 
compact one. 

Dewdaws (value 5). There is no doubt that the double dewclaw on the hind 
legs has in some way been introduced into the strain of dogs used at the two Alpine 
monasteries, but how it is now impossible to say. Both Tell and Monarque 
exhibited this peculiarity, as well as most of the dogs admitted to be imported 
from the Hospice. Gessler, however, who showed every other point of the breed in 
a very marked degree, had no dew-claw at all on his hind legs, and his son Alp, 
though out of Hedwig, sister to Tell, was equally deficient. It is very doubtful 
whether this peculiarity is sufficiently permanent in any strain to be an evidence of 
purity or impurity, and consequently its value is only placed at 5, making the 
negative deduction 10 when wholly absent. 

The Temperament (value 5) of the St. Bernard is very similar to that of the 
mastiff that is to say, if suitably managed, the dog is capable of great control 
over his actions, whether in the absence or presence of his owner. When kept on 
the chain he is, like other dogs, apt to become savage, and there is almost always 
an instinctive dislike to tramps and vagabonds. He is a capital watch and guard, 
and attaches himself strongly to his master or mistress. 

The Colour (value 5) of this dog varies greatly. The most common is red and 
white, the white being preferred when distributed after the pattern described above. 
Fawn and white and brindled and white come next, marked in the same way, the 
brindle being a very rich one, with an orange-tawny shade in it, as shown in Tell, 
and in a lesser degree by his nephew, Alp. Sometimes the dog is wholly white, or 
very nearly so, as in the case of Hospice and Sir C. H. Isham's Leo. 

The Coat (value 5) in the rough variety is wavy over the body, bushy in the 
tail, and feathering the legs, being generally silky, but sparsely so, on the ears. 
In the smooth variety the depth and thickness of the coat are the points to be 
regarded. 

Mr. Macdona's rough dog Tell (dead) was by Hero (descended from the 
celebrated Hospice dog Barry) out of Diane. He was a winner of twenty-five 
first prizes at various shows between the years 1865 and 1870 inclusive. He was 
own brother to Hedwig, dam of Alp. 

Mr. Macdona's smooth dog Monarque, afterwards Mr. Murchison's (also dead), 
was bred by Mr. Schumacher, of Berne, by his Souldan out of Diane. First shown 
in 1869, he went on winning numberless prizes up to 1873, being about equally 
successful with Tell in this respect. 



188 THE DOGS OF THE BKITISH ISLANDS. 



THE DALMATIAN DOG. 

Without doubt, the Dalmatian is a pointer when at home ; but in this country 
he has never been used, so far as I know, except to accompany a carriage, in which 
capacity he is unrivalled. Our English pointers will follow a dogcart quite as 
closely, and I have had more than one which would occupy the place generally 
selected by the Dalmatian, close behind the horse's heels ; but then they were 
accustomed to be taken out in the same dogcart to a distance from home, for the 
purpose of hunting their game ; and, associating the idea of hunting with the 
presence of the dogcart, they clung closely to it, if not allowed to ride. Now, when 
I have treated greyhounds exactly in the same way, they have not shown the same 
tendency, but have lagged behind at a distance of at least 100 yards, although in 
better condition as to wind and feet than the pointers. This peculiarity serves to 
show that there is a mental capacity common to both the English pointer and the 
Dalmatian, and confirms the opinion that the latter is a true pointer, differing only 
in colour from the English breeds of that dog. So long as it was the fashion to 
crop the ears of the Dalmatian, the above resemblance was not so close in the eyes 
of the casual observer, as it was usually thought that the bull-terrier was the 
nearest approach to him in shape ; but now that cropping is never practised the 
pointer type stands out clearly and prominently, and, saving the peculiar distribution 
of the black and white on the skin, the external differences are nil. But, whether 
or not this dog is by nature a game dog, in this country he has so long been 
confined to the stable that he is now pre-eminently a carriage dog, and he seems to 
care for no other occupation. Whether quietly resting in a stall or a loose box, or 
accompanying a carriage, he is equally content, and in the latter capacity he is 
jubilant, though, unlike the colley, he does not display his joy in barking at the 
horses' heads, but quietly and closely follows their heels between the fore-wheels. 
Most other varieties of the species soon tire of going long journeys on the road at 
a fast pace ; but the Dalmatian perseveres year after year, and never seems to lose 
the zest which he originally displayed. 

In spite, however, of the authority of Youatt, who states that " this dog is said 
to be used in his native country for the chase," the Dalmatian has always been 
included in our shows among the "dogs not used in field sports," and for this 
reason I have classed him among the watch dogs. In the time of Youatt, as would 
appear from the illustration given by him, the peculiar marking now insisted on was 
not so imperative ; and it would be easy to find an English pointer almost exactly 
resembling his engraving in this respect. The colour of the Devonshire pointer 
bitch Eomp, well known at recent field trials, very nearly approaches this standard, 
and, no doubt by a judicious selection from her puppies, a moderately good 
Dalmatian might soon be produced. 

From the prevalence of the breed at the institution of shows, it is not surprising 
that a class was soon formed for it, the first being at the Birmingham exhibition of 
1860 ; but on that occasion the dogs were so bad that, acting as judge, I withheld 




. 







MR. FAWDEY'S DALMATIAN DOG "CAPTAIN." 



THE DALMATIAN DOG. 189 

the prizes altogether. In the following year, at Leeds, a fairly good class appeared, 
and for some time after this the "breed seemed to be rising in public estimation 
and in appearance ; but latterly the colley has superseded it as a carriage dog, and, 
though some very fine specimens are occasionally exhibited, the classes, on the 
average, are badly filled. Mr. Harrison's Carlo was the chief prize winner until 
his son, Mr. E. J. LI. Price's Crib, appeared at Birmingham in 1866, since which 
time the latter maintained his supremacy xuitil 1874, when age had begun to tell 
upon him. In that year his younger brother of the same name, belonging to Mr. 
Hall, of Burton-on-Trent, beat him at Birmingham, and he retired from competition. 
Since then Mr. Fawdry's Captain has been the chief prize winner, his colour and 
markings being specially good. He was bred by Mr. Burgess, by Captain out of 
Countess ; and, commencing at Nottingham in 1875, monopolised all the first prizes 
at the London, Birmingham, and other important shows for several years. 

THE FOLLOWING is THE NUMERICAL VALUE OF THE POINTS OF THE 

DALMATIAN. 



Yalue. I Yalue. 

Head . 10 Leers and feet ... .10 



Neck 5 

Body 5 



Tail 5 

Symmetry 10 

20 | 25 

Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Coat 5 

Colour 10 

Markings 40 

55 



1. The head (value 10) exactly resembles that of the pointer, but so long as the 
nose is cleanly cut under the eyes, and square at the point, great breadth is not 
insisted on, and there should be no flews. The ears should not be long and hound- 
like, but flat, thin, and vine-shaped, lying close to the cheeks, and rather smaller 
than those of the pointer. Eyes small, dark, and brilliant. 

2. The neck (value 5) should be arched like that of the pointer, without any 
throatiness or approach to dewlap. 

3. The body (value 5) must be moderately strong, but not heavy and lumbering; 
sloping shoulders and a muscular loin are imperative. 

4. In legs and feet (value 10) the Dalmatian ought to be perfect, as his sole 
employment is on the road ; very strong bone is, however, not demanded, as he has 
no shocks to withstand, and useless lumber of any kind is to be deprecated. 
However, straight limbs, united with elbows well let down, and clean hocks, form 
the desideratum in this breed. The feet must be strong and close, whether hare 
or cat-like; and the homy sole should specially be regarded as of necessity thick 
and tough. 

5. The tail (value 5) should be small in bone after it leaves the root, and 
should be gently curved in one direction only, not with any approach to a corkscrew 
twist. 

6. The symmetry (value 10) should be examined closely, and, if deficient, 
penalised accordingly. 



190 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

7. In coat (value 5) this dog resembles the pointer in all respects, being short, 
without any approach to silkiness. 

8. The colour (value 10) is either black, liver, or dark blue. Sometimes 
there is a stain of tan about the head and legs, which is not objected to. A 
clear jet black is more highly valued than black and tan, the liver and blue being 
of equal value. 

9. The marking (value 40) is the point on which the judging of this dog mainly 
depends, some breeders valuing it at 50 out of the 100. I cannot, however, think 
that a well-marked cripple should prevail over a moderately well-marked dog perfect 
in all other respects, and I have consequently lowered the valuation of this point to 
40. In no case should there be a black patch on any part of the body or head 
exceeding the size of half a crown, and the nearer the spots approach to the size 
intermediate between a shilling and half a crown, and to the circular shape, the 
higher the estimate made. None should be smaller (if possible) than the shilling ; 
but no dog has ever yet appeared without a few such " flecks " or " freckles." A 
well-spotted tail is greatly admired, but it is very rarely met with. The white 
ground should be quite distinct from the spots, without any approach to freckles on 
it and the more regularly the spots are distributed the better. It is usual to 
divide the valuation of the several qualities in the markings as follows : Size, 15 ; 
shape and well-defined edges, 15 ; regular distribution so as to avoid patches of 
white, 10. 




BOOK II. 
SHEEP AND CATTLE DOGS. 

CHAPTER I. 
THE COLLEY AND OTHER SHEEPDOGS. 

THE COLLEY DOG. 

HENEVEE a serious controversy occurs in relation to the general 
character of any breed of our domestic animals, or to any peculiarity 
said to exist in it, there is often strong reason to conclude that 
the arguments pro and con. are founded upon unsubstantial premises. 
It happens in canine matters, as in most others, that facts are 
sometimes invented to support a theory which has been previously evolved out 
of the author's inner consciousness, the theory itself owing its birth to a desire 
on the part of its inventor to explain the existence of some peculiarity connected 
with a bantling belonging to himself, either in the shape of an individual or a breed. 
For example, some years ago that good sportsman, the late Mr. Lang, introduced a 
strain of lemon and white pointers, which was taken up so successfully by Mr. 
Whitehouse that he gained nearly every prize in the medium-sized classes of our 
shows. Straightway several of those who have possessed themselves of one or two 
of the colour contended that it was in itself a proof of high breeding ; but, I am 
happy to say, neither Mr. Lang nor Mr. Whitehouse was of that opinion, both of 
them resorting to a liver and white dog when they wanted a cross, and one of that 
colour happened to be the best at their command. Time has shown the propriety 
of that decision, and good judges of the breed now accept either colour without 
scruple. In all breeds of dogs which are useful to man there are certain attributes 
which are essential to the full development of their powers in the right direction, 
and by these attributes it is easy to estimate any animal of the breed under con- 
sideration. Thus a greyhound must have a form calculated to develop high speed, 
and for distances averaging somewhat less than a mile. A foxhound should have 
speed also, but united with high powers of scent, and stamina sufficient to carry 
him at a speed somewhat less than that of the greyhound for ten times the above 



192 THE DOOS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

distance. Pointers and setters require a combination of these qualities in about 
the same proportions as the foxhound ; while the fox terrier demands certain other 
qualities enabling him to dig his way to his prey underground, and " mark " him 
there without injuring him to any serious extent. All these dogs are exposed to 
the weather, but they do not stand about for hours in the cold and wet on a hill 
side, and the sheepdog is the only one of his kind, except the water spaniel and 
water retriever, whose 'trade renders it all important that the coat should be of a 
texture to resist the depressing influence of rain or melting snow when exposed to a 
strong wind. Hence it follows that, in addition to speed, stamina, and intelligence 
which he requires in common with all the breeds I have named, the proper texture 
of his coat for facing bad weather is the first point which requires to be settled 
before we can estimate a specimen of the colley, and this attribute must be valued 
accordingly in the scale of points allotted to him. In the Irish water spaniel, whose 
coat is oily, and of a texture calculated absolutely to resist the entrance of water 
into it, even when immersed in that fluid, the legs are clothed with short curls down 
to the toes, and this point is of great importance to his resistance for a length of 
time of the effects of wet. But he is always actively employed, except when used 
for wildfowl shooting in a boat or in ambush, and even then he can protect himself 
from the wind. The colley, on the other hand, is often for hours doing little or 
nothing on a Scotch, Welsh, or north-country hill side after tramping through 
melting snow or wet heather, and in him legs covered with short hair are a sine 
qua non on the principle which is admitted to apply to the horse. If that animal 
is at grass he must have a long winter coat in order to resist bad weather ; but 
whenever he is to be worked and then exposed to the wind with his coat wet either 
from sweat or rain, he is far less likely to take cold if clipped than if his full coat 
is left on. . Hence it follows that by the general consent of practical men a peculiar 
coat is required on the body of the colley which I shall presently describe, 
calculated to keep the whole animal warm, and especially on the neck and breast ; 
and in addition they have decided that the legs must be clothed with short hair 
only, showing little or no feather as in the setter and land spaniel, nor even the 
short curls of the water spaniel. This is the main reason for the objections which 
are taken to the cross of the Gordon setter, which has been used with the hope of 
adding to the beauty of the colley ; and from the " toy-dog" point of view no doubt 
it has that effect, imparting brilliancy and rich colour to the coat, but at the expense 
of its texture, and also feathering the legs, though this last alteration is of com- 
paratively little importance. 

The whole variety included under the term " sheepdogs " approaches more 
nearly than any other to the Dingo of Australia and the Pariah of India, which 
are the only wild dogs now in existence ; but whether the former are derived from 
a wild breed and have become tame, or the latter are merely wild sheep dogs, I 
do not pretend to say. My own opinion is that we know nothing of the history of 
the dog sufficiently minute and reliable to identify the ancient breeds as compared 
with the modern, and that our knowledge only extends to the proof afforded by 
Roman remains that the greyhound and either the mastiff or bulldog, or a dog 



THE COLLET DOG. 193 



intermediate between the two, existed in old Rome ; while Arrian describes only 
three varieties as known in Greece, viz. : the celeres, probably greyhounds ; pugnaces 
mastiffs ; and sagaces, answering either to our trick dogs or to dogs hunting by 
nose. But, leaving the history of the colley, we must now consider his present 
condition ; and here experience has decided that he should either have a moderately 
long coat with a woolly undergrowth over the body, increased in length round the 
neck in the shape of what is called a "ruff" or "frill," and with very short hair 
on the legs below the elbows and hocks, or that he shall have a short hard coat 
over the whole body. A very long coat is found to mat and hold the wet, so as 
to tire the dog, while the short coat is well suited to the lowland sheep, and is 
even found to answer in some hill countries. At all events, there is no doubt that 
many goods shepherds use, and have long done so, the short-coated colley ; and he 
must therefore be accepted as typical of the true breed as well as the rough variety, 
and, except in coat, there is not much difference between them. 

A great deal of discussion has also lately taken place in regard to the colley's 
proper colour and general appearance, and various descriptions have been given of 
what each writer considers the genuine breed, differing in every respect but the one 
to which I have drawn attention, which in almost all cases has been admitted to be 
essential. Some gentlemen, however, who have obtained specimens with beautiful 
but open coats of a glossy black, pointed with tan, have contended that this is the 
desideratum ; and so it is for the dog considered simply as a companion. Hitherto, 
however, no one has ventured to propound the theory that he is to be so regarded ; 
and, until I find that a separate class is made at some one or more of our important 
shows for " toy colleys," I must continue to describe the breed from the shepherd's 
point of view only regarding any suspicion of a setter cross, and especially if 
shown in coat, as injuring his value for the reasons given above. Only those who 
have seen one or more of the public sheepdogs trials instituted about four years 
ago by Mr. Lloyd Price, and many of which have of late years been held in Wales 
as well as in England), or have privately seen these animals at their usual work, 
can realise the amount of intelligence displayed by them. In these trials the 
slightest sign from the shepherd is understood and obeyed, and even the exact 
amount of driving calculated to make the sheep go quietly forward to the pen 
without breaking away is regulated to a nicety. A curious case which a short time 
ago happened to myself would almost lead to the belief that the colley understands 
the meaning of a conversation between members of the human family. Entering 
the drawing-room of a lady who has a celebrated dog of this variety as a pet, I 
was met with the question, " What do you think of my dog is he not a perfect 
beauty ? " After looking him over as he lay on the rug, and with a desire to tease 
my hostess, to whom I owed a Roland or two, for her previous many Olivers 
administered in badinage, I replied very quietly, " Yes, certainly, if he had but a 
colley coat and a little more ruff." The words were hardly out of my mouth when 
the dog rose from his recumbent position, seized one of my feet in his mouth, gave 
it a gentle but vicious little shake, not sufficient to scratch the leather of my boot, 
and then lay down again. There was no emphasis on my part, and not a word 

c c 



194 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

uttered by the lady until after the act was completed, when I need scarcely say that 
eyes and tongue told me that I was rightly served. Anyhow, it was a remarkable 
coincidence ; but from a long knowledge of the dog I really am inclined to believe 

that Gr knew I was " picking holes in his coat," and resented the injustice 

accordingly. Possibly, as in many human beings, he prides himself most on his 
only weak point, being absolutely perfect in every other, and not much amiss there. 
But, irrespective of his obedience to his master's orders, the independent intelligence 
of the colley is very high, and it is interesting to watch him or some other sheepdog 
manage a wild sheep which is to be driven against his will in a certain direction. 
Very frequently the sheep turns round and stands facing the dog, and the natural 
expectation on the part of a spectator is that the latter would try by barking to 
make the sheep turn round and progress somewhere. Not so, however ; such a 
proceeding would inevitably cause a " break away," and the course pursued is to lie 
quietly down and face the sheep. By this method in a short time the facing is 
changed to a quiet retreat, or sometimes to a slight backing, when the dog quietly 
moves a step or two forward and again lies down, till at last, by this kind of coaxing, 
the weaker animal of the two is quietly managed. In such cases a high degree of 
intelligence and tact is required which is partly innate and partly acquired from 
the shepherd by education. As a consequence there must be a due development 
of brain in the sheepdog, and there must be a disposition to learn and obey the 
orders given. So clever is the colley that he will not be imposed on for any purpose 
not evidently useful, and it is seldom that he can be taught to execute tricks for 
the gratification of idle spectators, although there is no difficulty in getting him 
to perform them once or twice to please his master. If exhibited beyond this extent 
he is apt to sulk and refuse to show off ; but when he is wanted to do really useful 
work, such as is required for the shepherd's purposes, he is untiring, and will go 
on till utterly exhausted. 

No other dog in this country is so constantly with his master engaged in his 
proper calling taking the breed as a whole. Occasionally, it is true, pet dogs are 
as much so, but by no means universally, nor are they even then so frequently 
employed in carrying out their masters' orders. This naturally increases the 
intelligence of each individual and reacts on the whole breed ; so that, independently 
of the constant weeding-out of puppies rendered useless from a want of intelligence, 
the superiority of the whole variety in mental attributes is easily accounted for. 
For the same reason, when the pet colley gets old and is submitted to the rebuffs 
of children or strangers, he is apt to become crusty in temper, and sometimes even 
savage ; but he is always most affectionate to his master, and no dog seems to be 
more sincerely repentant when he has done wrong. 

Within the last ten years the colley has become very fashionable as a pet, and 
his market price has risen from SI. to SQL, or even more for animals good-looking 
enough to take a prize at our shows. For this kind of colley beauty of form and 
a brilliant black coat are the chief requisites, and these are greatly aided by the 
cross with the Gordon setter; that is to say, without any consideration for the 
purposes to which this dog was originally bred, and is still extensively used. The 



THE COLLET DOG. 195 



pet colley, not being exposed to weather, is quite as useful to his master with an 
open setter coat and feathered legs ; .while regarded from an artistic point of view 
he is more handsom from the superior brilliancy of his colour, and from the 
addition of feather. His ears, when thus bred, are, however, seldom good, being 
neither pricked like the colley 's, nor falling close like the setter's ; and this is the 
chief objection to the cross from the pet dog point of view, though no doubt 
it is and has been easily bred out by careful selection. Moreover, if a pet is 
wanted solely as such, the Gordon setter in his purity is a handsomer dog than 
the colley with a more pettable disposition, and it would be better to select him 
accordingly. 

In Scotland and the north of England, as well as in Wales, a great variety of 
breeds is used for tending sheep, depending greatly on the locality in which they 
are employed, and on the kind of sheep adopted in it. The Welsh sheep is so wild 
that he requires a faster dog than even the Highlander of Scotland, while in the 
lowlands of the latter country a heavier, tamer, and slower sheep is generally 
introduced. Hence it follows that a different dog is required to adapt itself to these 
varying circumstances, and it is no wonder that the strains are as numerous as they 
are. In Wales there is certainly, as far as I know, no special breed of sheepdog, 
and the same may be said of the north of England, where, however, the colley 
(often improperly called Scotch), more or less pure, is employed by nearly half the 
shepherds of that district, the remainder resembling the type known by that name 
in many respects, but not all. For instance, some show a total absence of " ruff " 
or "frill;" others have an open coat of a pied black and white colour, with a 
setter shaped body ; while others, again, resemble the ordinary drover's dog in all 
respects. But, without doubt, the modern " true and accepted " colley has been in 
existence for at least thirty years, as proved by the engraving published in Touatt's 
book on " The Dog " nearly thirty years ago, which, by permission of his publisher, 
was accepted by me as the proper type in 1859, in my first treatise on the varieties 
of the canine race. This portrait was, I believe, copied from a specimen in the 
gardens of the Zoological Society, who for some years after its formation possessed 
a most interesting collection of dogs, now unfortunately abandoned. Up to the 
time of the last Brighton show I had never seen a single living example of this 
type in perfection, but on the appearance there of the celebrated Vero in the show 
ring, I at once picked him out as not only the best in the class, but the best I 
had ever seen, embodying nearly all the points exhibited in Youatt's engraving, 
which severally I had previously met with scattered throughout various prize- 
winners, such as the Nottingham Cockie, the Birmingham Laddie, Mr. Lacey's Mec, 
and Mr. Shirley's Shamrock, Trefoil, and Tricolour, and since that time Mr. Shirley 
has again given him a first prize at the Islington Show of the Kennel Club. 
No doubt in point of beauty some of the above dogs would compare favourably with 
him, and notably Shamrock, but, taking every point into consideration, I consider 
Nero to exhibit the true type of the breed in all respects to an extent bordering on 
perfection, and as such I offer his portrait to the readers of the Field. Hogg, the 
Ettrick Shepherd, describes his colley, Sirrah, as possessing a somewhat surly and 



196 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

unsocial temper, disdaining all flattery, and refusing to be caressed; "but," he 
says, " his attention to my commands and interests will never again be equalled by 
any of the canine race." Such is the colley of the present day of the type I 
describe, and the colour attributed to Sirrah by Hogg was " almost black, with a 
grim face striped with dark brown;" and here, allowing for the language of a 
shepherd belonging to a class whose notions are likely to be indefinite in their idea 
of colour, the true colley colour is described with as much accuracy as can be 
expected. The black was a bad black, and the tan rather brown, not the rich tan of 
the Gordon type. 

With this general description of the colley, I now proceed to analyse his points, 
the numerical estimate of which I allot as follows. 

POINTS OF THE COLLET, ROUGH AS WELL AS SMOOTH. 



Value. 

Head 10 

Muzzle 5 

Ears and eyes 5 

Shoulders 7 



Value. 

Chest 7J 

Loin 10 

Legs 10 

Feet 10 

37* 

Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Coat 15 

Colour 10 

Tail 5 

Symmetry 5 

35 



1. The head (value 10), which resembles that of the fox, should be wide 
between the ears, tapering towards the eyes, which are in consequence set rather 
close together. The top of the head is flat, and there is little or no occipital 
protuberance, and a very slightly raised brow ; but the facial line is not absolutely 
straight. The volume of brain is considerable, and the skull looks smaller 
than it really is, in consequence of the amount of frill in which the occiput is 
embedded. 

2. The muzzle (value 5) is very tapering and lean, teeth strong and even, 
and the muscles of the jaw well developed. The whole face is covered with very 
short hair. 

3. The ears and eyes (value 5). The ears are small and pricked, but turn over 
at the top outwards and slightly forwards, with very short hair clothing them. 
The eyes are set rather close together, and somewhat obliquely, giving a foxy look 
to the dog characteristic of the colley in common with the Spitz or Pomeranian dog, 
which resembles him in many other particulars. They are of medium size, and 
generally of a brown colour. 

4. The shoulders (value 7|) must be oblique and muscular, as the dog has to 
carry himself without falling over all sorts of ground, and often to stop himself 
when going down hill at full speed. 

5. The chest (value 7|) is moderately wide, but should have the necessary 
volume in depth rather than width, on account of the activity required, which a 
very wide chest interferes with, giving a rolling heavy action unfitted for sheep 
tending. 



THE COLLEY DOG. 197 



6. The loin (value 10) is strong and very slightly arched, but not more than 
elegance requires. The back ribs are often shallow, and, if too much so, the defect 
should be properly estimated. 

7. The legs (value 10) are all-important, both behind and before ; they must 
be straight in front and well bent behind, all being of necessity muscular. The 
arms should be of full size both in bone and flesh, elbows quite straight and well 
let down, and the hocks powerful, clean, and low. On the hind legs there is 
often a double dew claw hanging only by the skin ; but many excellent strains 
are without one, owing probably to their having been removed for many 
generations. 

8. The feet (value 10) are long rather than round, but the toes are well arched, 
and the pads very tough and horny. A large flat foot is an abomination. 

9. The coat (value 15) is, as before remarked, the peculiar feature in this breed ; 
though I am sorry to say that, in my opinion, sufficient stress is not laid on this 
point by most of our judges. In the rough colley it should be shaggy and very 
thick, so as to create some difficulty in seeing the skin when the hair is separated 
by the hands with that view, the undergrowth being of a woolly nature, which adds 
to this difficulty. This undercoat is almost always lighter in colour than the upper, 
and even in those parts which appear black outside it has a yellowish or brownish 
tinge. Round the neck, and especially on its under side, the outer coat is greatly 
lengthened, constituting what is called a "ruff" or "frill," which is found in no 
other English dog, but is well marked in the Pomeranian. In the smooth colley the 
coat is short, hard, and very close. 

10. The colour (value 10) most commonly met with is black and tan. In best 
breeds the black is seldom brilliant, showing the lighter colour of the undercoat 
through more or less, and often itself tinged with tan. The face, spots over the 
eyes, breast, belly, and legs below the elbow and hocks are tan, which should be of 
a reddish fawn rather than deep red tinge. The under side of the tail is also tinged 
with this colour. In the smooth colley the black is generally deeper and richer, 
but the tan should be of the same tinge and extent. A mottled strain, one of 
which I have selected as the type of the smooth colley, is highly valued in the 
North of England and also in Wales. A good deal of white is met with in some 
strains, and sometimes the tan is altogether absent, but, cceteris paribus, a black and 
tan colour without much white is highly preferred. In both varieties the whole 
body is sometimes tan, or tan mixed with white. 

11. The tail (value 5) is bushy, and always has a decided curl in it. As 
described by Burns : 

His gaucie tail wi' upward curl, 
Hung ower his hurdies wi' a swurl, 

being carried gaily, though not over the back, as in the Spitz. 

12. In symmetry (value 5) the colley is fully up to the average dog, or perhaps 
above it, and artistically he is much admired. 

Both Vero and Fan are without any reliable pedigree. 



198 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



THE BOB-TAILED SHEEPDOG. 

"Until within the last half-century sheepdogs without tails were exempt from 
taxation, it being supposed that no one would keep a tailless dog who could afford 
to pay the tax. As a consequence, almost every sheepdog had its tail cut off, and 
owing to this cause the tailless sheepdog, still met with in some localities, is 
supposed to have arisen. Bob-tailed pointers, however, were at one time not 
uncommon, though their tails never were cut short, fashion only leading to their 
being cropped to the same extent as our fox terriers and spaniels, among whom I 
never heard of a bob-tailed strain. It is far more probable that the bob is derived 
from a cross with the bulldog, which is subject to the natural loss of tail in a 
greater or less degree, and was probably used to give courage to the pointer, as was 
known to be done with the greyhound, and also to the drover's dog, to which class 
the " bob-tails " belong, rather than to the sheepdogs. Usually these " bobs " are 
strongly made and symmetrical dogs, but without any definite type ; they have 
frequently a tendency to the brindle colour, which favours the theory of the 
derivation of short tails from the bulldog, though it cuts equally against a similar 
derivation in the pointer, in whom the brindle is absolutely unknown. Not being 
able to arrive at any definite type of the " bob-tail," I shall not attempt to describe 
him. He has the peculiar habit of running over the backs of sheep when in 
flock in order to head them, and on that account is highly valued for fairs and 
markets. 



OHAPTEE II. 

THE POMERANIAN OR SPITZ DOG; ALSO CALLED 
LOUP-LOUP. 



ITHIN the last twenty years this dog has been largely imported from 
Germany and Prance, in addition to those bred in this country; 
but, nevertheless, he has not become so general a favourite as was 
expected, owing in some measure to the fashion of the day tending 
towards the fox terrier and colley, and also to the temper of the 
Spitz, which is too short and snappish to make him fit to be trusted with 
children. It is true that the colley has the same disposition, but not quite to 
the same extent ; and, being a better traveller with horses and carriages, he is more 
suited to act as a companion in country rides and drives that his more delicate rival. 





MRS. M. E. PROSSER'S POMERANIAN DOG "JoE." 



THE POMERANIAN OR SPITZ DOG. 199 

Whatever may be the cause, it cannot be denied that the colley is the more general 
favourite ; and at our large dog shows, while his classes are filled by scores, those 
of the Pomeranian dog are only made up of units. 

In his native country the Pomeranian dog is employed as a sheep dog, for 
which he is fitted by his peculiarly woolly coat and ample frill, rendering him to a 
great degree proof against wet and cold. Like the colley, he is impatient of control 
in playing tricks, and indeed can seldom be taught to display them even for a 
time, his intelligence not being of a very high order at all events, if the attempt 
is made in any direction but that of his peculiar calling, for which, as far as I 
know, he has never been employed in this country. But he is always cheerful in 
the house, generally free from smell either of coat or breath, and readily taught 
to be cleanly in all his habits. He has not the fondness for game generally 
exhibited by the colley, and on that account is more suited to be a ladies' pet, 
nor is he so pugnacious as that dog, being as a rule inclined to run away rather 
than fight, when the choice lies between those alternatives. From these peculiarities 
it may be gathered that he is quite up to the average in his fitness to fill the position 
of companion. 

The following are the generally recognised points of this dog, though hitherto 
no attempt has been made to define them : 



POINTS OF THE POMERANIAN Boo. 



Value. 

Head 10 

Muzzle 5 

Ears and eyes 5 

Shoulders 5 



Value. 

Chest 5 

Loin 10 

Legs 10 

Feet 10 

35 

Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Coat 15 

Colour 15 

Tail 5 

Symmetry 5 

40 



1. The head (value 10) is very wide between the ears, and tapers towards the 
eyes still more than in the colley, resemblng the head of the fox almost exactly. 
Upper surface flat, with a slight furrow down the middle. There is a marked 
occipital protuberance, but not so much pronounced as in some breeds. Brow 
sufficiently raised to prevent a straight line. 

2. The muzzle (value 5) tapers from the cheeks, which are wide, to the point of 
the nose, which is very fine and fox-like. The tip should be black. Lower jaw 
generally shorter than the upper. 

3. Ears and Eyes (value 5). The ears must be small and pricked, resembling 
those of the fox in shape, and only very slightly exceeding them in size. 
A large ear is a great defect, even if properly pricked. The eyes rather 
large, and generally of a dark brown or hazel colour. Eyelids generally set 
obliquely. 

4. The shoulders (value 5) are greatly hidden by the frill, but they must be 
oblique and muscular. 



200 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

5. Chest (value 5) round, and rather deep ; but the back ribs are generally very 
short, leading to a nipped loin. 

6. The loin (value 10), owing to the above cause, is often weak if examined 
carefully beneath the thick coat, which conceals this defect. 

7. The legs (value 10) are generally straight and strong, with elbows well 
let down, and clean hocks. Any defect therefore in these points will be severely 
penalised. 

8. The feet (value 10) are cat-like, and rather small ; toes well arched ; but the 
soles are apt to be thin and unfit for road work. 

9. The coat (value 15) is of a peculiar texture, differing from that of all other 
dogs in its resemblance to coarse fur rather than hair. It is so marked in this 
respect that the under-coat, which exists as in the colley, can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from it. The frill is of the same character, but rather more hairy 
in the texture of its long fibres. It is quite as full as in the colley, in the best 
specimens, and when deficient should be estimated accordingly. In the black 
varieties the coat is more hairy, and has even a tendency to be silky. In the 
best strains the coat stands out uniformly from the body like that of the fox or 
cat, without any disposition to collect in flecks or wavy curls. The fore legs are 
slightly feathered, but the hind are quite clean. The face is quite bare of all 
but very short hair. 

10. The colour (value 15) should be a dead flake white, without any mixture of 
yellow. A patch of fawn is often to be seen on the head or body, but it is very 
objectionable. There is a black variety highly prized in Germany, though 
apparently the produce of a cross, as the texture of coat and size of ears are very 
different from the best specimens of the white breed. A red strain, closely 
resembling the fox in texture of coat, and in all respects but the tail, is also 
met with occasionally on the continent of Europe. This strain is in all respects 
like the Chinese sheepdog, of which many specimens exist in England, and one or 
two of them usually go to make up the foreign class in our large shows. 

11. The tail (value 5) is tightly curled over the back, shaggy, and rather short 
than otherwise. 

12. In symmetry (value 5) this dogs equal most of his compeers, all his several 
component parts being in good proportion. 

The specimen I have selected for illustration is only of average perfection in 
the shape of body and head, but his coat is highly characteristic of the true breed. 
He took the first prize at the Islington Show of the Kennel Club. 




MR. SPINK'S "BOUNCE." 

ME. PEAECE'S " VENTURE." 



ME. KADCLYFFE'S " BOUGH." 

ME. FITTEE'S " DANDY. 




BOOK III. 
TERRIERS 

(OTHEE THAN FOX AND TOY). 



CHAPTEE I. 
NONDESCRIPT TERRIERS. 



INCE the first edition of this book was published, a considerable change 
has taken place in the type of several of the terrier family. At that 
time the Yorkshire terrier was represented by an animal only slightly 
differing from the old Scotch dog, his shape being nearly exactly the 
same, and his coat differing simply in being more silky. Such an animal 
was Mr. Spink's Bounce as introduced in the accompanying engraving, and by 
comparing his portrait with that of Mrs. Poster's Huddersfield Ben, illustrating 
the article on the Yorkshire terrier, it will readily be seen that a great development 
of coat has been accomplished in the latter; and, indeed, that except in colour 
there is a vast difference between the two. A fac-simile of Bounce would have a 
faint chance of taking a prize even in a small show, under the present state of 
canine law, whether exhibited as a Yorkshire " blue tan," or simply as a broken- 
haired terrier; and though the strain to which he belongs is common enough, it 
can scarcely be considered as anything but nondescript. So also with the type 
represented by Mr. Badclyffe's Eough ; many such dogs are scattered about through 
England and Wales, but they have no locus standi on the show bench ; and, as Mr. 
Eadclyffe himself found by experience, it is useless to exhibit them if successful 
prize-taking is the aim of their owners. " Eough " took my fancy greatly when 
shown unsuccessfully at Islington in 1865, and I have understood that the breed is 
remarkably game and excellent as a vermin killer. Mr. Pearce's Venture represents 
what is now called the rough fox terrier, but formerly known as the white Scotch 
terrier; and, lastly, Mr. Fitter's Dandy is of the old-fashioned black and tan 
English breed which still keeps its place on the show bench, being commonly, 
though without good reason, denominated the Manchester terrier. The small 
English white terrier formerly bred in large numbers by Mr. White of Clapham, 
has developed into a larger dog, and has now exactly the same points as the black 
and tan. Having a separate class allotted to him at Birmingham and the Kennel 

D D 



202 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

Club Shows, I have added his portrait to the series, but it is scarcely necessary, 
inasmuch as the points are identical with those of the black and tan as above 
mentioned. 

Having thus cursorily alluded to the various nondescripts, I must now address 
myself first to the special breeds of rough terriers, known as (1) The Skye (drop 
and prick eared) ; (2) The Dandie ; (3) The Bedlington ; (4) The Yorkshire ; (5) 
The Irish ; (6) The Scotch ; (7) The Airdale ; and afterwards to the smooth strains, 
including (1) The black and tan ; (2) The white ; and (3) The bull terrier ; omitting 
the toy terrier, which will be considered in a separate chapter, and the fox terrier, 
which has been included in the sporting division. 



CHAPTER II. 
SPECIAL BREEDS OF ROUGH TERRIERS. 



THE SKYE (DROP AND PRICK EARED) THE DANDIE DINMONT THE 
BEDLINGTON THE YORKSHIRE THE IRISH TERRIERS. 



THE SKYE TEEEIER. 

OLLOWING the plan which I have adopted throughout the present 
series of articles, I shall not pretend to ascertain what was the original 
9 type of the Skye Terrier, as bred in the island to which he owes his 
name, but shall describe him as he is now usually exhibited at our 
various shows. The peculiar length of body, and long coat incidental to 
the breed, are said to have been introduced into it by means of some Spanish white 
dogs, which were on board a ship belonging to the Spanish Armada, wrecked on the 
coast of the Island of Skye, but, like many other " doggy sayings " there does not 
appear to be much foundation for the statement. All that can be ascertained on 
reliable evidence about this breed, is that it has existed in some shape or other for 
many years on the west coast of Scotland, and the adjacent islands, but as to the 
definite strains recently described by Mr. J. Gordon Murray under the various 
names of " Mogstads," " Drynocks," and " Camusennaries," I -confess I am not a 
little sceptical. In any case it is premature to attempt a description of them 
until some further evidence is afforded, which has not yet appeared, although his 
article and portrait of a specimen brought by him to London appeared several 
months ago, and if the likeness is a good one a very ugly brute he is. 








ME. MARTIN'S PRICK-EARED SKTE TERRIER. 




MR. RUSSELL ENGLAND'S DROP-EARED SKYE TERRIER " LADDIE.' 



THE SKYE TEKBIER. 203 



The Skye, as known to the frequenters of our shows, is a low, weasel-like 
dog, whether possessed of drop or prick ears, but the former variety is considerably 
longer than the latter, and more elegant in shape ; for this reason he is more popular 
in the south, where until recently he was very fashionable as a ladies' pet, in which 
capacity however he is now superseded by the dachshund, fox terrier, or colley. 
Without any further reference to Mr. Gordon Murray's type, I shall describe this 
breed under its two recognised varieties, the drop-eared and prick-eared, merely 
remarking that though both are used, or said to be used in Scotland for the 
pursuit of vermin, in England they are solely bred as companionable dogs. 

THE DROP-EARED SKYE TERRIER. 

This dog is the longest of our native breeds, with the single exception of the 
turnspit, now almost or quite extinct. He is, however, rivalled in this respect by the 
dachshund, each being as nearly as may be three and a half times as long as he is 
high when stretched out and measured from tip of tail to end of nose. He is a very 
good house dog, being clean and possessed of an even temperament, not nearly so 
quarrelsome as the Dandie, or the fox terrier, and although long in coat not at all 
inclined to be proportionately offensive to the owner ; indeed, with the exception of 
the pug, the Maltese, and smooth terrier, I know no dog less objectionable on that 
score. To keep his long coat clean is, however, a troublesome task, as it is greatly 
inclined to mat when the dog is exercised on dirty roads, and if it is allowed to get 
dry when in this state, nothing but a long soaking in warm water and the careful 
use of the comb will get it straight again. This difficulty no doubt has operated 
against the more general adoption of the Skye terrier as a ladies' pet. 

The following are the points of the Skye terrier : 



Value. 

Head 15 

Ears and Eyes 10 

Length of body and 
neck 15 

40 



Value. 

Symmetry 15 

Length of coat 10 

Texture of coat . . . . 10 



35 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Colour 5 

Carriage of tail 10 

Legs and feet 10 



25 



1. The head (value 15) looks large when the coat is dry, but when wetted it is 
found to be long and rather narrow between the ears, increasing in width between 
the eyes, with a flat skull, little or no brow, and a pointed nose. The teeth should 
meet level, and be very strong. Nose and roof of mouth black, or very dark brown. 

2. Ears and eyes (value 10). The ears are set on rather high, and are by 
no means large in leather, being barely three inches long, but the hair on them 
makes them look much longer, mixing with that arising from the head, neck, and 
cheeks. In this variety they should fall perpendicularly and close to the cheeks. 
The eyes are brown, varying in shade from a hazel to a dark brown. They are of 
medium size, and sharp in expression rather than soft. 



204 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

3. Length of body and neck (value 15). The back is very long but strongly 
coated with muscle, and quite straight, the roach back of the Dandie being 
specially objected to. The neck is also long, and unless the whole length 
amounts to three-and-a-half times the height of the dog at the shoulders, it is 
not considered sufficient, a greater proportional length being preferred. In spite 
of the great length of the back the ribs are round, and the chest barrel-like, 
the back ribs extending far towards the hips. Shoulders strong and often rather 
upright. 

4. The symmetry (value 15) of this variety of the Skye terrier is very con- 
siderable, as will be seen by referring to the illustration retained from the last 
edition on account of the perfection of shape and points generally displayed 
therein. 

5. The length of coat (value 10) on the body should be considerable, but should 
not be so great as entirely to eclipse all his shapes and to touch the ground the 
proper length is well displayed in the illustration accompanying this article. On 
the head it should be long, and over-hanging the eyes, and often so as to completely 
conceal them. The tail should be also well feathered, but not so as to make it 
look bushy or woolly. On the legs also is a certain amount of feather, without 
matting. 

6. In texture of coat (value 10). It is generally admitted that there should be 
a mixture of hard long and straight hair, with a soft and woolly undercoat. On the 
back the coat should be so straight and free from curl as to part naturally down the 
middle ; and though this parting is usually assisted by the comb, it cannot be shown 
by this means if the coat is by nature full of curl, and of a woolly texture. But 
although the outer coat is hard and straight, the inner wool is so thick on the body 
that when wetted it prevents the outer from collapsing and adhering to the sides. 
On the head this is not, however, the case, and when wet it shows its shape to be 
very different from that displayed in the dry state. In many dogs brought from 
Skye, the coat is woolly throughout, and on that account it has been contended that 
this is the true type, but I have described it as approved of by all the best judges 
without reference to any other source. 

7. The colours (value 5) most in demand are slate and black, or black with 
white hairs (grizzle), silver grey and fawn are not now so much fancied as formerly, 
but the former is certainly very handsome, and is in great demand for ladies' 
pets. It should always be tipped with black, and the fewn with that colour or 
dark brown. 

8. The carriage of tail (value 10) should be low, not being raised above the back 
except under great excitement, when this defect may be excused. 

9. Legs and feet (value 10). The legs should be straight, and the elbows 
as well as stifles by no means out. The thighs are fully clothed with muscle 
down to the hocks. Feet round and well clothed with hair, but not overdone. 
There should be no dew claws. The height of the Skye should be about nine 
to ten inches, and the length thirty-five to forty inches, weight sixteen to twenty 
pounds. 



THE SKTE TEEEIEE. 205 



THE PRICK-EARED SKYE TERRIER 

Differs frofia the variety above described, in having a larger head, a shorter body, 
and usually a rougher coat. The ears should stand well up without any outward 
inclination, and they are only covered with short hair, which, like that on the rest of 
the head, should be silky. 

The above description of the drop-eared breed is that of the type to which all 
ought to be compared, but it is not often that I have seen a specimen fully coming 
up to it. At the Birmingham show of 1865, however, the prize winner Laddie, 
whose portrait I now present to my readers, fully realised my ideas of the points of 
the Skye. He was exhibited by Mr. Eussell England, Junior United Service Club, 
London, and was by a dog belonging to Mr. Daniel Cameron, of Lochiel, out of Mr. 
James's Lassie, his granddam belonging to his owner. He was a silver grey, with 
black tips to his ears and tail, and I have never since that time seen his equal. 
The portrait of the prick-eared variety is that of a dog belonging to Mr. H. Martin, 
of Glasgow. 

The following letter in relation to this breed, will probably be of interest to 
many lovers of the dog. 

"To the Editor of 'Doas OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS.'" 

" SIR, In answer to your request I may remind you of some letters which 
appeared in The Field three or four years ago, from Mr. Eobert Jewel, Lydiates, 
Herefordshire, and myself, regarding the Scotch terriers. Our object, at the time, 
being to direct attention to the merits of this fine old breed, which, though 
plentiful enough forty years ago, has now become scarce, with the view of having 
it re-established. 

" If I am not mistaken, there was a discussion in one or other of the London 
sporting papers on the same subject, twelve or eighteen months ago, which you may 
have seen. This, I think, occurred shortly after the Inverness Dog Show of 1875, 
when the question was mooted as to what the Skye terrier really was, one party 
maintaining the silky, and the other the wiry-haired Skyes was the original type. 
Both varieties were shown at Inverness, and it would be difficult to say which was 
the handsomest. I suspect the former had the most admirers. But, be this as it 
may, no doubt should exist as to which was the original and true terrier. In fact 
the wiry -haired dog had been bred up for a special purpose, namely, to hunt and go 
to ground after the larger kinds of wild animals, with which the Highlands of 
Scotland formerly abounded, while the soft haired, blue and tan as they are called, 
are the result of a cross between the old breed and the French poodle. At all events 
nothing could be more natural than to suppose, as some Skye gentlemen allege, that 
the sailors of a French vessel, stranded on the Skye coast, should leave some of 
these dogs with the inhabitants of the island. But, it is curious and remarkable, 
if this theory ^e correct, that the poodle should have nicked in so nicely with the 
native terriej When I use the word native, I should perhaps mention that the wiry 



206 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

Skye is smaller, and in other respects somewhat different from his congener on the 
mainland, but not in any essential particular. In fact their pluck, colour, hair, 
hardihood and general contour are, and have always been, much the same, the 
difference of build merely arising from the desire to hare them of a suitable size 
for hunting the otter, the only varmint of any consequence peculiar to Skye. Of 
course the cairns and caverns of that rugged seaboard afford the animals the best 
of shelter, while the inland fresh water lakes and streams, as well as the sea, yield 
a never-failing supply of food. I am informed hunting and bolting the otter from 
these fastnesses with a small pack of the right sort, such as those still to be seen at 
Waternish, in all their pristine piuity, affords excellent sport. 

" But while this is the sort of work for which terriers are chiefly used on the 
Island of Skye and throughout the Hebrides, it can be readily imagined, their duties 
were very different on the mainland, where fox, foumart, marten, and wild cat, at 
one time abounded, and hence the necessity for breeding the mainland terrier of 
greater strength. It is but fair, however, to say these wiry dogs with their 
punishing heads no matter whether small or large, prick or drop-eared could 
hardly be excelled for pluck, nose, and endurance. They had courage to face 
anything, and often paid dearly for their temerity, as the mutilated heads of the 
heros I have frequently seen and heard of could testify. 

" As I have already stated, the Skye type is still to be found pure on the island 
as well as occasionally on the mainland, but the latter, or larger-sized terrier, is 
now very rare. And what it may be asked is the cause of their disappearance and 
deterioration ? The question is easily answered, namely, to nothing but injudicious 
crossing. After the cross with the poodle was bred-up, the " blue and tan beauties " 
became greater favourites ; everybody praised them, and the hardy old-fashioned 
terrier was in due time completely superseded. The new variety appears even to 
have been credited with all the merits of the old, and, as a natural consequence, 
connoisseurs, fanciers, ladies, and even gamekeepers went in for the fashionable and 
pretty silky Skyes. So in this way the old breed, especially on the mainland, has 
been reduced to a parcel of mongrels. 

"I have no doubt the circumstances of four-footed vermin having been 
decimated by trapping was another reason for keepers being less careful to breed 
courageous dogs. At any rate, such a thing as a good specimen, as I have said, is 
hardly to be seen nowadays. After much inquiry I have only been able to discover 
the whereabouts of a few which have any pretensions to the original mainland 
breed P. K. L." 

THE DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER. 

No variety of the dog has caused such constantly recurring controversies as the 
Dandie. In the early days of dog shows the classes allotted to it were very badly 
filled, the breed not having largely penetrated into the south, to which, with the 
exception of the Newcastle show, and those held at Leeds and Manchester in 1861, 
canine exhibitions were for some years confined. In 1861 a class for Dandies was 




MB. J. LOCKE'S DANDIE DINMONTS " DOCTOR" AND "TiB MUMPS." 



THE DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER. 207 

first instituted at Manchester, the example being followed at the London and 
Birmingham shows of 1862, and since then none of the large shows have been 
without a prize for the breed. At that held at Cremorne in 1863, the first true 
Dandie shown (as far as I know) was from the kennel of the well-known breeder, 
Mr. Aitken, of Edinburgh ; but he was but a moderate specimen, and received a 
third prize only, the first and second being withheld for want of merit. A similar 
result occurred at the Agricultural Hall exhibition held in the same year; but at 
Birmingham the judges were more lenient, and rewarded Mr. Van Wart, of that 
town, with a first and second prize for two specimens, both very moderate. In 1864 
Mr. Hinks, of Birmingham, produced his " Dandie " at Cremorne, and took the first 
prize, Mr. Van Wart getting a second. Being the best I had then seen, and being 
again successful at Birmingham in that year, I took this dog to serve as an 
illustration of the breed, remarking, however, that his coat was too silky for per- 
fection. In 1867 began the paper war on the Dandie, which has, with few intervals, 
been carried on up to the present day. Its origin must be attributed to the refusal 
of the judges (Messrs. Collins and Smith) at Birmingham to award any prize for 
want of merit ; one of them describing what he considered the typical dog as having 
prick ears, among other points altogether foreign to the real breed as now admitted. 
In the class thus stigmatised was the Rev. J. W. Mellor's Bandy, who, though he 
would now stand no chance in an average class, had been placed first in 1866 by 
Messrs. Perceval and Hedley, and, except in coat, was fairly typical of the breed, 
though nothing whatever was known of his pedigree. This dog afterwards main- 
tained a successful career on the show bench for some years, being opposed at 
Birmingham in 1868, and at the Islington Dairy Farm exhibition in 1869, by the 
Rev. Tennison Mosse's Shamrock, who only gained a second prize at the former, and 
a third at the latter. Shamrock has been kept w.ell before the" public ever since ; but 
his small head and weak jaws have told against him with most judges, those defective 
points in his formation being considered, with justice, as inimical to a very high 
position; and at the recent Dandie show at Carlisle, though he gained premier 
honours, he was only credited with 78 points out of a possible 100, and with the 
advantage accruing to him of the disuse of negative points, which, if employed, would 
have reduced him still more. He is no doubt a very neat little dog .and of the true 
type, but, lacking the above essentials, he can never be regarded as quite first class. 
Of late years, Melrose, bred by Mr. Broadwith, of St. Boswell's, N.B., has been the 
most successful up to 1873, but Mr. Locke's Sporran with his son Doctor have since 
that year been established as the favourites of the various experts employed to judge 
this breed, and as I think, deservedly, until the last Brighton show, where naturally 
enough the immediate descendants of Shamrock had the best of it under the fiat of 
his owner. 

Since my first acquaintance with the Dandie, pictorially and in the flesh, going 
back nearly half a century, a considerable elongation has taken place in the body as 
well as the ears of that dog. In the well-known portrait of Sir W. Scott, by 
Landseer, a mustard-coloured Dandie is introduced, which is said to have been 
painted from a dog then at Abbotsford, and which, as far as my memory serves me, 



208 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

exactly resembles one belonging to a friend of mine, brought by him about forty-five 
years ago from the Teviot district at considerable trouble and expense, the breed 
being then in high repute owing to the notice of it in " Guy Mannering " by the 
"Wizard of the North." With this dog I was very familiar in my ratting and 
rabbiting days, and consequently the impression made by him is, as it were, photo- 
graphed in my mind's eye. Now this dog, like that in Landseer's picture, had a 
body considerably shorter than that of the typical Dandie of the present day, and 
ears little longer than those of a fox terrier. The only high-bred dog with such ears 
which I have seen of late years was given me as a puppy by Mr. Murchison about 
five years ago, being by Mr. Bradshaw Smith's celebrated Dirk Hatteraick ; but, 
though possessed of every other essential point in perfection, it would have been 
useless to show him against Melrose or the Doctor on account of his ears, and 
I gave him away to a gentleman, who has him now in India, where he is highly 
prized. My impression is very strong that the modern Dandie is the result of a 
cross with the dachshund, by which the ears and body have been lengthened, and 
the tendency to crooked legs and wide chest also introduced. Mr. Murchison's 
Rhoderick Dhu when he belonged to me also exhibited a mental peculiarity of the 
dachshund, quite foreign to any breed of English terrier, in that he was incapable 
of being broken to leave a rabbit or fox trail at command. No punishment, however 
severe, could get him off it at such a time, and after breaking away into a fox 
covert, and killing a whole litter of cubs, I was obliged to get rid of him : and 
some years afterwards, in other hands, he repeated this offence, and was finally 
lost on a rabbit scent, which he would not leave. Nevertheless, he was at other 
times possessed of an excellent temper ; but once put his blood up, either by the 
scent of ground game or a fight with one of his own species, and he was as completely 
beyond control as an- excited bulldog. How or when the cross was introduced 
I am at a loss to say, but that it is there I am strongly of opinion. All the 
most celebrated breeders strongly maintain that they have kept to the lineal 
descendants of the original "Pepper" and "Mustard" immortalised by Scott; 
but I confess I have no great faith in such statements, knowing how completely 
every master is in the hands of his servants. This is the most probable explanation 
I can offer of the cross ; but in any case I cannot believe that any terrier could be 
produced with points so unlike those of our indigenous breeds without the aid 
of foreign blood; and when I find all those points combined in the dachshund, 
the probabilities in favour of that dog being used are so great as to amount almost 
to a demonstration. In summing up these arguments, I may state in short 
that (1) I remember a terrier, forty-five years ago, reputed to be a pure Dandie, 
with comparatively short ears and body, narrow chest, and under good com- 
mand. (2) Such a dog is represented by Landseer in his portrait of Sir Walter 
Scott. (3) No Scottish terrier has either long ears, or a broad chest combined 
with crooked legs, and an ungovernable thirst for scent. Yet the Dandie is asserted 
to be originally bred by Davidson of pure Scotch blood. (4) Such a combination 
is found in the dachshund. Now, taking all these facts into consideration, I 
think I am justified in coming to the conclusion which I have arrived at, not 



THE DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER. 209 

without long and careful weighing of the evidence pro and con., and in spite of 
the old theory that the Dandie was originally produced from a cross of the Scotch 
terrier with the otterhound, which would support the opinion that he always 
has possessed ears as long as those now met with in all the best specimens of 
the breed. At all events I have, as I think fairly, delivered myself of the 
arguments on both sides of the question, and shall leave the dachshund cross to 
be accepted or rejected, with the statement that in my opinion it is purely a 
matter of curiosity, and not of the slightest real importance. For, even granting 
the truth of the above conclusions, we must now take the dog as we find him, 
and a very game and companionable dog he is ; generally under fair control, but 
almost always showing a tendency to have his own way. He is an excellent 
ratter, but apt to be severe on ferrets, from which he is not very easily broken, 
and in the case of such a temperament as Rhoderick Dhu's it would be useless 
to attempt it. This dog has left no stock behind him, so that I am not injuring 
the reputation of any living animal by the above remarks, which are only made in 
elucidation of what I consider a mystery connected with this breed. 

In the following letter afterwards published in The Field, Mr. Bradshaw Smith 
denies this asserted elongation of the body and ears of the Dandie, and also of 
the dachshund cross ; and, as his authority stands deservedly at the highest point, 
I insert it at length, though I confess I am not convinced on either of these points, 
as my memory is quite distinct upon the elongation, and is supported by the 
portraits of Sir Walter Scott's dog, which are easily referred to for confirmation : 

" SIR, If not trespassing too much on your valuable space I may here be 
allowed to show how I first became possessed of this historic breed. 

" During my residence in Roxburghshire my fancy was greatly taken by several 
specimens I saw of this game little animal. In 1841 I bought the first Dandie I 
ever possessed, and since that date I have no hesitation in stating that more 
Dandie Dinmonts have passed through my hands than through those of any half 
dozen of fanciers. I feel myself competent, therefore, to give a decided opinion 
on the article penned by ' Stonehenge,' although it be at variance with his remarks. 

" In the first place it seems to me an entire mistake on his part that the 
Dandie Dinmont of the present day is longer in the body than formerly. My 
observation tends rather in an opposite direction. 

" Secondly, a strong characteristic of the breed has ever been tenacity of 
purpose, and I have only known two of my dogs which could be taught at command 
to leave the trail of either fox or rabbit ; certainly it would be a hopeless task to 
prevent a Dandie Dinmont from engaging with a fox were an opportunity to 
offer. I consider the animal as naturally good-tempered, but when once roused 
he is ready to seize hold of anything within reach. When I first kept these dogs 
I was ignorant of their extremely excitable -nature, and had many killed from 
time to time in fights, either in the kennels or at the entrance of rabbit holes; 
in short, when once their blood is fairly up they become utterly unmanageable. On 
this account for years past (though I keep a number) I do not allow more than 

E E 



210 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

one dog and one bitch in a kennel, but sometimes a dog and two bitches if very 
harmonious. The first I had worried, many years ago, was a beautiful little 
fellow 141b. weight, bred by Mr. Kerss (Bowhill), from a sister of Stoddart's 
old Dandie and his own old Pepper. He was killed in the night time by another of 
my dogs, to my great annoyance. When I mentioned the circumstance to Mr. 
Kerss, he informed me that during the time the little animal belonged to 
him he had worried some of his, amongst the number a Newfoundland pup six 
months old. Yet it is by no means always the most excitable and pugnacious 
animal that stands the severe test, viz., to face alone two badgers at once, and 
fasten upon one of them whilst the other in turn attacks him, as I have known 
very many do. For my part, I prefer the dog who encounters his. antagonist 
coolly and without any fuss. 

" In conclusion, I annex a list of the kennels I purchased, viz., that of Mr. Somner 
(including his crack dog Shem), those of Messrs. Purves, Frain, M'Dougald (inclu- 
ding his famous Old Mayday), J. Stoddart (who sold to me his celebrated Old 
Dandie), and many other Dandies from Mr. Milne, of Faldonside, bred from his 
famous Old Jenny, from Mr. Jas. Kerss (Bowhill), and likewise from the Haining, 
near Selkirk. From these ancestors my dogs are purely and lineally descended. 

" Apologising for having occupied so much of your columns, 

"E. BKADSHA.W SMITH." 

" Zurich, Switzerland, November, 1877. 

The accepted history of the Dandie is on this wise. Early in the present 
century a Scottish tenant farmer named Davidson, possessed a breed of terriers 
for which he was so famous, that Sir Walter Scott introduced him into " Guy 
Mannering," under the name of Dandie Dinmont, and as a consequence he and his 
dogs became celebrated wherever the English language was spoken, and the 
terriers were henceforward known by the name assumed in the novel. Davidson 
and his neighbour, Mr. Somner, of West Morriston, near Kelso, bred great numbers 
of Dandies to meet the demand created by Scott and the breed gradually spread, 
the Duke of Buccleuch and Sir Gr. Douglas adding to their prestige by each 
obtaining a supply, which they kept up for some years in great purity. Mr. Stoddart, 
of Selkirk ; Mr. Milne, of Faldonside ; Mr. Frain, of the Trews : Mr. M'Dougall, 
of Cessford ; Mr. Nisbit, of Rumbleton ; Dr. Brown, of Melrose ; Mr. Hugh Purvis, 
of Leaderfoot ; Mr. Aitken, of Edinburgh ; Mr. N. Milne, of Faldonside ; and 
last, but not least, Mr. Bradshaw Smith, of Ecclefechan, also obtained the 
breed ; and to one or other of these several kennels, all the dogs of the present 
day possessed of a pedigree trace their descent. Mr. Bradshaw Smith bought 
most of his dogs from Mr. Somner about thirty-five years ago, in consequence 
of the latter exchanging country for a town life, the list of kennels purchased 
being given above by himself. These several strains, crossed with great care by 
Mr. Bradshaw Smith, have kept him " at the head of the poll " for many years, 
and " from Mr. Bradshaw Smith's kennel " is always a certificate of high merit. 

In order to set at rest the contested points of this breed, a club was established 



THE DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER. 211 

* 

about five years ago, and they speedily appointed a committee to draw up a scale of 
points, with which I fully agree, and which were afterwards circulated, and revised 
at a general meeting of the club. They are as follows : 

POINTS OF THE DANDIE DINMONT AS SUPPLIED BY THE D.D. CLUB. 



Value. 

Head 10 

Eyes 5 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

~25 



Value. 

Body 20 

Tail 5 

Legs and feet 10 

Coat 15 

50 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Colour 5 

Size and weight 10 

General appearance ... 10 

25 



1. Head (value 10). Strongly made and large, not out of proportion to the 
dog's size, the muscles showing extraordinary development, more especially the 
maxillary. Skull broad between the ears, getting gradually less towards the 
eyes, and measuring about the same from the inner corner of the eye to back of 
skull as it does from ear to ear. The forehead is well domed. The head is 
covered with very soft silky hair, which should not be confined to a mere topknot, 
and the lighter in colour and silkier it is the better. The cheeks, starting from 
the ears proportionately with the skull, have a gradual taper towards the muzzle, 
which is deep and strongly made, and measures about three inches in length, or 
in proportion to skull as three is to five. The muzzle is covered with hair of a 
little darker shade than the topknot, and of the same texture as the feather of 
the fore legs. The top of the muzzle is generally bare for about an inch from 
the black part of the nose, the bareness coming to a point towards the eye, and 
being about one inch broad at the nose. The nose and inside of mouth black or 
dark coloured. The teeth very strong, especially the canine, which are of extra- 
ordinary size for such a small dog. The canines fit well into each other, so as 
to give the greatest available holding and punishing power, and the teeth are level 
in front, the upper ones very slightly overlapping the under ones. [Many of the 
finest specimens have a " swine mouth," which is very objectionable ; but it is not 
so great an objection as the protrusion of the under jaw.] 

2. Eyes (value 5). Set wide apart, large, full round, bright, expressive of 
great determination, intelligence, and dignity; set low and prominent in front of 
the head ; colour a rich dark hazel. 

3. Ears (value 5). Large and pendulous, set well back, wide apart and low 
on the skull, hanging close to the check, with a very slight projection at the base, 
broad at the junction of the head, and tapering almost to a point, the fore part 
of the ear tapering very little the taper being mostly on the back part, the fore 
part of the ear coming almost straight down from its junction with the head 
to the tip. They are covered with a soft, straight brown hair (in some cases 
almost black), and have a thin feather of light hair starting about two inches 
from the tip, and of nearly the same colour and texture as the topknot, which 
gives the ear the appearance of a distinct point. The animal is often one or two 



212 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

* 

years old before the feather is shown. The cartilage and skin of the ear should 
not be thick, but rather thin. Length of ear, from three to four inches. 

4. Neck (value 5). Very muscular, well developed, and strong, showing great 
power of resistance, being well set into the shoulders. 

5. Body (value 20). Long, strong, and flexible; ribs well sprung and round, 
chest well developed and let well down between the fore legs ; the back rather low 
at the shoulder, having a slight downward curve and a corresponding arch over 
the loins, with a very slight gradual droop from top of loins to root of tail ; both 
sides of backbone well supplied with muscle. 

6. Tail (value 5). Bather short, say from 8in. to lOin., and covered on the 
upper side with wiry hair of darker colour than that of the body, the hair on the 
under side being lighter in colour, and not so wiry, with a nice feather about two 
inches long, getting shorter as it nears the tip; rather thick at the root, getting 
thicker for about four inches, then tapering off to a point. It should not be twisted 
or curled in any way, but should come up with a regular curve like a scimitar, the 
tip when excited being in a perpendicular line with the root of the tail. It should 
neither be set on too high nor too low. When not excited it is carried gaily, and a 
little above the level of the body. 

7. Legs and feet (value 10). The forelegs short, with immense muscular develop- 
ment and bone, set wide apart, the chest coming well down between them. The feet 
well formed, and not flat, with very strong brown or dark-coloured claws. Bandy 
legs and flat feet are objectionable, but may be avoided the bandy legs by the use 
of splints when first noticed, and the flat feet by exercise, and a dry bed and floor to 
kennel. The hair on the forelegs and feet of a blue dog should be tan, varying 
according to the body colour from a rich tan to a pale fawn ; of a mustard dog they 
are of a darker shade than its head, which is a creamy white. In both colours there 
is a nice feather, about two inches long, rather lighter in colour than the hair on the 
fore part of the leg. The hind legs are a little longer than the fore ones, and are set 
rather wide apart, but not spread out in an unnatural manner, while the feet are 
much smaller ; the thighs are well developed, and the hair of the same colour and 
texture as the fore ones, but having no feather or dew claws ; the whole claws 
should be dark ; but the claws of all vary in shade according to the colour of the 
dog's body. 

8. Coat (value 5). This is a very important point ; the hair should be about two 
inches long, that from skull to root of tail a mixture of hardish and soft hair, which 
gives a sort of crisp feel to the hand. The hard should not be wiry ; the coat is 
what is termed pily or pencilled. The hair on the under part of the body is lighter 
in colour and softer than that on the top. The skin on the belly accords with the 
colour of dog. 

9. Colour (value 5). The colour is pepper or mustard. The pepper colour 
ranges from a dark bluish black to a light silvery grey, the intermediate shades 
being preferred, the body colour coming well down the shoulder and hips, gradually 
merging into the leg colour. The mustards vary from a reddish-brown to a pale 
fawn, the head being a creamy white, the legs and feet of a shade darker than the 



THE DANDIE DINMONT TEEEIEE. 213 

head. The claws are dark, as in other colours. [Nearly all Dandle Dinmont 
terriers have some white on the chest, and some have also white claws] . 

10. Size and Weight (value 10). The height should_be from Sin. to llm. at the 
top of shoulder. Length from top of shoulder to root of tail should not be more 
than twice the dog's height, but, preferably, one or two inches less. Weight from 
141b. to 241b. ; the best weight as near 181b. as possible. These weights are for dogs 
in good working order. 

Doctor and Tib Mumps, the originals of the accompanying excellent portraits, 
are the property of that well-known judge of the breed, Mr. Jas. Locke, of Selkirk. 
Doctor, who has won ten first prizes besides sundry seconds and h.c.'s., is certainly 
the most perfect Dandie I have ever seen, and richly deserves the high position he 
has obtained. Fully equal to Mr. Mosse's Shamrock in body and legs, he beats him 
completely in head and jaw ; being, in my opinion, absolutely perfect according to 
the above standard of points wherein the full- sized ear, to which I have alluded 
in them, is recognised as correct. He is by Mr. Locke's Sporran (son of Mr. Nicol 
Milne's Tug), out of Ailie by Shamrock. 

Tib Mumps is almost equally neat with Doctor, and exactly like him in colour 
and appearance. She took the first prize at the Crystal Palace in 1876, Nell 
Gwynne being second ; but at the following show at Birmingham their positions 
were reversed. She is by Mr. Jas. Locke's Dandie III. out of Mr. Patterson's Old 
Miss. 

In corroboration of "my opinions as to the change of shape in the Dandie 
Dinmont, I insert, with the writer's kind permission, the following letter, published 
in The Field subsequently to the appearance of the article as reproduced above : 

" To the Editor of The Field." 

" SIB, I have read with pleasure the notices of late in your paper about Dandie 
Dinmont terriers. The description by ' Stonehenge ' of the original dogs agrees 
with what I recollect of them more than fifty years ago, and I have kept them ever 
since. 

" My school vacations were spent at the house of a friend near Kelso, and there 
I made my first acquaintance with a Dandie, Matcham by name. He belonged to 
Lady Diana Scott, Eosebank, Kelso, and to the best of my recollection, in all 
respects resembled ' Stonehenge' s description of the old kind ; an active, well- 
proportioned dog, with small thin ears close to his cheeks, straight legs and good 
feet, well suited for a long day's work. Matcham was fond of fun. The first shot we 
fired at rabbits brought him up to us, and he rarely left the door until we returned 

to Edinburgh. ' Lady D 's ' coachman was very wrathful at the absence of the 

dog ; but the sport he got with the lads was so much more to Matcham's taste than 
following the carriage, that he was little at Eosemount, and enjoyed the rabbit 
shooting as long as he could, returning home, where he lived a quiet and respectable 
life till the next year's holidays brought back his friends. Afterwards I had several 
of Mr. Davidson's breed given me by my friend ; they were all much alike in shape, 
and very unlike the prize dog of the present day. I was able to keep the old type, 



214 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

with fine eyes, small ears, and straight legs, until about fifteen years since ; but the 
cross breed then came to me, and I have not been able to get back to what I consider 
the true one. I have seen partridges as well as ground game shot to a little pepper 
of the old sort ; he pointed after a fashion, holding up his hind leg instead of a fore 
one. He was obedient to signs, and a wounded hare had little chance of escaping 
from him. He had a curious way of taking a wounded hare by the neck, and then 
lying on his breast close to the ground, and so avoiding the kicks of its hind feet. 
I suppose that was a natural habit in the breed, as I have seen a young Dandie treat 
the first cat he encountered in the same way holding it by the neck and never 
rising off the ground so long as the cat lived. I think some of the prize dogs at a 
year old would find ' a cat on rabbits fed ' as much as they were able for. The old 
kind had fine tempers, not much given to fight ; but I have had two dogs killed stone 
dead, in a private battle, although they had never been allowed to fight when there 
was anyone at hand to separate them. Having been so long in possession of 
Dandies, I was glad to see an accurate description of the old race, which to my mind 
were nicer dogs than what we see in the present long-eared, bent-legged prize ones. 
Indeed, the first time I saw them at a dog show the thought immediately occurred 
to me that these are not Dandies." 

"ALEX. J. ADIE." 
" Kockville, Linlithgow." 

THE BEDLINGTON TEKRIER. 

BY HUGH DALZIEL. 

Of all the varieties of terriers, not one owes more to dog shows than the 
Bedlington. Until these institutions came in vogue they were almost unknown out 
of their own district, having the strictly local habitation which their name imports ; 
indeed, so much was this the case that, when first brought before the general public, 
and their merits and claims to long descent descanted on by some of their admirers 
in The Field eight or nine years ago, there were not a few to question their good 
qualities, and to deny them the right to be considered a distinct variety. Now no 
one doubts that they possess characteristics clearly distinguishing them from every 
other variety of terrier ; nor would anyone, I imagine, now be 'rash enough to assert 
that a Bedlington could be produced in a few years by crossing certain other 
varieties, as was boldly stated in the discussion on the breed in The Field in 1869. 
The Bedlingtons, however originally produced, exhibit pronounced distinctive 
features separating them from all other terriers ; and this is so thoroughly 
recognised that separate classes are made for them at all our principal shows. 

The history of the breed, and the long pedigree claimed for them, are not 
quite so clear, resting, as they do, to a great extent on traditional evidence, which 
is never severely accurate in such matters. I have before me, by the kindness of 
Major J. A. Cowen, the pedigree of his blue and tan dog Askim II., pupped in 1874, 
which goes back to about 1792 ; the oldest named progenitors being A. Evan's 
Vixen, by the Miller of Felton's dog, out of a bitch of Carr's, of Felton Hall. The 




BEDLINGTON TERRIERS.-MR. F. ARMSTRONG'S "ROSEBUD" AND MR. A. ARMSTRONG'S "NAILOR. 



THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 215 

pedigrees of Nailor and Rosebud, the subjects of our engraving, as furnished me by 
the secretary of the Bedlington Terrier Club, Mr. W. J. Donkin, go back through 
the same channel, claiming as the fountain head Old Flint, the property of Squire 
Trevellyan, of Netherwitton, the same date being given as the limit to which the 
breed can be traced. Granting, however, that these facts are correct and I think 
there is very good evidence that they are at least approximately so, which is all that 
can be reasonably expected in such a case there is no proof that Old Flint or the 
Miller's dog had the characteristics of the modern Bedlington ; and I think, had 
there existed a breed in that district at the date referred to differing so widely from 
the ordinary run of terriers, we might expect to find some notice of it in Bewick, 
whose book was first published at Newcastle in 1790. But the terrier shown in his 
woodcut is a totally different animal, being a heavy, coarse, unshapely dog, with 
rather short and thick legs, the fore ones heavily feathered, a rough bearded muzzle, 
prick ears, and coarse tail turned over the back ; and of terriers he writes : " There 
are two kinds, the one rough, short-legged, long-backed, very strong, and most 
commonly of a black or yellowish colour, mixed with white ; the other is smooth, 
sleek, and beautifully formed, having a shorter body, and more sprightly appearance ; 
it is generally of a reddish brown colour, or black with tanned legs, and is similar to 
the rough terrier in disposition and faculties, but inferior in size, strength, and 
fierceness." 

Neither of these varieties, it will be seen, bears any resemblance to the modern 
Bedlington ; and how this dog, as he is, was produced must be to a great extent 
matter of conjecture. If we go beyond the present century or I might fix a much 
more recent date there does not exist, so far as I have been able to discover, an 
engraving of a terrier with other than prick ears ; and I imagine the Bedlington 
owes his hanging filbert-shaped ones to otter-hound blood, whilst his general 
conformation suggests a combination of greyhound and terrier. When once the 
properties desired if the breeder had a design were developed, they would be 
improved and fixed by selection ; but, as often happens, the first real Bedlington, as 
we now understand it, may have been the result of haphazard breeding. It was 
not, however, until the year 1825 that the name Bedlington was given to this breed 
of terriers by Mr. Ainsley, the breeder of a celebrated dog, Young Piper ; and this 
date gives some confirmation to the claim that the pedigree dates back to 1792, for 
Young Piper was by Anderson's Piper out of a bitch known as Coate's Phoebe. 
This bitch was brought from Bedlington in the year 1820, and given to Mr. Andrew 
Riddle, of Framlington, and subsequently passed into the hands of Mr. Ainsley; 
and as her pedigree is traced for four generations, and that of Piper, with which 
dog she was mated, for five generations, it is just barely possible that it might take 
us back to 1792. The names of the principal breeders before the Young Piper era 
were Messrs. R. Cowen, Rocklaw, Dixon, Longhursley, Anderson, Rothbury, and 
Edward Donkin, known during the first quarter of this century to sportsmen of 
Coquetdale as " hunting Ned." He was the owner of two celebrated dogs, Peachem 
and Pincher, whose blood runs in the veins of all our best dogs. 

Before proceeding to give a description of the Bedlington as he is, I will put on 



216 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

record descriptions of these two famous progenitors of the modern dog. Anderson's 
Piper was a slender-built dog, 15in. high, and weighing only 151b. ; he was liver 
colour, the hair being of a hard, linty texture; ears large, hanging close to the 
cheek, and slightly feathered at the tips. Phoebe was black, with brindled legs, and 
with a tuft of light-coloured hair on the top of her head ; she was 13in. high, and 
weighed 141b. This shows that more than fifty years ago some of the features 
peculiar to the Bedlington of to-day characterised their ancestors. 

In general appearance the Bedlington terrier has little to recommend him ; to 
strangers he must be known to be appreciated. He looks lean and leggy, his flat 
sides, cut-up flank, and ' light thighs give him a starved appearance ; in fact, as a 
rule, he is an indifferent feeder, and never carries much flesh ; he has, too, in 
quiescence, a soft look, although when roused he is all fire; he is a remarkably 
courageous dog deadly to vermin of every kind, from the rat to the otter and 
badger ; rather too fond of a free fight, but not the vicious brute he has been 
described. I may mention that the two dogs, Nailor and Eosebud, were in my 
keeping for two days whilst Mr. Baker sketched them ; and, although I had never 
seen them, except a few times on the show bench, I let them run loose in the street 
and fields, and found them most tractable, under perfect command, and instantly 
obedient to voice or whistle. 

The points are : 

1. Head. This is long and narrow, and wedge-shaped ; the skull, however, is 
not long, it is the jaw that gives the length, and in thickness it is a medium between 
the tapering muzzle of the English terrier and the broader muzzle of the Dandie 
Dinmont ; the skull is high, narrow, and peaked at the occiput. 

2. Ears. These are filbert-shaped, lying close to the cheek, and set on low, 
leaving the outline of the head clear. They should be slightly feathered at 
the tips. 

3. Eyes. In blue and blue and tans the eyes have a dark amber shade; in 
livers and sandy specimens they are lighter, commonly called " hazel eyes." They 
should be small, well sunk in the head, and placed close together. 

4. Jaws and teeth. As already said, the jaw is long, lean, and powerful. In 
most specimens the upper jaw is slightly longer, making the dog overshot. The 
level-mouthed dogs are termed " pincer-jawed." The teeth should be large, regular, 
and white. 

5. Nose. The nose should be large, standing out rather prominently. The 
blue and blue and tans have black noses ; the livers and linties have them red or 
flesh coloured. 

6. Neck and shoulders. The neck long and muscular, rising gradually from the 
shoulders to the head ; the shoulder is flat and light, set much like the grey- 
hound's. 

7. Body. Moderately long, with rather flat ribs, low at the shoulder, especially 
in the bitches ; arched light and muscular loins, slightly tucked up flank, deep chest. 

8. Legs and feet. Fore legs perfectly straight and rather long ; feet large, 
furnished with long, strong claws. 




YOBKSHTBE TEBEIERS. MBS. FOSTEB'S " HtJDDEESPIELD BEN" AND LADY GlFFABD'S "KATIE.' 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 



217 



9. Coat. The coat is rather soft, about the texture of fine flax, hence called 
" linty," with a few hard hairs scattered through it ; but a decidedly wiry coat is 
not orthodox. 

10. Colour. The recognised colours are blue, blue and tan, liver, liver and tan, 
and various hues of sandy, the lightest called " linty " ; but this term is objection- 
able, as it originally referred to the texture therefore, it would be better, to prevent 
confusion, to call them " light sandy " or " flaxen," as there are often special classes 
for this colour. The coat should be open and straight, but some are slightly curly. 

11. The tail. This should be of moderate length, Sin. to lOiii., set on low, 
carried straight, or with a slight curve, not curled, over the back. 

12. Weight. This varies considerably, running from 161b. up to 251b. ; but 
181b. to 201b. is the most desirable weight. 

I place the numerical value of the points as follows : 



Value. 
Head, including jaws. . . 15 

Ears 5 

Eyes 5 

Nose 5 

30 



Value. 

Teeth 5 

Neck and shoulders ... 10 
Body, chest, ribs, loin 20 
Legs and feet 10 

46 
Grand Total 100, 



Value. 

Coat 10 

Colour 5 

Tail 5 

Weight 5 

25 



The most sucessful breeders and exhibitors of late years have been Mr. S. 
Taprel Holland and the late Mr. Pickett, who was so well known in the fancy as to 
gain for himself the sobriquet of "The Duke of Bedlington." Mr. J. Parker, 
Mr. Wheatley, Mr. J. Stoddard, and last, though not least, the various members of 
the Bedlington Club. 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 
BY HUGH DALZIEL. 

This terrier is a genuine product of the county from which he takes his name. 
Undoubtedly a manufactured article, and the most recent addition to our varieties, 
he may be described as the newest goods of this class from the Yorkshire looms ; 
with the greater propriety that his distinctive character is in his coat well carded, 
soft, and-long as it is, and beautifully tinted with "cunning Huddersfield dyes," 
and free from even a suspicion of " shoddy." 

Visitors to our dog shows who look out for the beautiful as well as the useful 
cannot fail to be attracted by this little exquisite, as he reclines on his cushion 
of silk or velvet, in the centre of his little palace of crystal and mahogany, or 
struts round his mansion with the consequential airs of the dandy that he is ; 
yet, with all his self-assertion of dignity, his beard of approved cut and colour, 
faultless whiskers of Dundreary type, and coat of absolute perfection, without one 
hair awry, one cannot help feeling that he is but a dandy after all, and would 

F F 



218 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

look but a poor scarecrow in dishabille, and, possibly, too, on account of his dwelling 
or reception room, in the construction of which art is mostly set at defiance, one 
is apt to leave him with the scarcely concealed contempt for a scion of the 
" Veneering family," who in aping the aristocrat fails, as all parvenues do ; such 
as he is, however, there can be little doubt that should ever a canine Teufelsdrockh 
promulgate a philosophy of clothes for the benefit of his species, the Yorkshire 
terrier will represent the " dandiacal body ;" whilst, in striking contrast, those 
every-day drudges, the Irish terriers and the Scotch terriers, with their coarse, 
ragged, unkempt coats, will be exhibited as the " bog trotters " and " stock o' duds " 
sects of the doggy family. 

Although so very modern, it is difficult to trace satisfactorily the pedigree of 
this breed; indeed, pedigree he may be said at present to have none, and it is 
hard to say out of what materials he was manufactured ; but the warp and woof 
of him appear to have been the common long- coated black and tan, and the 
lighter-coloured specimens of what is known as the Glasgow or Paisley Skye 
terrier, the former of no certain purity, and the latter an admitted mongrel ; and 
from which I think the Yorkshire gets the softness and length of coat due to 
Maltese blood. In shape this dog is in the proportion of height to length between 
the Skye and English terrier rather nearer to the latter ; a long back is objected 
to, and was a fault found by many breeders with that excellent dog, Miss Alderson's 
Mozart. As they are always shown in full dress, little more than outline of shape 
is looked for; the eye, except when the hair is tied up, is invisible; the tail is 
shortened, and the ear is generally cut; when uncut it must be small, and is 
preferred when it drops slightly at the tip, but this is a trivial point, and sinks 
into significance before coat and colour ; the coat must be abundant over the 
whole body, head, legs, and tail, and artificial means are used to encourage its 
growth; length and straightness, freedom from curl and waviness, being sought 
for ; the body colour should be clear, soft, silvery blue, of course varying in shade ; 
with this is preferred a golden tan head, with darker tan about the ears, and rich 
tan legs. The style in which the coat is arranged for exhibition is beautifully 
shown by Mr. Baker in the sketch of Huddersfield Ben ; but that stage of perfec- 
tion is not attained without much time, trouble, and patience. When the pups 
are born they are black in colour, as are pepper Dandle Dinmonts and others ; 
at an early age the tip of the tail is nipped off to the desired length, the ears 
if cut at all not until the age of six to eight months ; and before this the coat 
will be changing colour, getting gradually lighter. To prevent the hair being 
scratched and broken, little or no meat is given all food likely to heat the blood 
and create irritation of the skin being avoided; and, as a further precaution, the 
hind feet are carefully kept in stockings; but, as "muffed cats are never good 
mousers," so a terrier in stockings stands a poor chance against his active enemy 
of the genus Pulex. Therefore, he should be kept free from these insects, and 
once a week must be washed and carefully brushed until quite dry ; and to assist 
the growth of hair, and keep it soft and from getting matted, it must be well 
greased, cocoanut and other oils being used for this purpose. 




MK. G. JAMISON'S IRISH TEKKIEB " SPUDS. 



THE IRISH TERRIER. 



219 



Of the oldest dogs of note of this breed were Walshaw's Sandy, Eamsden's 
Bounce, Inman's Don, Burgess's Kitty, and the celebrated Huddersfield Ben, 
represented in our engraving ; and he, sharing the blood of three of the above, 
proved the best of his day, and there is now scarcely a dog exhibited that is not 
a descendant of Ben his companion in the engraving, Lady Giffard's Katie, being 
also of his blood. Huddersfield Ben was the property of Mrs. M. A. Foster of 
Bradford, a very large and successful exhibitor of this breed ; the dog was bred 
by Mr. W. Eastwood, of Huddersfield, and was sire to Benson, Bright, Bruce, 
Bounce, Cobden, Emperor, Mozart, and numerous other winners at first-class 
shows. 

The classification of these dogs at shows and in the Kennel Club Stud Book 
is confusing and absurd, as shown by the fact that some of the above, all being 
of the same breed and blood, are classed as Yorkshire terriers; others as rough 
or broken-haired toy terriers. It would be much better to divide them by weight, 
and classify them as large and small Yorkshire terriers. In assessing the value 
of points, shape, coat, and colour absorb nearly all. I would, however, give ten 
points for ears, and five for tail, and deduct points for cropped ears and docked 
tail ; also for carriage of the tail over the back. There is no reason for mutilating 
pet dogs, and perfect tails and ears should be bred, not clipped into shape with 
scissors. Lady Giffard's Katie, in the engraving, has natural ears, and very good 
ones. 

VALUE OF POINTS. 



Value. 

Symmetry 15 

Clearness in blue 15 

Distinctness and rich- 
ness of tan 15 

45 



Value. 

Length of coat 10 

Texture of coat 10 

Straightness of coat ... 10 
Ears 10 

40 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Tail 5 

Condition in which 
shown . .10 



15 



THE IRISH TERRIER. 

BY GEOEGE E. KEEHL. 

I believe I am only repeating an admitted fact when I say that the progress 
of this breed in the last few years is almost without precedent. In 1878 the 
original supporters and discoverers of the breed were dropping off for want of 
encouragement. Amongst these I would name Messrs. Ridgway, Pirn, Jameson, 
Erwin, and Crosbie Smith. The Messrs. Carey still owned a good kennel, and Mr. 
Wm. Graham bred them more for work than show. Mr. E. P. Despard was winning 
with his Sporter (now in the possession of the writer), and his sons Tanner and 
Tanner II. The mother of these pups, Belle, was a very large grey bitch of the 
old sort. The old dog Sport was still being exhibited, and Banshee, a big bitch 
with a generous amount of bull in her, was a champion. The show bench at this 
period presented anything but a level appearance. At the time my brother and I 



220 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

entered the ranks of the Irish terriers' admirers, I believe there were not more 
than two English exhibitors besides ourselves. The many ridiculous awards of 
inexperienced judges exasperated the exhibitors, and at my suggestion the Irish 
Terrier Club was started. It is impossible to deny the influence exerted by the 
foundation of the club upon the improvement of the breed. In Ireland it 
awakened the interest that lay dormant ; in England it served to reveal to 
fanciers the existence of a game and little known terrier. It is now one of the 
most powerful subsidiary clubs. An Irish nobleman, Viscount Castlerosse, is its 
president, there are Irish and English vice-presidents, two hon. sees., a treasurer, 
and a mixed committee of ten, and about eighty members. It has issued a code 
of points and a list of gentlemen qualified to act as judges. 

The rise of the breed is most marked by the fact that in the days referred 
to one class was barely filled at the Kennel Club shows. At the last Alexandra 
Palace Show I had five classes to judge, with an entry of thirty-three. Besides 
the London shows, it was only in Ireland that classes were given for Irish terriers ; 
now no show, English or Scotch, of any consequence issues a schedule without 
one or two for this breed. The appearance of Mr. Eidgway's paper in " Dogs of 
the British Islands " also gave a considerable fillip to the breed ; and even now 
there is little to add to the information therein contained. Mr. Eidgway, in favour 
of the purity of the breed, tells us with authority that they are indigenous to 
their native country, and mentions that fanciers can remember them fifty and sixty 
years ago. He also bears testimony to their being " particularly hardy, and able 
to bear any amount of wet, cold, and hardship without showing the slightest 
symptoms of fatigue. Their coat also being a hard and wiry one, they can hunt 
the thickest gorse or furze covert without the slightest inconvenience." Modern 
fanciers are able to indorse the correctness of every word in this description of their 
working qualities, and his further evidence of their "usefulness, intelligence, and 
gameness." Mr. Eidgway also writes : " As to their capability for taking the 
water, and hunting in it, as well as on land, I may mention as one instance that 
a gentleman in the adjoining county of Tipperary has kept a pack of these 
terriers for years, with which he will hunt an otter as well as any pack of pure 
otterhounds can." 

Mr. Eidgway's perfect knowledge of the breed is shown in his code of points. 
All the discussions in the newspapers that I have taken part in have been, not 
for the airing of any particular crotchets of my own, but for the maintenance and 
upholding in their integrity to the letter of the Eidgway points, as against the 
endeavours of others to convince the public that the Irish terrier is a red fox 
terrier. The Irish Terrier Club's points are Mr. Eidgway's elaborated and 
explained. Importance is placed on the shape and general appearance of the dog, 
which should be easy and graceful ; the lines of the body should be speedy, without 
signs of heaviness or anything approaching the cobby and cloddy. Mr. T. Erwin 
truly said of them that, though game as fighting cocks, they should look more 
like running than fighting. A sufficient amount of substance is quite compatible 
with this structure. There is an extensive medium between the "bone" of the 



THE IEISH TEEEIEE. 221 



wliippit and that of a carthorse. It would not give a stranger a bad impression to 
describe them as a miniature Irish wolfhound in appearance. If I were asked to 
name the most prominent characteristics in the temperament of the Irish terrier, 
I should reply, " Courage and good temper." 

Their courage is quite national in its quality, being of that dashing, reckless, 
" dare-devil " description that is associated with the human habitants of their 
native country. The Irish Terrier fears nothing that ever came on four legs with a 
furry skin. They have no caution in their gameness, but go straight at 
their enemy with a heedless pluck utterly regardless of consequences. They do not 
always conquer, but they do or die unless pulled off. It would occupy too much 
space to relate a few of the many instances of their courage publicly recorded. 

I have read in the newspapers of a nine weeks' old pup killing a rat ; of another 
puppy freshly cropped, with unhealed ears, rushing by older dogs of a different breed, 
and fiercely attacking and killing a fox, undergoing the whole time without a 
whimper the most terrible punishment. I know several that have killed their 
badger ; and a letter in my possession describes an Homeric combat under water 
between an Irish terrier and an otter the latter eventually succumbing. Their 
other quality is quite as bright a side to their character. Their good temper is 
remarkable in so game a terrier. Terrier men will bear me out that a quarrelsome 
dog is seldom truly game. I question whether any of my colleagues in the Irish 
Terrier Club can give an instance of one of the breed biting a human being. They 
are, therefore, peculiarly fitted for house-dogs where there are women and children. 
They make the most admirable companions, faithful, intelligent, and always full of 
high spirits. Whether accompanying their master out walking, following a trap or 
a bicycle, their never tiring liveliness will amuse their master and relieve his 
loneliness. The poaching blood they inherit from their ancestors gives them an 
instinctive love of a gun. Sportsmen have not failed to recognise their advantages 
as rabbiting dogs. They hunt mute. They are a peculiarly hardy breed and 
seldom succumb to the many ills that puppyhood is heir to. Shows have done 
much for their outward appearance, and without that softening effect on the 
temperament which usually follows in its wake. It would be a poor show where 
perfection could not be made up with different parts from the body of the exhibits. 
" Spuds," the subject of the illustration, was a beautiful bitch in her youth and 
when in proper coat, she shows the long, parallel, wolfhound-like head. Her coat 
was as hard as cocoa-nut fibre, the colour, a bright yellow red, the hue of September 
wheat, with the sun on it. She is properly leggy, long rather in body, and yet firmly 
knit together, and very full of the racing-build. The golden wheaten is also a good 
colour, but the mahogany red one sometimes sees is to be avoided as showing the 
bar sinister of the black and tan. Long legs and a smooth face are necessary 
characteristics; and short legs, profuse coat, and long hair on the face indicate 
mongrelism and Scotch blending. Much of the breed's recent advance is 
due to the improved knowledge of the judges. While such pitiful blunders in the 
awards were an every show occurrence, it was rather a wonder the breed did not 
deteriorate instead of only standing still. To-day I may safely say they rival in 



222 



THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



popularity the oldest established breeds, and to the man who values qualities above 
looks, I would repeat that for a good-tempered and game dog, a rough-and-ready 
tyke that will fight anything and fear nothing there is no better than the Irish 
Terrier. 

IRISH TERRIER CLUB'S CODE OF POINTS. 



POSITIVE POINTS. Yalue. 

Head, jaw, teeth and eyes 15 

Ears 5 

Legs and feet 10 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest 10 

Back and loin 10 

Hind quarters and stern 10 

Coat 15 

Colour 10 

Size and symmetry 10 

Total 100 



NEGATIVE POINTS. Value. 

White nails, toes and feet minus 10 

Much white on chest 10 

Ears cropped 5 

Mouth undershot or cankered 10 

Coat shaggy, curly, or soft 10 

Uneven in colour . 5 



Total 50 



Disqualifying Points : Nose, cherry or red. Brindle colour. 



DESCEIPTIVE PARTICULARS. 

Head, Long ; skull flat, and rather narrow between ears, getting slightly 
narrower towards the eye ; free from wrinkle ; stop hardly visible, except in profile. 
The jaw must be strong and muscular, but not too full in the cheek, and of a good 
punishing length, but not so fine as a white English terrier's. There should be a 
slight falling away below the eye, so as not to have a greyhound appearance. Hair 
on face of same description as on body, but short (about a quarter of an inch long), 
in appearance almost smooth and straight ; a slight beard is the only longish hair 
(and is only long in comparison with the rest) that is permissible, and that is 
characteristic. 

Teeth. Should be strong and level. 

Lips. Not so tight as a bull-terrier's but well-fitting, showing through the 
hair their black lining. 

Nose. Must be black. 

Ears. When uncut, small and V-shaped, of moderate thickness, set well up on 
the head, and dropping forward closely to the cheek. The ears must be free of 
fringe, and the hair thereon shorter and generally darker in colour than the body. 

Neck. Should be of a fair length, and gradually widening towards the 
shoulders, well carried, and free of throatiness. There is generally a slight sort of 
frill visible at each side of the neck, running nearly to the corner of the ear, which is 
looked on as very characteristic. 

Shoulders and chest. Shoulders must be fine, long, and sloping well into the 
back ; the chest deep and muscular, but neither full nor wide. 

Back and loin. Body moderately long; back should be strong and straight, 
with no appearance of slackness behind the shoulders ; the loin broad and powerful 



THE BLACK AND TAN TERRIER. 223 

and slightly arched; ribs fairly sprung, rather deep than round, and well ribbed 
back. 

Hind quarters. Well under the dog should be strong and muscular, the thighs 
powerful, hocks near the ground, stifles not much bent. 

Stern. Generally docked, should be free of fringe or feather, set on pretty high, 
carried gaily, but not over the back or curled. 

Feet and legs. Feet should be strong, tolerably round, and moderately small ; 
toes arched, and neither turned out nor in ; black toe-nails are preferable and most 
desirable. Legs moderately long, well set from the shoulders, perfectly straight, 
with plenty of bone and muscle; the elbows working freely clear of the sides, 
pasterns short and straight, hardly noticeable. Both fore and hind legs should be 
moved straight forward when travelling, the stifles not turned outwards, the legs free 
of feather and covered like the head, with as hard a texture of coat as body, but not 
so long. 

Coat. Hard and wiry, free of softness or silkiness, not so long as to hide the 
outlines of the body, particularly in the hindquarters, straight and flat, no shagginess, 
and free of lock or curl. 

Colour. Should be <fl whole coloured," the most desirable being bright red; 
next wheaten, yellow, and grey, brindle disqualifying. White sometimes appears on 
chest and feet ; it is more objectionable on the latter than on the chest, as a speck of 
white on chest is frequently to be seen in all self-coloured breeds. 

Size and symmetry. Weight in show condition, from 161b. to 241b. say 161b. to 
221b. for bitches and 181b. to 241b. for dogs. The most desirable weight is 221b. or 
under, which is a nice stylish and useful size. The dog must present an active, 
lively, lithe, and wiry appearance; lots of substance, at the same time free of 
clumsiness, as speed and endurance, as well as power, are very essential. They must 
be neither " cloddy " nor " cobby," but should be framed on the " lines of speed," 
showing a graceful " racing outline." 

The subject of the illustration is Spuds (K.C.S.B. 6846), bred by Mr. George 
Jamison, Newtownards, Ireland. Spuds has won the following prizes: Cork, 2nd 
prize, 1876, Mr. Eidgway, judge ; Newtownards, 1st prize and special cup for best 
in four Irish terrier classes, Mr. Skidmore, judge ; Brighton, 2nd prize, Mr. Sam 
Handley, judge; Lisburn, 1877, 1st prize, Mr. Skidmore, judge; Newtownards, 
1877, 1st prize and special cup for best in two Irish terrier classes, Mr. J. J. Pirn, 
judge; Agricultural Hall, London, 2nd prize, Colonel Cowen, judge; Bristol, 1st 
prize, Mr. Percival, judge ; Alexandra Palace, 1st prize, Mr. Handley, judge. 



224- THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



CHAPTER III. 

SMOOTH TERRIERS 
(OTHER THAN TOYS). 



THE BLACK AND TAN TERRIER (OR MANCHESTER) THE WHITE ENGLISH 
TERRIER THE BULL TERRIER. 



THE BLACK AND TAN TEEKIER 

(SOMETIMES CALLED THE MANCHESTER TEEEIEE.) 
BY HUGH DALZIEL. 

HE Black and Tan Terrier has as good a right to be considered the 
representative of the old English terrier as any breed in existence, 
and probably a better one; but not yet haying been blessed with a 
club to protect his interests and quarrel over his pedigree, he has 
held his position a very respectable one in the canine world on his 
own intrinsic merits. His history begins long before Dandie Dinmonts or 
Bedlingtons were thought of, and his most distinguishing features had ere 
that been noted. Daniel, in his " Eural Sports " describes his " black body 
and tanned legs (thumb marks, bronzed thighs, and kissing spots had not then 
been invented), smooth coat, beautiful formation, short body, and sprightly 
appearance." Bewick copied Daniel, as several other writers have done ; and since 
their time, through all the vicissitudes of dog life, and apparently without 
any special care having been taken of him, he remains essentially true to his 
prototype, with no doubt a finer and more polished jacket, befitting these 
days of dog parades. As he cannot speak for himself, I must say for 
him he has a strong cause of complaint against the Kennel Club; for in 
the first volume of their stud book, which chronicles the principal shows for 
fourteen years, he was simply and properly described as the black and tan 
terrier, " English " of course being understood ; but since 1874 they have added 
to his title, "or Manchester terrier" The reason for this change I do not 
know, as the records of their own stud book do not disclose many names of 





MB, H. LACY'S BLACK-TAN TERRIER " BELCHER." 



THE BLACK AND TAN TEKRIER. 225 

eminent Manchester breeders or exhibitors besides Mr. Samuel Handley, who 
bred and exhibited some of the best that have been shown, and who is still 
generally recognised as one of the best judges of them ; and, however great 
an honour it may be to be " Manchester," it is a greater honour to be 
English, and, so far as I can see, the change in name was useless and uncalled 
for, and derogatory to the breed. In addition 'to Mr. Handley, there were 
years ago the following celebrated Lancashire breeders : Mr. James Barrow, 
Mr. Joseph Kay, and Mr. William Pearson, all now dead; but the crack dogs 
now met with at our shows have generally been bred by unknown people, and 
brought out by astute judges and spirited exhibitors. In the early days of shows 
Birmingham took the lead in this breed, and Mr. G. Fitter, of that town, who 
had a good strain, held the first position for several years with his exceptionally 
good dog Dandy, which served to illustrate the breed in the previous editions 
of "Dogs of the British Islands." Of late years the most successful exhibitors 
have been Mr. George Wilson, Huddersfield ; the late Mr. Martin, Manchester ; and, 
more so than either, Mr. Henry Lacy, of Hebden Bridge. 

This breed is not such a general favourite with the public as it deserves 
to be, for it has many excellent qualities to recommend it to those who like a nice 
pet that does not need nursing, an affectionate, lively, and tractable companion, 
not given to quarrelling, very active and graceful in its actions, and with pluck 
enough and a keen zest for hunting and destroying such vermin as rats that infest 
houses and outbuildings ; for with larger .vermin, such as the fox, badger, &c. (with 
exceptional cases), he has not the hardness to cope or stand their bites, nor 
has he the strength even of other terriers of his own weight, as he is formed more 
for nimbleness than work requiring power. His most ardent admirers cannot 
claim for him the courage and obduracy of attack and defence that characterise 
less pure terriers. As a house dog he is unexcelled, always on the alert, and 
quick to give alarm. 

I am writing of the dog from lOlb. up to 161b., not the small lap dogs of 
the same colour and markings, which are generally pampered and peevish, and 
ornamental rather than useful which, when they do give tongue at the entrance 
of a visitor, never know when they ha\e yelped enough, and have to be coaxed into 
silence. These latter are of two sorts : one with a short face, round skull, and full 
eye (inclined to weep), called in vulgar parlance " apple-headed 'uns," showing the 
cross at some time or other with the King Charles spaniel ; the other type is 
the thin, shivering dog, that must be kept clothed, and sleep in a warmly-lined 
basket, his timid shrinking manner, spindly legs, lean sides, and tucked-up flanks 
showing the Italian greyhound cross. The weight of these two clearly distinct 
varieties averages from about 31b. to 61b. 

The black and tan terrier proper is the most elegantly shaped and graceful 
in outline of all the terrier tribe ; and, improved as he has been since dog shows 
came in vogue, he more than ever deserves the description Daniel gave him, being 
of beautiful formation and sprightly appearance. Taking his points seriatim they 
are as follows : 

o a 



226 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



POINTS OF BLACK AND TAN TERRIEK. 



Value. 

Head 5 

Jaws and teeth 5 

Eyes 5 

Ears 5 

20 



Yalue. 
Neck and shoulders ... 10 

Chest 10 

Loin 10 

and feet 10 

So 

Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Coat 5 

Colour 25 

Tail 5 

Symmetry 5 

So 



1. The head (value 5) must be long and narrow, clean cut, tight skinned, with 
no bulging out at the cheeks ; the skull flat and narrow. 

2. The jaws and teeth (value 5). The muzzle should be long, lean, and 
tapering, with the teeth level, or the incisors of the upper jaw just closing over 
the under ones. The nose must be quite black. 

3. The eyes (value 5) are black, bright, and small, neither sunk in the skull 
nor protruding. 

4. The ears (value 5) are, for exhibition purposes, invariably cut, and much 
importance is attached to the result of this operation. It is required that the 
ears correspond exactly in shape and position with each other. They must be 
tapered to a point, stand quite erect, or slightly lean towards each other at the 
tip. This is a practice I strongly deprecate, and never miss an opportunity of 
protesting against it ; and I believe there is a general feeling arising against it ; and 
among others who strongly condemn it is the best judge of the breed living, 
Mr. S. Handley. The supporters of the practice cannot offer a single valid 
argument in its favour, whilst there are many strong reasons against it. It is 
sheer nonsense to say the dogs look better cropped. It is not many years since 
people thought pugs looked better with their ears shorn off by the roots, but 
nobody thinks so now; and the practice as regards terriers could be effectually 
stopped by a resolution of the Kennel Club to the effect that no dog with cut 
ears would be eligible to compete at any of their shows after 1879. There is this 
practical evil too in cropping, that it places the dog with naturally defective ears 
on an equality in competition with the dog born with perfect ears if they have 
been equally skilfully manipulated. The natural ear is of three kinds the button 
or drop ear, like the fox terrier ; the rose ear, that is half folded back, so that 
the interior of the ear can be partially seen ; and the prick or tulip ear. But I 
have never seen the last-named kind, except in coarse specimens. The leather of 
the ear is thin, and generally finest in the best bred dogs. 

5. Neck and shoulders (value 10). The neck must be light and airy, well 
proportioned to the head, and gradually swelling towards the shoulders ; there 
should be no loose skin or throatiness. The shoulders are not so muscular as 
in some breeds ; but nicely sloping. 

6. The chest (value 10) must be deep, but not wide ; the latter would indicate a 
bull cross, which would also be shown in the head and other points. The body is 
short, the ribs rather deep than round, the back ones pretty well let down. 



THE BLACK AND TAN TERRIEE. 227 

7. The loins (value 10) are strong and muscular, with this formation there 
is an absence of the cut-up flank which the Whippet and Italian greyhound 
crosses give. 

8. Legs and feet (value 10). The former are straight, light of bone, clean as a 
racehorse, and the feet long and hare-like, but with the toes well arched, and the 
claws jet black. 

9. The coat (value 5) must be short and close ; it should look fine and glossy, 
but not soft in texture. 

10. The colour and markings (value 25) are in this breed which is now 
essentially a fancy dog important. No other colour than black and tan or red is 
permissible; the least speck of white is fatal to winning chances, and it is in 
the richness, contrast, and correct distribution of these that excellence consists. 
The black should be intense and jet-like ; the tan, a rich warm mahogany ; the two 
colours, in all points where they meet, being abruptly separated not running into 
each other. On the head the tan runs along each jaw, on the lower running down 
almost to the throat ; a bright spot on the cheek, and another above the eye, each 
clearly surrounded with black, and well defined ; the inside of the ears slightly 
tanned, spots of tan on each side of the breast, the forelegs tanned up to the knee; 
feet tanned, but the knuckles have a clear black line, called the " pencil mark," up 
their ridge ; and in the centre of the tan, midway between the foot and the knee, 
there must be a back spot called the "thumb mark," and the denser the black, 
and the clearer in its outline, the more it is valued. The insides of the hind legs are 
tanned, and also the under side of tail ; but tan on the thighs and outside, where 
it often appears in a straggling way, producing the appearance called " bronzed," is 
very objectionable. The vent has also a tan spot, but it should be no longer than 
can be well covered by the tail when pressed down on it. 

11. The tail (value 5) must be long, straight, thin, and tapering to a point. Its 
carriage should be low, and any curl over the back is a fatal defect. 

12. The symmetry (value 5) of this dog is of great importance, as this point 
is developed to as great an extent as in any other breed, not even excepting the 
greyhound. 

Belcher, the subject of the illustration, was bred and exhibited by Mr. Henry 
Lacy, Lacy House, Hebden Bridge. He was considered the most perfect specimen 
of the breed in his time. First exhibited at Hull in October, 1875, he took first and 
special prizes, and has ever since kept at the head of his class, having been first at 
Birmingham, Alexandra Palace, Crystal Palace, Brighton, Darlington, Islington, 
Manchester, and a number of smaller shows. Belcher is remarkably well bred, 
being by Mr. Lacy's General out of his Saff II., both sire and dam going back to 
Handley's celebrated Saff by Gas out of Limie, and is therefore essentially a 
"Manchester" terrier. Mr. Lacy's dogs having been distributed, Belcher became 
the property of Mr. Tom B. Swinburne, Darlington. 



228 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



THE WHITE ENGLISH TERRIER 

Although a separate class is made in the programmes of most of our large dog 
shows for this breed, under the title " terriers except black and tan," the difference 
between it and the black and tan is only one of colour. In size, shape, and mental 
characteristics the two are identical, and consequently it is needless to repeat the 
description given in the article on the black and tan terrier, which will serve equally 
well for the subject of the present one. 

In the early exhibitions of dogs, and notably at those held at Islington and 
Cremorne in 1862-3, the chief prizes were carried off by Mr. White, of Clapham, 
both in the small (or toy) and large classes. His dogs, however, were very bare of 
hair, and in other respects showed signs of in-breeding, from which cause, probably, 
he did not continue to hold the premiership, Mr. Tupper and Mr. Hinks being first 
and second at Islington in 1864. Mr. P. Swindells, of Stockport ; the late Mr. J. 
Martin, of Salf ord ; Mr. J. Roocrof t, of Bolton ; Mr. G. Stables, of Manchester ; and 
Mr. Skidmore, of Nantwich, have latterly been the most prominent breeders those 
dogs exhibited by Mr. Shirley, M.P., the Rev. J. Mellor, and Mr. Murchison having 
been bred by one or other of the above-named gentlemen. 

The originals of the portraits accompanying this article belonged to Mr. 
Vero Shaw, having been purchased by him. Sylph, by Mr. Stable's Viper out 
of Vic, is well known to fame, having taken first prize at Hull, the Alexandra 
Palace, Crystal Palace, Belfast, Fakenham, Darlington, and Wolverhampton. Sylvio 
(late Chance) is by Mr. P. Swindell's Joe out of Sylph, and has won three first 
prizes, namely, at Bath, Darlington, and the Agricultural Hall. 



THE BULL TERRIER. 

The Bull Terrier, like his chief progenitor, the bulldog, is now without a 
vocation, dog fights being prohibited by law, and rat pits being equally out of the 
question. But, unlike the bulldog, he is an excellent companion for the male sex, 
being a little too violent in his quarrels to make him desirable as a ladies' pet. 
Careful crossing said to be with the terrier, but also alleged to be with the 
greyhound or foxhound, or both has produced a handsome, symmetrical animal, 
without a vestige of the repugnant and brutal expression of the bulldog, and with 
the elegant lines of the greyhound, though considerably thickened in their pro- 
portions. From fifteen to twenty years' ago, Mr. Hinks, of Birmingham, held 
undisputed sway in this breed with a kennel of white dogs, in which a " Madman " 
always existed ; but the identical animal varied almost every year, as he was enticed 
away y the high bids of the lovers of this breed. At that time there was still a 
slight reminder of the bull in the comparatively full lip ; but in 1868 Old Victor 
suddenly appeared from the Black Country without this appendage, and with such 
a fine form of head and frame that he succeeded in gaining the fiats of the judges 



THE BULL TEEEIEE. 229 



in his favour ; and his type has since then been installed as that which is to 
be considered the proper one for the breed. Nothing is known of his pedigree, 
and all the guesses made at his greyhound parentage are purely hypothetical. 
He was, like all the "Madmen" of Mr. Hinks's breeding, a pure white; but 
when put to an equally all-white bitch, one of the produce was the celebrated 
"mark-eyed" dog Young Victor, who won nearly every prize open to him 
till his career was cut short by poison at the Hull Show of 1875. His 
son Tarquin whose portrait is appended to this article, is, however, a worthy 
representative of the breed. 

The bull terrier is still judged by the fighting standard that is to say, he must 
have all the points, mental as well as bodily, which are necessary to the fighting dog. 
If of pure bull parentage or nearly so, he is unfitted for the ofiice ; for, instead of 
laying hold and shaking his adversary for a time with great force, and then changing 
to a fresh place of attack, as the fighting dog should do, he keeps his hold tena- 
ciously, and never changes it but on compulsion. The infusion of terrier, 
greyhound, or foxhound, or whatever may be the cross, gives activity of body in 
addition to the above mental peculiarity, and thus is created an animal calculated to 
take his own part in any combat, whether with one of his own kind or with any of 
our native larger vermin, or even with the smaller felidce of other lands. His temper 
is sufficiently under control to prevent his intentionally injuring his master, under 
the severest provocation, and he is admitted to be, of all dogs, the most efficient 
protector against attack in proportion to his size and muscular powers. He is a 
very cleanly animal in the house, and many years ago I had one which, being by 
accident confined in my bedroom, surreptitiously for four days, under the care of a 
person who fed him, but neglected to let him out as directed, for fear of discovery, 
never once relieved himself of any of his secretions, by which he very nearly lost his 
life. Show dogs of this breed accustomed to the house, if left on their benches, are 
peculiarly liable to injury from this cause, which is indeed a fertile source of 
mischief to all dogs, and the higher their courage the worse for their health. The 
bull terrier is a capital vermin dog, and, if small enough, " goes to ground " well at 
fox or badger ; but is too severe in his attack, his tendency being to kill rather than 
bolt his fox. For this reason the slightest visible cross of .bull with the fox terrier 
is objected to ; but for all vermin work above ground the bull terrier of the present 
day is admirably suited. 

Nothing reliable is known of the pedigrees of any of the best specimens of the 
bull terrier in these days ; and in former years, while the dog pits of Birmingham, 
Walsall, Stafford, Westminster, &c., still existed, the best strains were equally 
without recognised paternity beyond the first generation, breeders selecting a well- 
known fighting dog to mate with an equally famous bitch, whose prowess had been 
proved on more than one occasion. It is true that certain strains were famous 
among the " fancy ; " but they seldom existed long, subsequent victories bringing 
out fresh favourites, and these being again displaced by the fortune of war, as 
fickle in the pit as elsewhere. At present breeders go back to Old Victor as 
the origin of all the best dogs, and improving upon Mr. Hinks's strain which 



230 



THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



had probably been too much in-bred in size, symmetry, and notably in face 
and lip. The points are as follows : 



POINTS OF THE BTJLL TEBRIER. 



Value. 

Skull 15 

Face and teeth 10 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

35 





Value. 


Shoulder and chest 


.. 15 


Back 


10 


Legs 


10 


Feet 


5 




40 


Grand Total 


100. 



Value. 

Coat 5 

Colour 5 

Tail 5 

Symmetry 10 

25 



1. The skull (value 15) should be long and flat, wedge-shaped, i.e., wide behind 
with the smaller end at the place of the brow, which should not be at all prominent. 
The line from the occiput to the end of the nose should be as straight as possible, 
without either brow or hollow in front of the eyes. This line is never absolutely 
straight, but the nearer it approaches to a straight line the better. The skull 
should, however, be " broken up," but not to anything like the same extent as in the 
bulldog. 

2. Face, eyes, lips, and teeth (value 10). The jaws must be long and powerful, 
nose large and black (though many otherwise first-rate dogs have had spotted or 
"butterfly" noses, notably Mr. G-odfree's Old Puss). Eyes small, black, and 
sparkling. The upper lip should be as tight over the jaw as possible, any superfluous 
skin or approach to chop being undesirable. The under Up also should be small. 
The teeth should be regular in shape, meeting exactly, without any deviation from 
the straight line. A pig jaw is as great a fault as being underhung. 

3. The ears (value 5) are always cropped for show purposes, and the degree of 
perfection with which this has been accomplished is generally taken into considera- 
tion. They should be brought to a fine point and exactly match. In their 
uncropped state they vary a good deal in shape, and seldom reach their full 
proportion till after teething. 

4. The neck (value 5) should be rather long, and gracefully set into the 
shoulders, from which it should taper to the head, without any throatiness or 
approach to dewlap, as in the bulldog. 

5. Shoulders and chest (value 15). The shoulders should be strong and slanting 
with a wide and deep chest ; but the last ribs are not very deep, though brought well 
back towards the hips. 

6. The back (value 10) should be short and well furnished with muscle, running 
forward between the shoulder blades in a firm bundle on each side. 

7. The legs (value 10). The forelegs should be long and perfectly straight, the 
elbows lying in the same plane as the shoulder points, and not outside them, as in 
the bulldog. The hind legs should also be long and muscular, with straight 
hocks placed low down, i.e. t near the ground, 




MK. VERO SHAW'S BULL TEBEIEES "TARQUIN" AND " NAPPER. 



THE BULL TERRIER. 231 



8. The feet (value 5) are rather long than cat-like ; but the toes should be well 
arched and close together. 

9. The coat (value 5) must be short and close, but hard rather than silky, 
though when in show condition it should shine from constant friction. 

10. The colour (value 5) for show purposes must be pure white, though there 
are many well-shaped dogs of other colours. This is, however, purely a fancy breed, 
and as such there is not the slightest reason why an arbitrary rule should not be 
made, as it was without doubt in this case, and it is useless to show a dog of any 
other colour. 

11. The tail (value 5) or stern should be set on low, fine in bone, and carried 
straight out without any curl over the back. 

12. Of symmetry (value 10) this dog shows a considerable amount, all his points 
being agreeable to the eye of the artist. Any deviation from a due proportion 
should therefore be punished accordingly. 

The dogs I have selected for illustration are, first, Mr. Vero Shaw's celebrated 
Tarquin, to represent the class above 201b., he being 441b. in weight, and having 
won at Birmingham, Darlington, Wolverhampton, Northampton, Maidstone, Cork, 
Alexandra Palace, Crystal Palace, and other shows. Tarquin is by Young Victor 
out of a bitch called Puss, and was bred by Mr. C. L. Boyce, of Birmingham. 
Secondly, for the small class under 201b., I have chosen Napper, belonging to the 
same gentleman. He weighs 181b., and is by Bardie's Napper (a son of Mr. 
Shirley's celebrated Nelson, who was admitted to be the best dog of his day) 
out of Minnie. He has been successful at the Crystal Palace, Cork, and other 
shows. 

Since the third edition of the "Dogs of the British Islands" appeared, one 
of the great Birmingham breeders has ceased to exist for show purposes ; for Mr. J. 
F. Godfree has disposed of his entire kennel of bull terriers to Mr. Vero Shaw, 
who almost monopolised the prizes in this class for some time, and then, in his 
turn, gave them up, together with the whole of his kennel. The name of Mr. Hinks 
of Birmingham, too, has recently disappeared from the list of exhibitors, most of his 
stud having passed into the hands of Mr. Hartley, of Altrincham, who afterwards 
disposed of the best to Mr. Gr. A. Dawes, of Leamington. Messrs. Battersby, of 
Bolton; Chorley, of Kendal; Tredennick; Parkin, of Sheffield; and Miller, of 
Walsall, frequently show first-rate specimens of this breed, which appears to have 
recently taken a new lease in public favour ; for its unusual docility, if properly 
managed, and its intelligence, enable a bull terrier to learn almost anything that a 
dog can be taught ; whilst its pluck is indisputable, and its mute system of attack 
renders it on many occasions superior to a fox terrier, who, when working, is apt to 
give tongue too loudly. 



232 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



THE SCOTCH TEEEIEE, 

A small rough terrier tinder the above name has for many years been known 
in '. England, and accepted by the inhabitants of that country as identical with the 
true breed as recognised in Scotland. Within the last few years, however, our 
northern fellow-countrymen have come forward and repudiated him, alleging that 
he is not the genuine article ; and in their Scottish dog shows they have produced 
specimens of what they consider the pure breed, including the originals of the 
engraving which accompanies this article. 

On comparing these dogs with Mr. Radclyffe's Eough (one of the group 
of terriers in the frontispiece of Book III.), it will be seen that they closely 
resemble him ; and very probably Mr. Eadclyffe obtained his breed from the north, 
as it was one not generally met with in Wales, where that gentleman lived. In 
any case, however, it is admitted that the Scotch dog as described below, with the 
sanction of nearly every well-known breeder of the present day, is of great antiquity, 
and it must not be confounded with the over-sized, long-backed dogs with large 
and heavily -feathered ears, whose traces of Skye ancestry are evident to those who 
understand the two breeds from which they spring. In fact, it is in the ears that 
one of the chief characteristics of the Scotch terrier lies, for all unite in agreeing 
that they should be small, and covered with a velvety coat not large, and fringed 
with hair like a prick-haired Skye terrier. As regards the carriage of the ear, the 
opinions of those best qualified to judge are a little divided between the merits of 
a perfectly erect and half -drop ear ; but all unite in their condemnation of a 
perfectly drop, button, or fox-terrier ear. As to the half -drop ear,- which stands 
erect, but falls over at the tip, half covering the orifice, a large, very large, 
majority of modern breeders agree in preferring the small, erect, sharp-pointed 
one ; though all would probably hesitate to pass over a really good terrier who had 
half -prick ears. Another great feature in the Scotch terrier is his coat, which should 
be intensely hard and wiry, and not too long, and is well described in the appended 
scale of points, which bears the signatures of nearly all the leading breeders. 

As a dead- game animal, the Scotch terrier is not to be surpassed by any 
breed except bulls or bull terriers, but the courage of the latter dogs is so 
exceptional that it is no disrespect to any other dog to place them for pluck in a 
class by themselves, and, pound for pound, there is no dog, but a bull terrier, who 
can beat the hard-haired Scotchman by far. Still, he has a natural advantage over 
the bull terrier, for his hard coat and thickly padded feet enable him to go 
through whins and over rocky places where the other would be useless, and he is 
far more easy to control, though naturally of a rather pugnacious disposition. 
His intelligence and love of home, his pluck, docility, and affection for his master, 
should make Scottie a favourite with all who want a varmint dog ; and nobody 
who once gets a good one, of the right style and stamp, will care to let him go. 

The dogs selected for illustration are Miss Mary Laing's Foxie, by Sharp 
Fan, bred by Mr. John L. GTrainger, of Aberdeen ; and Mr. J. A. Adamson's Eoger 
Eough, by Fury Flo, by Mr. Cattanack's Don Mr. J. L. Graiuger's Nelly. This 




SCOTCH TERRIERS. Miss MARY LATNG'S "Foxis" AND MB. J. A. ADAMSON'S "BOGER EOUGH. 



THE SCOTCH TEEEIEE. 233 

dog was bred by Mr. A. Barclay in 1876. The former is a very grand-bodied dog, 
and his head is good, though his ears are on the big side. Eoger Rough, on the 
contrary, excels in head properties ; but both are very typical specimens of the 
breed. Foxie has won first prizes at Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Montrose, and Kilmar- 
nock; whilst his old opponent Eoger Eough has been successful at the Crystal 
Palace (twice), Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Ayr, &c., though he was passed over at the 
Alexandra Palace of December, 1881, for a supposed, but purely imaginary, want of 
terrier character. 

Amongst other good dogs Messrs. Blomfield and Ludlow's Bon Accord and 
Splinter II. may be favourably noticed; but it must be remembered that many 
excellent specimens are seldom exhibited, or only appear at Highland shows, where 
their merits are hidden from the public gaze. 

The following is the scale of points which has been submitted to the chief 
breeders of this terrier, and approved of by them in the document appended to this 
article. 

POINTS OF THE HARD-HAIRED SCOTCH TERRIER. 



Value. 

Skull 5 

Muzzle 5 

Eyes 5 

Ears... . 10 



Yalue. 

Neck 5 

Chest 5 

Body 10 

Legs and feet 10 



Value. 

Coat 20 

Size 10 

Colour 2i 

General appearance ... 10 



Tail 2J 

25 

Grand Total 100. 

Skull (value 5) proportionately long, slightly domed, and covered with short 
hard hair about fin. long,-or less. It should not be quite flat, as there should be a 
sort of stop, or drop, between the eyes. 

Muzzle (value 5) very powerful, and gradually tapering towards the nose, which 
should always be black and of a good size. The jaws should be perfectly level and 
the teeth square, though the nose projects somewhat over the mouth, which gives 
the impression of the upper jaw being longer than the under one. 

Eyes (value 5) set wide apart, of a dark brown or hazel colour ; small, piercing, 
very bright, and rather sunken. 

Ears (value 10) very small, prick or half -prick (the former is preferable), but 
never drop. They should also be sharp-pointed, and the hair on them should not be 
long, but velvety, and they should not be cut. The ears should be free .from any 
fringe at the top. 

Neck (value 5) short, thick and muscular ; strongly set on sloping shoulders. 

Chest (value 5) broad in comparison to the size of the dog, and proportionately 
deep, 

Body (value 10) of moderate length, not so long as a Skye's, and rather 
flat-sided ; but well ribbed up, and exceedingly strong in hind quarters. 

Legs and Feet (value 10), both fore and hind legs, should be short, and very 
heavy in bone, the former being straight, or slightly bent, and well set on under the 

H H 



234 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

body as the Scotch terrier should not be out at elbows. The hocks should be bent, 
and the thighs very muscular; and the feet strong, small, and thickly covered with short 
hair, the fore feet being larger than the hind ones, and well let down on the ground. 

The Tail (value 2|), which is never cut, should be about 7in. long, carried with 
a slight bend, and often gaily. 

The Coat (value 20) should be rather short (about 2in.), intensely hard and wiry 
in texture, and very dense all over the body. 

Size (value 10) about 141b. to 181b. for a dog, 131b. to 171b. for a bitch. 

Colours (value 2f) steel or iron grey, brindle, black, red, wheaten, and even 
yellow or mustard colour. It may be observed that mustard, black, and red are not 
usually so popular as the other colours. White markings are most objectionable. 

General Appearance (value 10). The face should wear a very sharp, bright, and 
active expression, and the head should be carried up. The dog (owing to the 
shortness of his coat) should appear to be higher on the leg than he really is ; but, 
at the same time, he should look compact, and possessed of great muscle in his 
hind- quarters. In fact, a Scotch terrier, though essentially a terrier, cannot be 
too powerfully put together. He should be from about 9in. to 12in. in height, 
and should have the appearance of being higher on the hind legs than on the fore. 

FAULTS. 
Muzzle either under or over-hung. 

Eyes large or light-coloured. 

Ears large, round at the points, or drop. It is also a fault if they are too 
heavily covered with hair. 

Coat. Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl is a serious blemish, as is also an 
open coat. 

Size. Specimens over 181b. should not be encouraged. 



Having read the above standard, and considered the same, I am prepared to express my 
approval of it, and will give it my support when breeding or judging hard-haired Scotch 
terriers. 



DAVID ADAMS, Murrygate, Dundee. 
J. A. ADAMSON, Ashley-road, Aberdeen. 
ALEX. BARCLAY, Springbank-terrace, Aber- 
deen. 

H. BLOMFIELD, Lakenham, Norfolk. 
JAMES BURR, M.D., Aberdeen. 
J. C. CARRICK, Carlisle. 



JAMES D. LUMSDEN, Pitcairnfield, Perth. 
JOHN D. M'CoLL, Burnfoot, Cardross. 
JAMES M'LAREN, Blarhullachen, Aberfoyle. 
WM. MEFF, JUN., Market-street, Aberdeen. 
J. R. MONKMAN, Pitmuxton, Aberdeen. 
JAMES B. MORRISON, Brookfield, Greenock. 
JOHN PIRIE, Clarence-road, Wood Green. 



JOHN GUMMING, Bridge of Don, Aberdeen. GEO. ROBERTSON, Salisbury-terrace, Aber- 
W. D. FINDLAY, Portlethen, Aberdeenshire. deen. 



WM. FRAZER, Jasmine-terrace, Aberdeen. 

JOHN L. GRAINGER, Summer-street, Aber- 
deen. 

D. J. THOMPSON GRAY, South George -street, 
Dundee. 

PAT HENDERSON, Tally-street, Dundee. 



VERO SHAW, London. 
A. STEPHEN, Frazerburgh. 
ALEX. SUTHERLAND, Aberdeen. 
ALEX. THOMSON, Bromshill Lodge, Aber- 
deen. 
GEORGE THOMPSON, Powis Lodge, Aber- 



MARY LAING, Granton Lodge, Aberdeen. deen. 

P. R. LATHAM, Tweed-terrace, Bridge of J PAT. C. THOMSON, Milnacraig, Alyth. 

Allan. i DAVID N. WALLACE, Skene-row, Aberdeen. 

H. J. LUDLOW, St. Giles Plain, Norwich. W. B. WIGHT, Dyce, Aberdeenshire. 




MR. L. P. C. ASTLEY'S AIREDALE TERRIER BITCH "FRACTURE. 



THE AIEEDALE TEEEIEE. 235 



THE AIEEDALE TEEEIEE. 

Most visitors to North of England shows must have been struck by the 
appearance of the large rough-coated dogs which it is now the fashion to style 
Airedale terriers. The animal itself is simply the old Yorkshire waterside terrier, a 
little improved in looks by careful breeding, rechristened, and brought before the 
public as the " coming breed." Many ideas are prevalent as regards the origin of 
the variety, but as it has for years and years been in the hands of a class of men 
whose pockets are not deep, and whose ideas of breeding up to a standard are 
somewhat vague, the Airedale ancestry is decidedly mixed, and all hopes of 
disentangling the ramifications of its family tree are positively futile. In fact, a 
north-country authority on the breed writes as follows : 

" They (the Airedales) are the produce of sires and dams put together without 
any idea of breeding to a standard of excellence, but simply to produce a dog useful 
for the semi-rural sports suited to the tastes and pockets of the somewhat impecunious 
class to which their admirers mostly belong. It is almost impossible to trace the 
origin of the breed to any particular source. Some districts claim to have a breed 
with forty years' pedigree, but in several attempts that have been made to trace one 
of these strains it has invariably happened that, beyond a generation or two, all 
trace of individual dogs gets merged into So-and-so's breed, which were descended 
from a bitch from So-and-so, which was put to a dog from such a place, and so on." 

In my opinion, both the otter hound and Irish terrier are largely responsible for 
the existence of the so-called Airedale terrier, and no doubt the aid of some or other 
of the various breeds of terrier was enlisted from time to time. Many authorities 
aver that bull blood was used ; others maintain that it was Scotch or Dandie blood 
that was resorted to ; whilst others still declare that the animal is made up of an olla 
podrida of Scotch, Dandie, Bedlington, and bull terrier, mixed up with otterhound. 

So far, I am aware that my endeavours to supply information about the origin 
of the Airedale have not been attended with success, but upon the merits of the 
breed I can speak with more authority, having had the benefit of the experience of a 
gentleman who took it up some short time back from the glowing accounts he had 
heard of its gameness and bottom. The result was most mortifying. He could make 
nothing of the dogs, and was heartily glad to get rid of them. From what he tells 
me concerning Airedales, I have no doubt that they potter about the banks of a 
river, and take water well, and that they will kill rats, which, as they scale from 
401b. to 501b., is not much in their favour. I will even go further, and admit that 
specimens may be produced which will tackle a badger under protest; but not 
another step will I go in favour of the Airedales as a game, hard-bitten race. 

In support of my views, I shall quote from a letter just received from a gentle- 
man who has owned Airedales, and whose opinions are identical with what I have 
stated above. He writes : 

" Airedale terriers are a failure. The result of my experiences of them is that 
I find them to have good noses, they will beat a hedgerow, will find and kill 



236 



THE DOGS OP THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 



rats and rabbits, and work well with ferrets. They are good water dogs and com- 
panions, possessing a fair amount of intelligence. This is the sum total of their 
excellence. They came to me with a great reputation for gameness, but out of 
fourteen that I have personally tried at badger and fighting with a bull terrier of 
241b., I have never found one game at least to my idea of the word." 

This is strong speaking, but this gentleman's experiences corroborate every 
word of what has gone before, and the woeful exhibition made by some Airedales 
when tried at a badger at Wolverhampton last- January was literally the laugh of 
the show. 

Summing up the merits and demerits of the breed, it must be said of the 
Airedale that his want of heart, his size, the diversity of types, and tendency to 
throw back in breeding, are great drawbacks, which his fondness for water scarcely 
out-balances. Therefore, when we find, as I believe we can, that a wire-haired 
Scotch, Dandie Dinmont, Skye, Irish, or small bull terrier possesses all the gameness 
of the Airedale (in addition to which they take up one quarter of the room, and can 
go to earth), the question only remains, " Why keep an Airedale ? " 

The accompanying woodcut is an illustration of the Airedale terrier bitch 
Fracture, the property of Mr. L. P. C. Astley, of Wolverhamption. She was bred 
by Mr. Wade, and is by Crack out of Poll. Fracture is an extremely well-made 
Airedale, her head and body and feet being very good, but her coat is rather too 
soft in texture. Still, she was no doubt the best at the Wolverhampton Show last 
January, where she won cleverly in a rather strong class. 



Head 


Value. 
20 


Eves... 


5 


Ears 


5 




30 



POINTS OF THE AIREDALE. 

Value. 

Shoulders 5 

Body 10 

Forelegs 10 

Size 5 

30 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Coat 20 

Colour 5 

General appearance ... 15 

16 



Head (value 20). Skull flat and fairly wide, the muzzle long and punishing, 
teeth level, and lips tight. 

Eyes (value 5). Small and dark. 

Ears (value 5). Vine-leaf shaped, rather large in size, though fine in texture, 
and button, like a fox terrier's. 

Shoulders (value 5). Should slope well on to the chest. 

Body (value 10). Chest deep, back rather long, with the body well-ribbed up, 
and very powerful loins. 

Forelegs (value 10). Straight and muscular, set on well under the body. The 
feet compact and moderately round. 

Size (value 5). From 351b. to 501b. 



THE AIEEDALE TERRIER. 237 

Coat (value 20). Rather profuse, but very hard and weather-resisting. 

Colour (value 5). A blueish saddle on the back, and tan on the rest of the 
body is the recognised colour. 

General appearance (value fifteen). A smart, terrier-like, rather leggy dog, 
which combines strength and activity with a very game look. The tail is always 
docked, and should be about 7in. in length. 



BOOK IV. 
TOY DOGS. 

CHAPTER I. 
ROUGH-COATED TOY DOGS. 



THE KING CHARLES AND THE BLENHEIM SPANIELS THE MALTESE DOG THE 

EOTJGH TOY TERRIER. 



THE KING CHAELES AND BLENHEIM SPANIELS. 

HE King Charles and Blenheim Spaniels have respectively received their 
names, the former from the patronage afforded to them by the " Merry 
Monarch," and the latter from that of the Marlborough family, among 
whom at Blenheim they have been pets for many generations. In each 
case, however, the modern prize winner is of a very different type from 
the original breed. 

In considering the several points of the dogs hitherto described, I have been 
guided to a considerable extent by the uses to which they are usually put ; but 
in the toy dog no such line can be drawn, nor is it possible to compare the 
modern Blenheim or King Charles and their original breeds with any pretension 
to arrive at their respective values, except by an appeal to the fashion of the 
day, which at present settles the question in . favour of modern " show form." 
According to Vandyke the pets of King Charles II. were liver and white in colour, 
and of a shape varying greatly from that of Mr. Forder's Young Jumbo, who 
represents the modern type extremely well. According to the authority of the 
great painter, who is no doubt thoroughly dependable, their noses were compara- 
tively long and sharp, and their ears no larger than those of the Chinese dog 
now commonly imported into England, which are more like those of a fox terrier 
than of a modern prize King Charles or Blenheim spaniel. Until the early part 
of the present century these little spaniels, not exceeding 51b. or 61b. in weight, 
were the fashionable pet dogs; but about fifty years ago the taste of the day 
changed in favour either of the Oxfordshire Blenheim a little red and white dog- 
resembling the Cocker Spaniel in miniature or of the then existing King Charles, 





TOT SPANIELS. MB. J. W. BEBEIE'S MODERN BLENHEIM "THE EABL," MB. JULIUS'S OLD BLENHEIM 
" SPOT," MB. FOBDEB'S KING CHABLES " YOUNG JUMBO." 



THE KING CHAELES AND BLENHEIM SPANIELS. 239 

which was usually of a black tan and white colour, and might be regarded as the 
Gordon setter reduced in scale, being like that dog not only in colour, which was, as 
in that breed, black and tan with or without white, but also in shape of body and 
head; and in this form both breeds have been placed on canvas by Sir Edwin 
Landseer. But soon after this date the London " fancy " seem to have become 
discontented with the beautiful natural shapes of their pets, and set to work to 
import the short faces and upturned noses of the Chinese spaniel, while at the same 
time they selected puppies with still greater length of feather on ears, feet, and legs 
than before. It is said that the bulldog, pug, and Chinese spaniel crosses have 
been used for this purpose ; but this is not admitted by the breeders, who declare 
that the alterations have been effected by selection alone. The modus operandi is, 
however, of little consequence; all that we have to do with is the result, which is 
embodied in the following description of the points of the modern pet spaniel. The 
strongest argument in support of the adoption of some cross such as those mentioned 
above, is, that nearly all of the modern breed have lost the low carriage of the tail, 
which is a peculiar feature in all true spaniels, and which was formerly insisted on 
as a point of great importance in the toy spaniel, but is now abandoned by modern 
judges, simply because it is rarely met with among those specimens that come up to 
their standard in other respects. In order to show the difference between the two 
types, I have obtained a sketch of Mr. Julius's Blenheim " Spot," which is, I believe, 
descended from the Woodstock strain, and exhibits the old-fashioned shape of head 
and face in perfection. Contrasting him with Mrs. J. W. Berrie's prize winner, 
"The Earl," my readers can judge for themselves whether the latter could have 
descended from ancestors like the former, without any cross with extraneous blood. 
Knowing full well what extraordinary things can be done in this way by judicious 
selection, I am still sceptical on this point, and must regard the " stop," upturned 
nose, short face, and round skull as fresh importations, not developments. Still I 
must beg Mrs. Berrie, Mr. Forder, and other successful modern breeders to under- 
stand that I do not deny the merits of their pets, since I believe that in all fancy 
dogs Fashion has an undisputed right to be heard; and, as this omnipotent 
authority chooses to decide that an artificially short, upturned nose is more beautiful 
than that form of the organ which nature originally gave to the English spaniel, I 
am quite ready to accept the fiat. The following is the 

SCALE OF POINTS GENERALLY ACCEPTED. 



Value. 

Head 10 

Stop 10 

Nose 10 

Lower jaw 5 

35 



Value. 

Ears 10 

Eyes 5 

Compactness of shape 10 
Symmetry 5 

30 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Colour 10 

Coat 10 

Feather 10 

Size 5 

35 



1. The head (value 10) should be well domed, and in good specimens is 
absolutely semi- globular, sometimes even extending beyond the half-circle, and 



240 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

absolutely projecting over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the upturned nose. This 
globular shape of skull is well shown by Mr. Baker in Young Jumbo. 

2. The "stop" (value 10), or hollow between the eyes, is as well marked as 
in the bulldog, or even more so ; some good specimens exhibiting a hollow deep 
enough to bury a small marble. 

3. The nose (value 10) must be short, and well turned up between the eyes, 
without any indication of artificial displacement afforded by a deviation to either 
side. The colour of the end should be black ; and it should be both deep and wide, 
with large open nostrils. 

4. The lower jaw (value 5) must be wide between its branches, leaving plenty of 
space for the tongue and for the attachment of the lower lips, which should 
completely conceal the teeth. It should also be turned up or "finished," so as 
to allow of its meeting the end of the upper- jaw, turned up in a similar way as 
above described. 

5. The ears (value 10) must be long, so as to approach the ground. In an 
average sized dog they measure 20in. from tip to tip, and some reach to 22in., or 
even a trifle more. They should be set low on the head, and be heavily feathered. 
In this respect the King Charles is expected to exceed the Blenheim, and his ears 
occasionally extended to 24in. 

6. The eyes (value 5) are set wide apart, with the eyelids square to the line of 
face, not oblique or fox-like. The eyes themselves are large, lustrous, and very dark 
in colour, so as to be generally considered black, their enormous pupils, which are 
absolutely of that colour, increasing the deception. From their large size, there is 
almost always a certain amount of weeping shown at the inner angles. 

7. In compactness of shape (value 10) these spaniels almost rival the pug, but 
the length of coat adds greatly to the apparent bulk, as the body, when the coat is 
wetted, looks small in comparison with that dog. Still, it ought to be decidedly 
" cobby," with strong stout legs, broad back, and wide chest. 

8. The symmetry (value 5) of the toy spaniel is of some importance, but it is 
seldom that there is any defect in this respect. 

9. The colour (value 10) varies with the breed. In the King Charles a rich 
black and tan is demanded without white, the black tan and white variety being 
discarded, though, in the best bred litters, occasionally a puppy of this colour 
appears. Tan spots over the eyes and on the cheeks, as well as the usual marking 
on the legs, are also required. The Blenheim, on the other hand, must on no 
account be whole-coloured, but should have a ground of pure pearly white, with 
bright rich chesnut red markings, evenly distributed in large patches. The ears 
and cheeks should be red, and there should be a blaze of white extending from the 
nose up the forehead, and ending between the ears in a crescentic curve. In the 
centre of this blaze there should be a clear " spot " of red, of the size of a sixpence. 

10. The coat (value 10) in both varieties should be long, silky, soft, and wavy, 
but not curly. In the Blenheim there should be a profuse mane, extending well 
down in front of the chest. 

11. The feather (value 10) should be well displayed on the ears and feet, where 




MR. E. M^ANDEVILLE'S MALTESE DOG "FIDO.' 



THE MALTESE DOG. 241 



it is so long as to give the appearance of their being webbed. It is also carried well 
up the backs of the legs. In the King Charles the feather on the ears is very long 
and profuse, exceeding that of the Blenheim by an inch or more. The feather on 
the tail, which is cut to a length of about three and a half or four inches, should 
be silky, and from five to six inches in length, constituting a marked " flag " of a 
square shape. 

12. In size (value 5) both breeds vary from 51b. to lOlb. in weight ; the smaller 
the better, if otherwise well proportioned. 

The chief breeders of these beautiful little dogs are the following ladies and 
gentlemen : 

BLENHEIMS. Mr. J. Barnett, late of Congleton ; Mrs. J. W. Berrie, Wood 
Green, N. ; Mrs. Popham, Alresford, Hants ; Mr. E. Short, Spitalfields ; Mr. J. 
Garwood, Gray's-inn-road ; Mr. V. A. Julius, Abergavenny; Mr. S. A. Julius, 
Hastings. 

KING CHARLES. Miss E. Dawson, Denmark Hill ; Mr. Thorling, Clerkenwell, 
Mr. J. Garwood, Gray's-inn-road ; Mr. Forder, Bow ; Mr. Hibbord, Spitalfields. 

The specimens I have selected for illustration are first, Mrs. J. W. Berrie's 
" The Earl," a very beautiful little dbg, and perfect at all points, which took the 
first prize at the show recently held at the Aquarium in London, in a good class ; 
secondly, Mr; Julius's " Spot," an excellent specimen of the old-fashioned Wood- 
stock strain ; and thirdly, Mr. Forder' s " Young Jumbo," very successful at the 
Kennel Club shows, and, as Mr. Baker's portrait will testify, a very splendid 
specimen of his breed. 

THE MALTESE DOG. 

A pure white silky coated little dog with long hair has been a ladies' pet from 
the earliest ages of which we have any record. From some cause or other, a breed of 
these dogs introduced into the London market within the last thirty years, has 
received the name of Maltese terrier, but as it has neither been traced to Malta, nor 
has it any of the properties of the terrier tribe, I am utterly at a loss to know the 
origin of the name, and as it approaches very closely to the spaniel, I shall include it 
under that head. Mr. Lukey, the celebrated mastiff breeder, was one of the 
earliest possessors of the strain, but he obtained it from the Manilla Islands, almost 
the antipodes to Malta, and altogether unconnected with that Island. The parents 
of Mr. Lukey's dogs were imported in 1841 by his brother, who was then a Captain 
in the East India Company's Service, and from them he bred several small litters, 
which were readily disposed of at high prices. None of Mr. Lukey's breed have 
ever been exhibited as far as I know, and I believe they have long been extinct. 
They were, however, remarkably beautiful, and quite came up to the level of Mr. 
Mandeville's strain, which has kept possession of the show bench since 1862, when 
the first class of this kind of toy dog was established at the Agricultural Hall 
Show, in which Mr. Mandeville's Mick and Fido were first and second. In the 
following year at Ashburnham, the same kennel again produced the first and second 

i i 



242 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

prize holders, Fido being at the head of his class, and a dog called Prince second. 
Since then Mr. Mandeville's strain has held undisputed possession of the prize list, 
whether the dogs exhibited belonged to him, Mrs. Bligh Monk, of Coley Park, 
Reading, Lady Giffard, or Mr. Macdonald, who have been the chief exhibitors. At 
Birmingham the Maltese dog has not been so well represented as in London, and it 
was not until 1864 that a class was established for it, owing partly to the fact that 
the breed was almost confined to London and its neighbourhood, and partly to the 
greater premiums given to sporting over toy dogs at the Midland Metropolis. 

The Maltese claims the following merits as a toy dog, but I am not aware that 
in any respect they are superior to those of the toy spaniel. In the first place he is 
said to be very beautiful in shape, colour, and texture of coat, but certainly in these 
respects he is not more so than the toy spaniel, whether King Charles or Blenheim. 
Secondly, he is said to be more sweet in breath and skin, and here I can give no 
opinion, never having possessed a specimen, nor have I any good authority to adduce 
on either side. He is admitted, however to be a very delicate dog, and more 
difficult to rear than the toy spaniel, and this is rather an important point to all 
those who do not depend on the market for their supply. In point of price there is 
not much difference, so that as far as I can judge, individual taste must as usual 
settle the matter. 

The points of the Maltese are as follows : 



Value. 

Coat 30 

Colour 20 

Eyes 5 

55 



Value. 

Ears 5 

Nose 5 

Symmetry 5 

15 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Size 15 

Tail .. .15 



30 



1. The coat (value 30) must be long and silky in texture, any approach to wool 
being specially to be penalised. The little bitch " Psyche " engraved in " The Dog " 
had a coat measuring 15in. across the shoulder, though only 3|lb. in weight, and 
this length when considered in comparison with her small size, I have never seen 
excelled; it was remarkably silky in texture. There is a slight wave, but no 
absolute curl to be seen in good specimens. 

2. The colour (value 20) should be a pure white, rather transparent, like spun 
glass, than opaque. Many specimens are disfigured by patches of fawn, which are 
very objectionable. 

3. The eyes (value 5) must be full and black, and should not show the weeping 
corner incidental to the King Charles and Blenheim spaniels. 

4. The ears (value 5) are long, but not so much so as those of the toy spaniel. 
The ears of Fido were 12in. across from tip to tip. 

5. The nose (value 5) is short and black, and also the roof of the mouth. 

6. In symmetry (value 5) there is no great test, as the shape is almost 
entirely concealed by the long coat, but there ought nevertheless to be a proper 




THE LATE ME. H. GILBERT'S PUG DOG "PRINCE." 




7 



MOPS" AND "NELL," THE PARENT STOCK OF THE WILLOUGHBY PUGS. 



THE PUG. 243 



proportion of length to height, in about the same degree as is exhibited by the toy 
spaniel. 

7. The size (value 15) should not exceed 61b, though many of Mr. Mandeville's 
best prize winners have somewhat exceeded that weight, his Fido, whose portrait 
accompanies this article, being 6^1b. 

8. The tail (value 15) should be short, curled tightly over the back, and clothed 
with a bunch of glossy silky hair. 

Mr. Mandeville's Fido, by Tupper's Fido out of Lily, won the first prize at 
Birmingham in 1864 and 1867 ; also various first prizes at Islington and Cremorne 
in 1862, 1863, and 1864. Several other dogs of the same name have been also 
exhibited by Mr. Mandeville. 

THE BOUGH TOY TEBBIER. 

Like the black and tan toy terrier, the rough terrier exactly resembles its larger 
prototype in all but size. Its description, together with an illustration, is given in 
the article on the Yorkshire Terrier at page 217. 



OHAPTEE II. 
SMOOTH TOY DOGS. 

THE PUG THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND THE TOY TERRIER. 

THE PUG. 

is the case with most, if not all, of our existing breeds of the dog, the 
origin of the pug is lost in obscurity. The prevailing opinion is that he 
is a bulldog modified by a hot climate ; but this theory is only founded 
upon a statement to that effect made by Buffon, " whose word no man 
relies on," any more than that of the second Charles. According to this 
story, however, the pug so modified from the bulldog at the Cape of Good Hope was 
imported into Holland at the time when the Cape was a Dutch settlement, and 
became the favourite ladies' pet of that country for many years, a few specimens of 
the breed being scattered throughout Europe, and in this way reaching England, 
where it became very fashionable in the reign of William III. (" Dutch William "), 




244 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

but did not long remain so, and was exceedingly rare in the middle of the present 
century, even a moderately good one not being procurable for less than 30L, and 
that at a time when 51. was the average price of a lady's pet, even of the fashionable 
kinds. During the decade 1840-50, however, several admirers of pugs attempted to 
breed them from good foreign strains. Foremost among these was the then Lady 
Willoughby de Eresby, who after a great deal of trouble obtained a dog from 
Vienna which had belonged to a Hungarian countess, but was of a bad colour, being 
a mixture of the stone fawn now peculiar to the " Willoughby strain," and black ; 
but the combination of these colours was to a certain extent in the brindled form. 
From accounts which are to be relied on, this dog was about twelve inches high, and 
of good shape, both in body and head, but with a face much longer than would now 
be approved of by pug fanciers. In 1846 he was mated with a fawn bitch imported 
from Holland, of the desired colour, viz., stone fawn in body, with black mask and 
trace, but with no indication of brindle. She had a shorter face and heavier jowl 
than the dog, and was altogether in accordance with the type now recognised as the 
correct " Willoughby pug." From this pair are descended all the strain named 
after Lady Willoughby de Eresby, which are marked in colour by their peculiar 
cold stone fawn, and the excess of black often showing itself, not in brindled stripes, 
but in entirely or nearly entirely black heads, and large " saddle marks " or wide 
" traces." 

But coincidently with this formation of a new strain was the existence of 
another, showing a richer and more yellow fawn, and no tendency to excess of black. 
This strain was possessed by the late Mr. Morrison, of Walham Green ; the late 
Mr. H. Gilbert, of Kensington ; Mr. W. Macdonald, now of Winchmore Hill, but 
at that time residing in London ; and some other fanciers of less note. According 
to Mr. Morrison's statement to me (which, however, he did not wish made public 
during his life), this strain was lineally descended from a stock possessed by Queen 
Charlotte, one of which is painted with great care in the well-known portrait of 
George III. at Hampton Court ; but I could never get him to reveal the exact 
source from which it was obtained. That he himself fully believed in the truth 
of this story I am quite confident ; and I am also of opinion that he never hazarded 
a statement of which he had the slightest doubt being in this respect far above 
the average of " doggy " men. Although he never broadly stated as much, I always 
inferred that the breed was obtained by "back-stair influence," and on that account 
a certain amount of reticence was necessary ; but, whatever may be the cause of the 
secrecy maintained, I fully believe the explanation given by Mr. Morrison of the 
origin of this breed of pugs, which is as commonly known by his name as that of 
Lady Willoughby de Eresby by hers. His appeal to the Hampton Court portrait, 
in proof of the purity of his breed from its general resemblance to the dog in that 
painting, goes for nothing in my mind, because you may breed up to any type by 
careful selection ; but I do not hesitate to indorse his statement as to the Guelph 
origin of his strain, because I have full confidence in his truthfulness, from having 
tested it in various other ways. I need scarcely remark that both strains are 
derived from the Dutch "the Morrison" coming down to us through the three 



THE PTJG. 245 

Georges from William III., and " the Willoughly " being, as above described, a more 
recent importation direct from Holland and Vienna. Both strains are equally 
lively in temperament, moderately tricky and companionable, but their chief 
advantage as pets is that they are unusually free from smell, both in breath and 
coat. 

Since the decade above mentioned, both strains have been crossed with the 
bulldog, with a view to enlarge the skull and shorten the face ; and the consequence 
is that many of the best dogs in other respects are underhung, splay-footed, and, 
what is of more consequence, savage in temper. There is also a tendency in this 
cross to increase the size ; but I confess that the largest prize-winning pug which I 
have yet seen (namely, Mr. Foster's Comedy, first prize winner at Birmingham, 
1877), was perfectly free from all signs of the bull cross in other respects. Though 
shown in a large and excellent class, Comedy was so perfect in shape, and so full of 
quality, in spite of his over-size, that the judges (Messrs. Hedley and Peter Eden) 
at once selected him for premier honours ; and I perfectly agreed with the decision. 
Within the last ten years the two strains have been much crossed inter se, and it is 
difficult to find either a pure Willoughly pug or one in whose pedigree there is no 
line of that strain. Mrs. Bligh Monk, of Coley Park, Keading ; Mr. E. J. Poer, of 
Limerick ; Mr. Annandale, of Edinburgh ; Mr. Jolliffe Tuffnell, of Dublin ; Captain 
Digby Boycott, of London ; Mr. Sharpies, of Manchester ; and Mrs. Mayhew, of 
Twickenham, have been the most successful exhibitors of late years the last 
named having introduced a strain of the Chinese pug, but with what view I am 
at a loss to know, as there is no desirable point shown in excess in the importation 
from the Celestial Empire. 

The following are the 



Value. 

Head 10 

Ears 5 

Eyes 5 

Moles 5 

Mask,vent and wrinkles 10 

35 



POINTS or THE MODERN PUG. 

Value. 

Trace 5 

Colour 10 

Coat 10 

Neck 5 

Body 10 

40 
Grand Total 100, 



Value. 

Legs and feet 10 

Tail 10 

Symmetry and size ... 5 



25 



1. The head (value 10) should have a round monkey -like skull, and should be 
of considerable girth, but in proportion not so great as that of the bulldog. The 
face is short, but, again, not " bully " or retreating, the end being cut off square ; 
and the teeth must be level if undershot, a cross of the bull is almost always to be 
relied on. Tongue large, and often hanging out of the mouth ; but this point is not 
to be accepted for or against the individual. The cheek is very full and muscular. 

2. The ears (value 5) are small, vine-shaped, and thin, and should lie moderately 
flat on the face (formerly they were invariably closely cropped, but this practice is 
now quite out of fashion) ; they are black, with a slight mixture of fawn hair. 



246 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

3. The eyes (value 5) are dark brown and full, with a soft expression. There 
should be no tendency to weep, as in the toy spaniel. 

4. A Hack mole (value 5) is always demanded on each cheek, with two or three 
hairs springing from it; the regulation number of these. is three, but of course it is 
easy to reduce them to that number. 

5. Mask, vent, and wrinkles (value 10). These markings must be taken together, 
as they all depend mainly on colour. The wrinkles, it is true, are partly in the 
skin ; but over and above these there should be lines of black, corresponding with 
them, on the face and forehead. The mask should extend over the whole face of a 
jet black, reaching a little above the eyes, and the vent also should be of the same 
colour. In the Willoughby strain the black generally extends higher up the skull, 
and has not the same definite edge as in the Morrison pug, in which this point is 
well shown, and greatly insisted on by its admirers. 

6. A trace (value 5) or black line is exhibited along the top of the back by 
all perfect pugs ; and the clearer this is, the better. As with the mask, so with 
this the definition is more clear in the Morrison than in the Willoughby pug. 
When it extends widely over the back it is called a " saddle mark," and this is often 
displayed in the Willoughby, though seldom met with in the Morrison strain ; of 
course, it is admired in the one, and deprecated in the other, by their several 
supporters. 

7. The colour (value 10) of the Morrison pug is a rich yellow fawn, while that 
of the Willoughby is a cold stone. The salmon fawn is never met with in good 
specimens of either, and is objected to. In the Willoughby the fawn-coloured hairs 
are apt to be tipped with black, but in its rival the fawn colour is pure, and unmixed 
with any darker shade. Of course, in interbred specimens the colour is often inter- 
mediate. 

8. The coat (value 10) is short, soft, and glossy over the whole body, but on the 
tail it is longer and rougher. A fine tail indicates a bull cross. 

9. The neck (value 5) is full, stout, and muscular, but without any tendency to 
dewlap; which again indicates, when present, that the bulldog cross has been 
resorted to. 

10. The body (value 10) is very thick and strong, with a wide chest and round 
ribs ; the loin should be very muscular, as well as the quarters, giving a general 
punchy look, almost peculiar to this dog. 

11. Legs and feet (value 10). The legs should be straight but fine in bone, and 
should be well closed with muscle. As to the feet, they must be small, and in any 
case narrow. In both strains the toes are well split up ; but in the Willoughby the 
shape of the foot is cat-like, while the Morrison strain has a hare foot. There 
should be no white on the toes, and the nails should be dark. 

12. The tail (value 10) must curve so that it lies flat on the side, not rising 
above the back to such an extent as to show daylight through it. The curl should 
extend to a little more than one circle. 

13. Size and symmetry (value 5). In size the pug should be from lOin. to 12in. 
high the smaller the better. A good specimen should be very symmetrical. 







ITALIAN GREYHOUNDS. ME. PIM'S "BISMAEK" AND ME. J. DAY'S "CEUCIFIX." 



THE ITALIAN GEEYHOUND. 247 

As an excellent illustration of the breed, I have retained the portrait of the 
late Mr. H. Gilbert's Prince, a prize winner in 1863-4. He was of the pure Morrison 
strain, and the first of it exhibited uncropped. I have also added the very 
interesting portraits of the parent stock of the Willoughby strain, painted by 
Alfred Dreux, a French artist of some celebrity, and evidently drawn with great 
care and apparent fidelity. Nell would take a prize in the present day, barring her 
throatiness ; but the face of Mops is too long for the modern fancy, and has been 
"bred out" by careful selection. No doubt the cross was a judicious one, as what 
was absent in Mops was well marked in Nell the bad colour of the latter being the 
only adverse point which has been retained. 

THE ITALIAN GEEYHOUND. 

This elegant little pet resembles its English sporting congener in shape and 
colour, differing mainly in its diminutive size, and in the remarkable " prancing " 
action which it almost invariably exhibits with its forelegs. No other animal, as far 
as I know, possesses this action to the same extent. It is true that some horses lift 
their knees till, as the dealers say, " they are in danger of putting their feet through 
their curb chains ;" but this is done in a comparatively heavy and lumbering style, 
without the true dance-like " prance " of the Italian greyhound. Occasionally, but 
very rarely, an English greyhound, or even a deerhound, exhibits the action to some 
extent, but even then it is exceptional ; whereas in the Italian it is the rule, and 
almost an invariable one. 

Owing to the extent to which in-breeding has been carried by the lovers of 
this dog, he is often extremely delicate, is always difficult to rear, and when attacked 
by distemper the disease is frequently fatal. To obviate this constitutional defect, 
recourse has been lately had to a cross with the toy terrier, which has to some 
extent succeeded in this respect ; but unfortunately it has introduced a large round 
skull and short face, sometimes attended with a falling terrier-like ear, also 
increased in size. With the exception of these defects, many of these cross-breds 
have been extremely beautiful, and the practice has enabled breeders to obtain a 
diminished size without loss of symmetry. In 1859 I published a portrait of 
Gowan's Billy, whose grandsire, great grandsire, gg grandsire, ggg and gggg 
grandsire were all the same dog, imported from Italy. At that time he was 
generally admitted to be the most perfect specimen of his kind in England, and he 
was possessed of the true greyhound head and ears ; but his stock were very 
delicate, and I believe his strain is now extinct, at all events in a pure state. He 
was 14|in. high, and nearly 91b. in weight, which would now be considered some- 
what over the proper size ; but his symmetrically elegant shape has been reproduced 
on a smaller scale since then in the case of Mr. Bourke's Molly, who was absolutely 
faultless in all respects but her head, which was a trifle " bullety," as compared 
with Billy and other dogs of the old strain. In nearly all breeds of dogs elegance 
of form is shown more in the female than in the male ; but this is especially to be 
noted in the various kinds of greyhounds, and in their ally the deerhound. Just as 



24*8 THE DOGS OP THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

among bulldogs, mastiffs, St. Bernards, and bloodhounds, in whom the head is the 
most prominent feature, the male has the advantage in a mixed class, so in the 
greyhound the reverse holds good ; and, on searching the prize lists since the 
institution of dog shows, it will be seen that nineteen -twentieths of the prizes have 
been won by bitches in the class for Italian greyhounds, even leaving out of the 
calculation that wonderfully beautiful animal above mentioned, Mr. Bourke's Molly 
(afterwards Mr. Macdonald's). With the exception of Billy (alluded to above), I 
have never yet seen an Italian greyhound dog approaching perfection in shape, and 
I am therefore compelled to fall back upon the nearest approach to it within my 
reach, namely, Mr. Pirn's Bismark, a considerable prize-winner at Bristol and in 
Ireland, although he was afterwards twice unnoticed beyond a high commendation 
at Birmingham and the Alexandra Park Shows. These defeats were, however, 
mainly owing to the excellence of the bitches amongst which he was classed ; for at 
Birmingham there were four of that sex only a trifle behind the celebrated Molly in 
shape and colour, while at the Alexandra Park there were nearly as many. Bismark 
is, nevertheless, a very neat dog ; and, barring his round head and his colour, which 
has a shade of blue in the fawn, he is very little behind the first-class bitches of his 
day. His pedigree is unknown, so that it is not possible to trace these defects to 
their cause ; but I have little doubt that, at some time more or less remote, a terrier 
cross in his pedigree would creep out. At all events, he is the best dog exhibited of 
late years, and as such I have selected him for Mr. Baker's pencil. Crucifix, his 
companion in the engraving, was, like him, passed over at the above shows, obtaining 
only a second prize at the shows recently held at Birmingham and Alexandra 
Palace. My own opinion, however, was strongly in her favour at both of these 
shows ; and, in spite of the high authority of Messrs. Hedley and Handley (the 
respective judges), I have accordingly selected her for portraiture as the most worthy 
possessor of Molly's mantle. Her beautiful golden-fawn colour is even superior to 
Molly's dove-colour, and her general shape and symmetry are nearly equal ; but no 
doubt in head Molly has the advantage, and if the two were shown together, both in 
their prime, the latter would weigh down the scale considerably. Like Bismark, she 
has had more honour in her own country than at Birmingham and London, having 
been awarded the first prize at Manchester in 1875 and 1877, and also at Glasgow 
in 1875 and 1876. She is by Bruce's Prince out of his Beauty ; Prince by Old 
Prince Speed ; Beauty by Chief Tit. 

The Italian greyhound, as now bred to a weight of 51b. or 61b., is wholly 
useless in any kind of chase ; but he was formerly sometimes slipped at rabbits, and 
I have seen a brace, belonging to a lady who was a well-known follower of the chase 
in Worcestershire thirty years ago, course and kill rabbits in very good style. But, 
though imported from Italy, they were about lOlb. or 121b. in weight, and in these 
days would be classed as " whippets." This last named breed is extensively used at 
Manchester and in the Midland districts for rabbit coursing, and is a cross between 
the Italian and the English greyhound, or between the latter and the smooth 
English terrier. All these greyhound breeds are usually considered to be void of 
intelligence and fidelity ; but this is a mistake, and certainly the trick performed by 



THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. 249 

Mr. Walton's whippet, as shown in the engraving of the poodle published with the 
article on that dog in the Appendix, marks a high order of mental power, and a like 
degree of obedience, founded on love for his trainer, since no severity would lead to 
its execution. These whippets are so quick and clever as to cope with the short turns 
of the rabbit ; but they are not fast enough for the hare, and the sport for which 
they are bred is confined to the artisan and mining classes of the districts in which 
it is the fashion. 

The points of the Italian greyhound differ only in proportional value from 
those of its English congener ; colour, size, and symmetry being in the former more 
especially secured than in the latter. 

POINTS OP THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. 



Value. 

Head 5 

Neck 5 

Ears and eyes 5 

Legs and feet 10 

25 



Value. 

Fore quarters 10 

Hind quarters 10 

Tail 5 

Coat 5 

30 
Grand Total 100. 



Value. 

Colour 15 

Symmetry 15 

Size .. .15 



45 



1. The head (value 5) if possible, should be as snakelike as that of the English 
greyhound, but such formation is now never met with. The nearer it approaches to 
it, however, the better. In all recent exhibits the skull is more or less round, and 
the face, though still pointed, too short, with a tendency to turn up. 

2. The neck (value 5) is long and elegant, resembling closely its larger 
congener. 

3. The ears and eyes (value 5). Many modern prize takers are deficient in the 
proper shape of the ear ; but this should not be overlooked, for it still exists in the 
breed as an exact counterpart of the English greyhound's corresponding organ, 
though always somewhat enlarged in comparison with the body. The eye is much 
larger proportionately, soft and languishing; but it ought never to weep. The 
colour of the iris is usually a dark brown. 

4. Legs and feet (value 10). These should be exactly counterparts of the large 
breed. 

5. Fore quarters (value 10). Here again I must refer my readers to " The 
Greyhound," in " Dogs of the British Islands," Part II. 

6. Hind quarters (value 10). As with the two last sections, the only difference 
lies in comparative value, the English dog's points being estimated from the work- 
man-like point of view, whilst the Italian is regarded from the artistic standpoint. 

7. The tail (value 5) is somewhat shorter than the English dog's ; but it must 
be gently curved in the same tobacco-pipe way, and should be fine in bone except at 
the root, as well as free from hair. 

8. The coat (value 5) should be short, soft, and silky. 

9. The colour (value 15) of the Italian greyhound is largely to be taken into 

K K 



250 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

consideration, and I have consequently estimated it at a high figure. Fawns are 
now far in the ascendant, and to no other colour would the full value be accorded. 
I should place them as follows : 1, whole golden fawn (value 15) ; 2, whole dove 
fawn (14) ; 3, whole blue fawn (13) ; 4, whole stone fawn (12) ; 5, whole cream 
colour, or white with black tips (10) ; 6, whole red or yellow, with black muzzles (6) ; 
7, whole black or plain red or yellow (5) ; 8, whole blue (4) ; 9, parti-coloured (0). 
A small star on the breast, or a white toe, takes off a point or two, according to the 
extent of white ; but in all cases the toenails should be dark. 

10. The symmetry (value 15) of this little dog must be carefully estimated, as a 
want of elegance in detail, or of combination in due proportion, alike lowers the 
value of these points separately to a very low ebb. 

11. The size (value 15) of the bitch for modern successful exhibition should be 
little over 51b., nor should the dog exceed 71b. or 7|lb. Beyond these weights 
a specimen, however good in other respects, has little or no chance of a first prize in 
anything like a good class. 

THE SMOOTH TOY TEEEIEE. 

In the rough and smooth varieties of the terrier, distinctions are made between 
the larger and the toy classes, but this is chiefly noticeable in the black and tan, 
though the rough toys are still very numerous at our large shows. As already 
observed in the chapter on the black and tan terriers, there are two distinct types of 
this dog, when of the size limited to the toys, namely, not exceeding 61b., and, to be 
successful, limited to 31b. or 3|lb. One of these shows the Italian greyhound cross, 
the other that with the spaniel, resorted to probably in order to restore the coat, 
which in these little abortions is often almost entirely absent, owing to in-breeding. 
In consequence of dwarfing, the points are seldom exhibited in anything like the 
perfection shown by Mr. Lacy's large strain, but still, the nearer the approach is 
made to it the better, and it is needless to recapitulate them here. 

In addition 'to the black and tan, and the white toy terrier, there is also the 
blue fawn, differing only in colour, and seldom noticed by our judges of the present 
day. 

Annexed is a portrait of Mr. Mapplebeck's wonderfully good toy terrier Belle, 
winner of the first prize at Birmingham and at the late Kennel Club show held at 
the Alexandra Palace, together with his Queen IIL, also a first prize winner at the 
latter show in the class for black and tan or Manchester terriers the latter serving 
as a contrast to the former in point of size. In the article on the black and tan 
terrier, by Mr. Hugh Dalziel, at page 216, the author alludes to the toy terrier as of 
" two sorts, one with a short face, round skull, and full eye (inclined to weep), called 
in vulgar parlance ' apple-headed 'uns,' showing the cross at some time or other with 
the King Charles spaniel ; the other type is the thin shivering dog, that must be kept 
clothed, and sleep in a warmly lined basket ; his timid, shrinking manner, spindly 
legs, lean sides, and tucked-up flanks showing the Italian greyhound cross. The 
weight of these two clearly distinct varieties averages from 31b. to 61b." Such is no 




MR. HOWARD MAPLEBECK'S TOY TERRIER "BELLE" CONTRASTED WITH HIS MANCHESTER TERRIER 

" QUEEN III." 



THE SMOOTH TOY TEEEIEE. 251 

doubt a fair description of the ordinary toy terrier; "but there is a third variety 
represented by Belle, which, though extremely rare, still exists in considerable 
numbers. This little dog is, in fact, the large black and tan terrier reduced in size 
from 151b. or 161b. to 31b. or 41b., the little one being exactly a copy of the larger 
kind except in size, and possessed of equal hardihood and spirit. Mr. Baker has 
reproduced on paper the two bitches with his usual fidelity, an4 the exact likeness 
shown is perfectly justified in nature. The great difficulty is to breed such little 
dwarfs without loss of symmetry or substance, the general result being a reduction 
of the size of the body and an enlargement proportionally of the head. The 
pedigree of Belle is unknown. 

As the points of this breed are precisely similar to those of the larger variety 
fully given in the article above alluded to, it is needless to reproduce them here. 
All departures from these points in the direction of either the spaniel or Italian 
greyhound cross are to be penalised according to their degree. 




POODLES AND WHIPPET. GROUP OF MR. WALTON'S PERFORMING DOGS. 




APPENDIX 



POODLES, FRENCH AND RUSSIAN-THE TRUFFLE DOG-THE 
CHINESE CRESTED DOG-THE GREAT DANE. 



THE POODLE. 
BY " WILDFOWLEE." 

HE POODLE was (and to a certain extent is still) the water spaniel par 
excellence of Continental shooters ; but the fact that draining is carried 
on to an unlimited extent has necessarily curtailed considerably the use 
of water dogs of all species, including that of the poodle ; and now the 
vast majority of poodles one may see are decidedly aptly ranked, in show 
catalogues, with the non-sporting division. Nevertheless, the poodle was originally, 
to all intents and purposes, and exclusively, a sporting dog, and to this day in the 
fenny districts of the Continent he may be seen in all his purity ; and he is then a 
large and grand dog, not to be compared with the specimens which are now being 
bred to suit the requirements of the toy or companion market. 

There are, therefore, two grand classes of modern poodles one of which is still 
strictly sporting, and one which should include performing, companion, and toy 
poodles and each of these two classes comprises several different types. Con- 
cerning the first category, it is very rare indeed to see a poodle used as a sporting 
dog in the British Islands (I have only seen one in the course of my experience) ; 
and we have therefore to refer to foreign writers for information on the subject, or 
go abroad. to see the dogs at work. I have done both, and in the course of this 
paper will beg to submit the fruit of my gleanings in book lore and my own sporting 
experience concerning the poodle. Dr. Fitzinger, in his book, " Der Hund und seine 
Eacen," states that there are no less than six very distinct varieties of poodles, viz.: 
der grosse Pudel, der mittlere Pudel, der kleine Pudel, der kleine Pintsch, der 
schnur Pudel, and der Schaf -Pudel, besides other, but minor, varieties, produced by 
crossing. 

, The characteristics of the breeds he names, the eminent doctor states to be as 
follows : 

Der grosse Pudel, or the great poodle, he says, originated in the north-west of 
Africa, probably in Morocco or Algeria. He is always larger than the largest-sized 



254 THE DOGS OP THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

spaniel, which, however, he resembles in form. He is robust in build, and has 
a peculiarly thick and full covering of hair. His os occipitis is well pronounced, his 
head is round, his forehead is strongly arched, his muzzle is short, high, and 
stumpy, his neck short and thick; his body is compact and cobby, his legs are 
comparatively short and strong, and he is more web-footed than any other breed. 
The hair over his body is long, thick, soft, woolly, and entirely curled, even over the 
face, and especially the mouth, where it forms a decided moustache. On the ears 
and tail the hair is more knotty and matted. Specimens of this breed are white, 
light liver, liver, light grey, dark grey, dark liver, or black. Sometimes the markings 
are peculiar, inasmuch that, on a light ground, great irregular dark grey, or black 
patches occur. When the dogs are liver-coloured or black there are white spots on 
their muzzles and throats, on the nape of their necks, on their breasts, bellies, feet, 
and tail. They are seldom cropped, but are almost invariably docked. The Italians 
call them can barbone ; the French barbets, grands barbets, barbetons caniches ; the 
English denominate them water dogs, water spaniels, finders, and poodles. Neither 
the Greeks nor the Romans appear to have known these dogs, and the old German 
authors of the middle ages do not mention them. In the sixteenth century they are, 
for the first time, mentioned by Conrad Gesner, who, in 1555, gives a description and 
illustration of these dogs. The great poodle is most easily trained, and his peculiar 
adaptation for marsh work is not found in any such high degree in any other kind 
of dog. 

His liveliness, attachment, and faithfulness, combined with his good temper, 
trust, and obedience, make of him a thoroughly good companion. He always looks 
for his master, likes to please him, and is never tired of doing all he can to further 
that end. He is a splendid swimmer, and the best of water retrievers. He grasps 
everything he is taught so readily that he is trained very quickly; hence he is a good 
performer in whatever pursuit his talents may be called into requisition. 

Der mittlere Pudel, or medium-sized poodle, is only a variety of the great 
poodle. He has the same qualities and properties. Size is the only difference 
between them ; he is sometimes two-thirds, and sometimes only half, the size of his 
greater congener. There is no difference in their colour or markings, and the 
mittlere Pudel is also docked. 

In Italy, France, or England no difference is made between this variety and the 
great poodle ; they go by the same name. This medium-sized poodle, however, was 
known to the Romans, although no writing mentions it ; but on certain pictures on 
antiques, from the time of the Emperor Augustus (last century before Christ), his 
portrait is found. He was not, however, known to the Germans of the middle ages. 
In many places he is used for finding truffles. 

Der kleine Pudel, or little poodle. In this mongrel race the peculiarities of 
their ancestors are so pronounced that they are called " half bastards of pure 
crossing " (sic) . They look like the medium-sized poodles, but are only half their 
size, and in make they are much lighter. Their heads are not so high, the muzzle 
is longer, the body slenderer, and the legs are comparatively thinner. The hair 
covering the body is long, fine, and soft ; on body and legs more curled and more 



POODLES, FRENCH AND RUSSIAN. 255 

woolly ; on head, ears, and tail it is decidedly longer and more knotty, but silky. 
The tail is carried straight, and sometimes its tip turns slightly upwards. On the 
face the hair is long, especially about the mouth. The colour is the same as for the 
previous classes. 

The Italians call the kleine Pudel barbino, the French petit barbet, and the 
English little barbet (?) 

Portraits of these dogs are also seen on antique monuments, but they are not 
mentioned in any German MSS. of the middle ages. 

The little poodle is not pure, but a mongrel. He has, however, all the winsome 
qualities of the larger breeds. He is used as a lapdog by ladies, and can also be 
employed for finding truffles. 

Der kleine Pintsch, or the little griffon (Aquaticus gryphus). The peculiarities 
of this mixed race lead to the supposition that it is a product of a cross between the 
little poodle and the Pomeranian (?). It has a long head, an arched forehead, a 
stumpy mouth, and very long hair on its body. In all other respects, and in colour, 
it is like other poodles. They are called barbet griffons and chiens Anglais by the 
French. 

Der schniir Pudel (corded hair poodle) is of pure breed, but seems to be some 
variation of the large poodle, from which, however, he differs in his coat. His size 
is quite that of the large poodle, the length of his body being sometimes 3ft. 
(German), and in build, in all cases, he is very much like the large poodle. The 
characteristic feature of this breed is the peculiar nature of its coat, which is not 
only of great length, but which grows in a peculiar manner i.e., the soft woolly 
hair does not hang down in ringlets or in curls, or in feather, but it comes down 
regularly in rows of straight cords, from the skull, from the middle Hue of the neck, 
and of the back ; and it hangs down on both sides of the head, neck, and body, 
sometimes 2ft. long, dragging on the ground, so that the legs are invisible. From 
the ears and tail the hair sometimes hangs to the length of l|ft. Only the face, 
muzzle, and paws are clothed in shorter hair. Generally these dogs are white; 
rarely are black ones to be seen. 

The origin of this dog has been a matter of discussion among savants, some 
saying that he came from Spain or Portugal, and others from Greece. His qualities 
are like those of the great poodle, but he is much more valued, simply because he is 
very rarely met with. 

Der Schaf-Pudel, or woolly-coated poodle. His similarity to the great poodle 
and the Calabrian (?) dog induces Dr. Fitzinger to think that it is a double bastard, 
as it is a perfect link between these two breeds. He has the hair of the first ; but 
his size and general appearance are like those of the second. He has a less arched 
forehead, and shorter and smaller ears, than the great poodle ; his body is more 
tucked up, he is higher on legs, and his hair more thinly curled on the neck and 
belly ; it is longest on the ears and shortest in front of the legs. On other parts of 
his body and face his coat is very woolly. His colour is generally white, and then 
sometimes he has a circle of bluish grey round the eyes, and the top of his nose is 
of a greyish or fleshy colour. Other specimens are light liver or grey, ticked or 



256 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

spotted, sometimes with patches of brown or black. This breed is generally found 
in the Campana of Eome. In English it is called Calabrian dog (?). They are a 
very favourite breed, because they are so faithful and companionable. 

Besides the afore-mentioned breeds, the Professor gives the description of 
sundry crosses of poodles with sheepdogs, Newfoundlands, &c. ; but these lack 
interest, the crosses being decidedly removed and even doubtful, since in many cases 
they are pure suppositions. I have, therefore, only given at some length those 
details which are of interest. 

So much, then, for the eminent German professor's opinions on the poodle. 
And now, what have the French authors to say about him ? First of all comes M. 
Eevoil. M. Eevoil, who is considered a great authority on sporting matters in 
France, published, some years ago, a book on dogs, entitled " Historie Physiologique 
et Anecdotique des Chiens de toutes les Eaces" (E. Dentu, publisher, Paris), and in 
this work, page 188, M. Eevoil classifies and justly so, of course the poodle with 
spaniels; but he seems to think that on this side of the Channel we cultivate 
particularly the breed of poodles for sporting purposes ; for he mentions them in a 
breath with water spaniels and cockers, and gives the name "poodle" actually in 
English ! Now, I have done as much wildfowl and other shooting as most men of 
my age ; and I must acknowledge that, for one or two poodles that may be used by 
British wildfowl shooters, a hundred nay, thousands perhaps are used by their 
Continental confreres-, and certainly in England the poodle is but little used in 
connection with that or any other branch of the art of fowling. In fact, one may 
say, as a very general rule, that the poodle in England is almost universally either a 
performing dog or a mere pet, or lap or companion dog, according to his size ; but 
he is rarely employed as a sporting dog. 

Not so in the vast marshes of the Continent, and especially in those marais of 
the French departments of the Pas-de-Calais, Nord, and Somme ; in Belgium, in 
Holland, in Denmark, in Northern Germany, and in Eussia, where night-decoying 
of ducks to the hut is extensively practised. As late back as January, 1872, an 
article of mine appeared in Baily's Magazine, entitled " Duck-decoying in Abbeville 
Marshes," wherein I related the performance of a celebrated poodle who accompanied 
a French huttier and myself on our expeditions. Without him half our birds would 
have been lost ; and this will become apparent when I state that at least half the 
birds fired at are only winged or disabled, and thus, without a dog gifted with sense, 
nose, and pluck, it would be perfectly impossible for the shooters, in the dead of the 
night, to collect their game. This the poodle does, with a rapidity and intelligence 
which are simply unsurpassable. In short, he is so well adapted for that sort of 
work, that in French his generic name canlche is directly derived from duck 
(canard). He is also called chien canne, which is quite as much a derivation; and 
in some districts where the ooze abounds the name barbet is applied to him. This 
word barbet is evidently a diminutive for barbotteur, i.e., a "mud-lark" a dog fond 
of paddling about in the mud. 

For summer work the sporting poodle on the Continent is invariably clipped 
from the middle of his back to his hocks, and the rest of his coat is simply trimmed ; 



POODLES, FEENCH AND EUSSIAK 257 

but the French and Dutch fowlers have the strange habit of clipping him also over 
the face in such a manner as to leave him very distinctly a moustache and an 
imperiale, which " ornaments " give the dogs a very comical and cunning appearance. 
I do not remember ever having seen a poodle that was not thus " adorned." 

In winter time, however, when severe frosts have set in, and long nights are to 
be spent at the hut or in a bachot (i.e., a flat-bottomed wildfowling punt), it would 
not do to have the dogs' bodies partly bare ; and, accordingly, from the end of the 
summer all the sporting poodles in the fens are allowed to recover their winter coats, 
so that by the time that their endurance is to be severely tested they are ready for 
all the inclemencies of the season. 

In his winter coat a sporting poodle is perfectly impervious to frost or wet, and 
will face the greatest hardships without so much as a shiver. This coat resembles 
to some extent sheeps' wool in its texture, and in the smaller variety of the poodle 
that used as lapdogs when the little dogs' coats are clean and bright, they look 
not unlike lambs ; hence the French ladies call them chiens moutons. The large 
poodle's coat, however, is coarser in texture, and, if the dog is required as a com- 
panion, a great deal of grooming is necessary in order to keep him in presentable 
order. Revoil does not speak favourably of the poodle's appearance. " He is a 
short and stumpy dog," he declares, " coarse and ugly; his legs are disproportioned ; 
he is apple headed, and withal carries his head badly ; his ears are too long and too 
large," &c. But he has evidently only seen curs, for this description does not apply 
to the poodle proper. The French author, however, grows enthusiastic when he 
speaks of the poodle's qualities : " He has an excellent nose ; he is as faithful as a 
poodle; he is intelligent enough to play cards or dominoes and win! He is 
extremely active, and water seems to be his element." All this is correct enough; 
but when Eevoil states, further on, that the poodle is probably descended from the 
land or the water spaniel, the question arises whether the compliment could not be 
reversed; and there we lose ourselves in fruitless speculation. Then our author 
relates that, in the sixteenth century, poodles were used for duck shooting; but 
now, he says, they are simply transformed into chiens savants. Now, French writers 
are noted for their unconquerable wish to appear witty, and their love of brilliancy 
is so great that they will even sacrifice truth if it has to give way to a pun. How- 
ever, in the present case Eevoil evidently does not practically know what he writes 
about. There are certainly less poodles employed now for sporting purposes than 
there used to be, but there are still many so employed ; and the difference between 
the number to be seen now and in past years arises simply from the fact that the 
majority of marshy lands are being reclaimed and cultivated, and, like Othello's, the 
poodle's occupation will soon be entirely gone, as well as that of our own breeds of 
water spaniels, if all marshy lands are to be drained. As regards poodles when 
considered as chiens savants, everybody knows that this breed is almost invariably 
chosen by tumblers or circus performers whenever they wish to train dogs for any 
peculiar tricks, and there are but few people who have not witnessed their 
extraordinary talents in that line. Eevoil states that, in his youth, a certain poodle 
named Munito performed wonderful feats. He also says that in 1829 there were 

L L 



258 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

two poodles in London who played a game of ecartS with all the rapidity and skill 
of professional players. As regards that sort of thing, General Hutchinson, in his 
work on dog breaking, sixth edition, page 246, narrates what he himself saw 
performed by a Russian poodle in Paris. The dog told what o'clock it was, told 

fortunes, &c and there is an illustration, page 245, of a notorious poodle 

playing a game of dominoes. Several of these dogs have played cards well, and 
numberless tricks have been taught them. They are, in fact, the performing dogs 
of all public exhibitions. 

To return now to foreign authors' opinions about the poodle, I find in a small 
book entitled " Conseils aux Chasseurs," by Charles Bemelmans, gamekeeper, page 
108, a few lines relating to barbets. Strange to say, Bemelmans, who really ought to 
know better than even allude to the exploded idea, says that poodles are but 
mediocre setting dogs ! Who ever saw a poodle on point ? Evidently this author 
is all at sea there. He, however, testifies that poodles are extremely good retrievers, 
and very intelligent. 

Another French author, the Viscount de la Neuville, in " La Chasse au Chien 
d'Arret," devotes a paragraph to poodles. He declares that they can be broken 
easily to do anything one likes, they are so clever and sensible. He says that the 
" poodle is not, strictly speaking, a setting dog " (which shows a better knowledge 
of the subject than Bemelmans exhibits), "but that he is excellent for retrieving in 
marshes or flushing marsh birds. He is, however, slow in his work, and easily put 
out of wind. The usual colour is liver, but a smaller breed, called petit barbet, is 
black." So he says. But I have seen hard-working poodles of as many varieties in 
size, form, and colour as one might notice in all our breeds of spaniels, barring 
Clumbers, put together. As regards colour, I have seen black poodles, liver poodles, 
white poodles, and varieties of black and white and liver and white ad libitum. 
Concerning size, I have seen a Russian poodle quite as big as a large-sized retriever ; 
and a sporting French or Belgian poodle not much bigger than a Sussex spaniel. In 
form, again, they vary greatly. Some have almost exactly the lines of the Irish 
water spaniel, and others were as broad as they were high ; but they all had the 
same head, the same intelligent eye, and the same texture of coat, woolly and thick 
underneath, and hanging in ringlets outwardly. The length of ear is also a 
remarkable feature in the poodle. As a rule, it ought, when brought over the nose, 
to reach at least over the other ear. 

As regards utility, personal experience, especially in sporting matters, goes a 
very long way, and I have myself seen poodles at work in Holland, in Belgium, and 
in France. In fact, throughout the Continent, wherever marshes are still to be 
found, the professional duck shooters use poodles. Why ? Why, for two very good 
reasons : the first of which is that there are no other good breeds of water spaniels 
to be had there, for love or money, except in a few favoured localities where British 
shooters have imported English and Irish water spaniels. The French and the 
Dutch have no spaniels proper. What they call epagneuls de tnarais (which ex- 
pression, naturally enough, we would translate verbatim by " marsh spaniels," i.e., 
water spaniels) are simply setters which have been broken to marsh shooting. The 



POODLES, FEENCH AND EUSSIAN. 259 

few regular spaniels proper which are, now and then, to be met with on the 
Continent are of British descent, and, although they are greatly prized by those 
who own them, they are not placed by the professionals on a par with their native 
poodles. Now, as a matter of fact, a first-rate poodle, thoroughly experienced in 
his work, is not easy to beat, and the extraordinary intelligence these dogs display is 
well-nigh marvellous ; but, nevertheless, those who have seen a good English water 
spaniel or a not-over-stubborn Irish ditto at work, will bear in mind that better work 
than theirs is not to witnessed everywhere, and there the matter remains. 

It is, however, chiefly in the retrieving part of his business that the poodle 
distinguishes himself. He is so patient and so indefatigable, and so sensible in his 
search for wounded or dead game, that, even in the face of the greatest difficulties, 
he succeeds. In this he is greatly encouraged by his native master, to whom a bird 
lost is perhaps the day's bread lost; and the dog seems to understand that all- 
pressing demand on his talents. One will often hear the huttiers of the northern 
coasts of the Continent say of their poodles that they won't come back without the 
dead or wounded birds ; and this is perfectly correct. It is very, very rare indeed 
that a bird is lost. In this characteristic determination the Irish or the English 
water spaniel will join issue with the poodle, and, in fact, it seems a distinctive point 
in all the breeds of water spaniels that, when once they have seen a bird, or heard 
him, come down, they mean to have him, and will have him too, by hook or by crook ; 
and those marsh shooters who have seen their dogs repeatedly diving after wounded 
ducks or widgeons will testify that the performance is a treat. 

The poodle never " sulks " in his retrieving. The fact is, retrieving seems to be 
to him quite a second nature. Evidently, he inherits it from a very long list of 
retrieving ancestors ; for, when yet quite a puppy, a poodle will deliberately pick up 
things and carry them to, or behind, his master. There is, therefore, no need of 
training him to retrieve. It comes to him as naturally as a duckling takes to water, 
and he never tires of it. Now, this is of paramount importance for the professional 
huttier, who kills his birds especially in the night, over his decoy ducks, and who 
therefore must rely implicitly upon his dog to collect the slain and wounded. This 
the dog does without being spoken to, and he generally concludes his search in the 
pool by a walk round the shores, in the reeds, for any stray wounded bird ; and he 
is not content with walking there, but paddles in the reeds and grass slowly and 
carefully, and sniffs and listens now and then, for he knows by experience that some 
of the birds will dive and hold back under water until he has passed. If, therefore, 
he hears the slightest splash in the water, he remains perfectly still, and watches for 
any further signs. Of course, all this shows good breaking granted ; but there is 
thought in it, too, and I verily believe that some sporting poodles have quite as 
much sense as their masters. 

Eespecting poodles for show purposes, I have often wondered why so few have 
ever made their appearance on the show benches. If beauty and utility combined 
are really considered a desideratum in show dogs, then I contend that a good, well- 
bred, working poodle is a most handsome and most useful animal, well worthy of 
competing, for instance, with the very ugly specimens of retriever proper which 



260 THE DOGS OP THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

nowadays find their way in shows, especially in the curly-coated classes. And who 
could say Nay to the judge who should award a prize to a handsome working poodle, 
entered either with retrievers or with water spaniels (according to the colour of 
his coat) ? for he is not a retriever, and he is not a water spaniel ; and, moreover, 
is he not, in the vast majority of cases, pure bred ? Therefore I beg to submit that 
the exhibition of poodles should be encouraged by all means. There is no more 
sagacious dog than the poodle, none more persevering in his work, none more 
affectionate to his master ; and the true lines of his body are simply as perfect as 
can be. Then, let poodles be rescued from the oblivion into which their breed 
seems to have fallen of late ; and many a true sportsman will say Amen to that 
from the bottom of his heart, for, morally and physically, the poodle is the very 
emblem of what a dog, as man's help and companion, should be ; and it is a great 
mistake to allow such a valuable breed to become extinct as extinct it certainly will 
soon be, if no effort be made, and that very speedily too, to rescue it from that 
neglect and indifference which have allowed him almost to disappear from the face 
of the earth. 

The group of dogs selected for illustration, which were exhibited in 1876 
at the Westminster Aquarium by Mr. Walton, consists of two French poodles 
(white), and a black Russian imported by his present owner; besides which a 
remarkably clever little rabbit greyhound is introduced, in the act of performing 
the trick of ascending bar by bar to the top of two ladders, which in the actual 
exhibition are held for him by assistant dogs. The large poodle described above is 
so uncommon in this country that no specimen has been within reach, and he 
is not, therefore, put on paper by Mr. Baker, who has succeeded admirably with Mr. 
Walton's pupils. 

THE TRUFFLE-DOG. 

BY "IDSTONE." 

We are far behind the Germans, French, and Italians in our knowledge of 
esculent fungi. Our Continental neighbours are far more skilled, both in their 
preservation and production. They can dry them or preserve them in oil, vinegar, 
or brine ; and in neither case do these conserves lose much of their aroma, flavour, 
or nutritious quality. One Italian species is produced by scattering a shallow 
layer of soil upon a porous slab of stone, and occasionally moistening it with 
water; another, by slightly burning, and subsequently watering, blocks of hazel- 
wood ; and a third (a species of Agaricus) is cultivated by placing the grounds 
of coffee in places favourable for its growth. The market returns of Rome show 
that as much as 4000Z. a year are expended on those productions ; and that the 
peasantry of France, Germany, and Italy in many places subsist to a great extent 
upon them, is an established fact. 

The truffle an edible underground fungus is classed by Berkeley with the 
morel, as one of the Ascomycetes, because in these the " spores," or organs of 
reproduction, are arranged in asci (tubular sacs, or vesicles). The best writers 




MBS. MALCOLM'S TRUFFLE DOG " JUDY. 



TRUFFLES AND TEUFFLE DOGS. 261 

on fungi have arrived at this learned conclusion ; but, in spite of all their dis- 
coveries, and their elaborate remarks on " spheroidal cells," and " spores," and 
" fructification taking place in some particular membrane," we believe attempts to 
cultivate the truffle have failed. 

Science has ascertained that they form an intermediate link between the animal 
and vegetable kingdom, for they do not absorb carbonic acid from the air and give 
out oxygen ; but, like animals, they absorb oxygen and give out carbonic acid. 

The truffle is found in many districts of France, Spain, and Italy ; and in other 
parts of these countries, doubtless (as in England), it exists, though it has not been 
discovered. 

In this country it may be found on almost every chalky down, especially 
where plantations of beech flourish, and in many gentlemen's parks, and on lawns. 
Hampshire, Wilts, Dorset, and Kent, all these counties produce truffles of rich 
quality and in great abundance. Beneath the beech, the cedar, the lime, the oak, 
the hazel, the Scotch fir, it is frequently to be found in clusters, one, two, or three 
feet apart. It is known to be at Tedworth (the seat of the late Mr. T. Assheton 
Smith) ; at Charbro' Park, Dorset (the seat of Mr. Drax) ; at Olantigh Towers, 
in Kent ; and at Holnest House, in Dorset (both seats belonging to the same 
gentleman) ; whilst Kingston Lacey, in Dorset (the property of the Bankeses), 
produces both morels and truffles. Truffles are also found at Eastwell Park, Kent ; 
at Sir J. Sebright's, in Beechwood Park; at Lord Barrington's; at Lord Jersey's; 
at Longleat, Wilts ; at the Countess of Bridgwater's ; at Lord Winchilsea's ; and, 
we believe, at the Earl of Abingdon's seat, near Oxford. 

In some of these localities they are found in beds of twenty, thirty, or more. 
Sometimes they are discovered singly, in most unpromising situations and of 
extraordinary size ; occasionally they are on the surface of the earth, half eaten by 
hares, squirrels, rats, mice, or rooks their natural enemies. Sometimes they are 
raked up with the dead leaves by the gardener; and one of the finest we ever 
dug was found by a truffle dog close to an old gate post ; whilst within a fortnight 
of the writing of this article a keeper picked up a large truffle dropped from a fir 
tree by a squirrel. 

They are in season from November until March, and when fit for the table 
are nearly black. Cut open, they are of a close texture, marbled or spotted, 
with a grey tint. In the summer they are white inside, and give but little smell, 
and are unsavoury. They vary in size. Occasionally they are so minute as to be 
scarcely visible, frequently as large as a walnut, and they are commonly as large as 
a moderate-sized potato. 

We have questioned two experienced truffle diggers, and gather from them the 
following information : 

Truffle digging gives employment to many hands during winter, and in the 
early months of spring lOOlb. a week is not an uncommon amount when a man has 
a good dog, and works hard ; and instances have been known of a man digging 351b. 
or even 401b. in a day, where truffles were unsuspected, and the ground had not 
been "worked." 



262 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

The truffle with a rough scaly coat, much resembling the fir cone, these men 
call a " bud truffle; " the smooth-coated variety they call a " garlic truffle." Both 
are equally good for the table ; but there is a red-skinned truffle found deeper in the 
ground, which they assert to be poisonous. 

Our informant stated that, some years ago, a specimen was found weighing 
3|lb., and " nearly as large as a half-gallon loaf." This assertion we doubt ; but 
we do believe they are frequently met with weighing Iflb. or 21b., though inferior in 
flavour to the smaller specimens. 

In Italy this fungus is hunted with a pig (a fact confirmed by Touatt) ; in 
France (as with us) the truffle- hunter depends upon his dog. The breed is rare, 
and the men dislike to sell them. It is said that about two hundred years ago 
an old Spaniard brought two dogs into Wiltshire, and made a great deal of money 
by the sale of truffles which his dogs found for him ; and at his death he left his 
money and his dogs to a farmer from whom he had received some kindness, and that 
the present dogs are derived from those he left the farmer. 

The truffle-dog is a small poodle (nearly a pure poodle), and weighing about 
151b. He is white, or black-and-white, or black, with the black mouth and 
under-lip of his race. He is a sharp, intelligent, quaint companion, and has the 
" homeing " faculty of a pigeon. When sold to a new master he has been known to 
find his way home for sixty miles, and to have travelled the greater part of the way 
by night. 

He is mute in his quest, and should be thoroughly broken from all game. 
These are essential qualities in a dog whose owner frequently hunts truffles at 
night in the shrubberies of mansions protected by keepers and watchmen, who 
regard him with suspicion. In order to distinguish a Hack dog on these occasions, 
the hunter furnishes his animal with a white shirt, and occasionally also hunts 
him in a line. 

These dogs are rather longer on the leg than the true poodle, but have 
exquisite noses, and hunt close to the ground. On the scent of a truffle (especially 
in the morning or evening, when it gives out most smell), they show all the 
keenness of a spaniel, working their short-cropped tails, and feathering along 
the surface of the ground for from twenty to fifty yards. Arrived at the spot where 
the fungus lies buried, some two or three inches beneath the surface, they dig 
like a terrier at a rat's hole, and the best of them, if let alone, will disinter the 
fungus and carry it to his master. It is not usual, however, to allow the dog 
to exhaust himself in this way, and the owner forks up the truffle and gives the 
dog his usual reward, a piece of bread or cheese ; for this he looks, from long 
habit, with the keen glance of a Spanish gipsy. 

The truffle-hunter is set up in business when he possesses a good dog ; all 
he requires besides will be a short staff, about 2ft. Sin. long, shod with a strong 
iron point, and at the other end furnished with a two-fanged iron hook. With 
this implement he can dig the largest truffle, or draw aside the briers or boughs 
in copse-wood to give his dog free scope to use his nose. He travels frequently 
thirty or forty miles on his hunting expeditions ; and with this (to use a business 




THE CHINESE CRESTED DOG. 



THE CHINESE CRESTED DOG. 263 

term) inexpensive "plant" keeps a wife and children easily. We know personally 
one blue grizzled dog of the old truffle breed which supports a family of ten 
children. 

The truffle dog is a delicate animal to rear, and a choice feeder. Being con- 
tinually propagated from one stock, he has become peculiarly susceptible of all 
dog diseases, and when that fatal year com.es round which desolates the kennel 
in his quarter, many truffle hunters are left destitute of dogs, and consequently 
short of bread ; for they will not believe (as we believe) that any dog with a keen 
nose and lively temper can be taught to hunt and find truffles. 

The education of the dog commences when he is about three months old. 
At first he is taught to fetch a truffle, and when he does this well and cheerfully 
his master places it on the ground, and slightly covers it with earth, selecting 
one of peculiar fragrance for the purpose. As the dog becomes more expert 
and keen for the amusement, he buries the truffle deeper, and rewards him in 
proportion to his progress. He then takes him where he knows truffles to be 
abundant, or where they have been previously found by a well-broken animal, 
and marked. Thus he gradually learns his trade, and becomes (as his forefathers 
have been for many generations) the bread-winner for his master and his master's 
family ; unless he is so fortunate as to become attache to some lordly mansion, 
or possibly to a royal palace, in which case he is a fortunate dog indeed. 

The supply of truffles is uncertain, and the price varies from tenpence to 
thirty shillings a pound. 

In the summer months we have found them, not with a dog, for at this 
season they have little smell, but from a peculiar cracking of the ground. We 
have more than once marked the place with a stick, and examined the specimen 
from time to time. On one occasion we left a truffle from July to November, 
and could discover no perceptible alteration in its size. Frost destroys those 
exposed to its influence, and the very old, or very large, or frosted truffles are 
frequently infested by small brown insects. We have given the result of our 
inquiries and experience. We must refer our readers for further information to 
a work of which we have heard, although we have not been able to procure it, 
" Badham's Esculent Fungi." 



THE CHINESE CEESTED DOG. 

The Chinese edible dog has been long well known in this country as a curiosity, 
but the variety fui-nished with a crest and tufted tail is by no means common. 
Like the ordinary breed, it is quite hairless on the body and limbs, save only 
a few scattered and isolated hairs (about a dozen or eighteen on the whole surface) ; 
hence the thick tufts on the two extremities are the more remarkable. The skin is 
spotted, as shown in the engraving. 

The individual from which our illustration was taken was the only one remaining 
of a litter of six, born from parents imported direct from China, both of which 



264 THE DOGS OF THE BEITISH ISLANDS. 

are now dead. She is (1866) two years old, but has never bred in consequence 
of the difficulty experienced in finding a mate of the same strain. As would be 
expected from her greyhound shape, she is fast and active, and is very affectionate 
in disposition, so that if the breed could be naturalised it would be acceptable to 
many as a novelty in the pet department. 



THE GREAT DANE. 

BY FRANK ADCOCK, ESQ. 

" The dog has so frequently been represented on canvas that it would be 
idle to refuse a description of it in a work professing to treat of the dog in all his 
varieties." So commences the paragraph on this breed in the second edition of 
" Stonehenge," and so far, it appears to me, such paragraph is strictly accurate. 
There are only thirteen additional lines in the work alluded to in which to describe 
the appearance and give the history of this most ancient race of dogs, and I think 
you will confess that the information therein contained fairly merits the term 
" meagre." 

It is useless to speculate upon the origin of this breed, beyond submitting that 
it must have come into existence after the Flood at any rate ; for otherwise certain 
long-nosed, loose, and limber animals yclept mastiffs by a Devonian gentleman not 
unknown to fame would clearly never have maintained their existence. That the 
Great Dane is sufficiently ancient to "boast the claims of long descent" all the books 
that I have found bear ample testimony, whilst old paintings, both English and 
foreign, but more especially the latter, show beyond all dispute that he has remained 
true to type for a thousand years, more or less ; and not only in outward form is 
this so, for a personal knowledge of these dogs, commencing on the Continent in 
1856, has demonstrated the fact that they retain the marvellous courage and power 
which warranted their use in the arena and as war dogs by the ancients. These 
dogs have been for some hundreds of years in the possession of the nobility of this 
country, and are so still. A splendid painting (date fifteenth century, I think) of 
the head of a dog of this breed can be seen in the Spencer collection at South 
Kensington, and helps to prove the assertions I make ; and there can be no doubt a 
class for these dogs will shortly be made at our own large shows, as is the case in 
Paris and other large Continental shows, for the qualities of this breed only require 
to be known to be valued. Enormous in size, sensitive in nose, of great speed, 
unyielding in tenacity and courage, and full of intelligence, there is no dog that can 
so well sustain the part of the dog of the hunter of large game, the guardian of the 
camp, the keeper's night dog, the companion of long and lonely journeys on horse or 
on foot ; and when judiciously used as a cross, the result for some of the purposes 
named is even more useful. Surely such a dog deserves more than the sixteen 



THE GEEAT DANE. 265 



lines " Stonehenge " favours him with. The following, which I copy from the 
Monograph of the Mastiffs by H. D. Eichardson, will to a great extent bear out the 
statements I make. Eichardson (writing in about 1846 or 1847) says : 

This is, I think, the largest dog in existence, and it is likewise decidedly the most serviceable 
as a destroyer of the wolf and the boar. In this country he is but seldom seen in a state of purity ; 
and is, in any case, seldom recognised as what he really is. The Dane rarely stands less than 30in. 
in height at the shoulder, and usually more. His head is broad at the temples, and the parietal 
bones diverge much, thus marking him to be a true mastiff ; but, by a singular discrepancy, his 
muzzle is lengthened more than even that of an ordinary hound, and the lips are not pendulous, or at 
least very slightly so ; his coat, when thoroughbred, is rather short and fine ; the tail is fine and 
tapering ; the neck long ; the ears small and carried back, but these are invariably taken off when the 
dog is a whelp. The finest dog of this breed I ever saw was the celebrated Hector, the property of 
his Grace the Duke of Buccleuch. Hector stood 32in. at the shoulder, and when I saw him was about 
eighteen years old, and his legs had begun to give way, and his back to fall in ; so that, I should 
say, when a young dog, he stood at least an inch and a half higher, or 33Jin., a height equal to that 
of many Shetland ponies. As many persons contradicted my assertion as to Hector's being the true 
Saxon boar dog, the same that used to be kept in the royal establishments of that country, I took the 
liberty of writing to his Grace on the subject, and was kindly favoured with the following reply : 
" Sir, I received your letter on the 31st (yesterday). The dog Hector mentioned by you was bought 
by my brother from a student at Dresden. Of his pedigree I know nothing, but understand the 
breed is used to hunt the wild boar. His height I do not recollect, but he was the tallest dog I ever 
saw. He must have been upwards of twenty years of age when he died, as he was supposed to be 
eight years old when my brother bought him. Your obedient servant, BUCCLEUCH." 

I had likewise the honour of a letter from his Grace's secretary, who very kindly took the pains 
to have the stuffed remains of poor Hector measured for me. In that state he measured but 29in. to 
the shoulder ; this is, however, by no means much for a dog- to shrink, especially when death takes 
place at so advanced an age. 

His Royal Highness Prince Albert has a very fine dog of this description, named Vulcan ; and Mr. 
Maynard kindly furnished me with a description of him, from which I should be disposed to regard 
him as being of a mixed race between the great rough boar dog mentioned in last chapter, and the 
dog at present under consideration. His height is 30in. The colour of the Duke of Buccleuch' s dog 
was a light slate ground, with large brown blotches distributed here and there ; that of his Eoyal 
Highness's dog is a mixture of smoky grey and black, pretty equally distributed. The hair is close, 
and inclined to be wiry, judging from a specimen sent me by Mr. Maynard. Mr. Hague, distiller, of 
Bonnington, near Edinburgh, had a very beautiful dog of this description, colour a light fawn, with 
markings of a deeper tint. The muzzle of these dogs presents a remarkable peculiarity, appearing as 
if suddenly brought to a termination by a chop of a hatchet, so abruptly does it become blunt. 
There are few dogs possessed of such determination as this. Shortly after Hector was brought to 
Scotland, he selected and pursued a stag, singled him from the herd, and ran him through the domains 
until he overtook him in the middle of the river Esk, where he killed him. 

In further proof of the gigantic size of this dog, a writer in a sporting magazine 
Capt. Medwin says, speaking of a tremendous wolf which fell before his rifle : 
" Monster as he was, there are dogs in the town of Heidelberg who would have 
proved more than a match for him or any wolf. This part of Germany possesses a 
breed much in esteem among the students of the University, larger, more muscular, 
and fiercer than any with which I am acquainted ; and in saying this I do not forget 
the dogs of the Pyrenees, St. Bernard, Greece, or Lapland. Our mastiffs, now 
becoming rarer every day, are to them what a cat is to a tiger." I have taken 
considerable interest in these dogs, ever since I first saw one at Heidelberg some 

M M 



266 THE DOGS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 

twenty years ago, and have ever been on the watch to find and secure a really good 
specimen. In 1863 there were, I think, five exhibited at the Cremorne show, and 
amongst them a magnificent specimen shown by Capt. Palmer, and called Sam, a 
print of whom, cut from one of the illustrated papers, I had until quite recently. 
His fault was his colour, being brindle and white. There was also at that time in 
London a very handsome brindled dog of this breed, but he did not appear to have 
that amount of " go " in him that distinguishes it. There have been a great many 
shown since then, but all of them deficient in size, or in some other vital point ; of 
these Nero was a remarkably good dog but for that defect. At the last Kennel 
Club Show there were, I think, five, including my own dog, and some of them were 
exceedingly good, particularly the almost too beautiful blue bitch shown by Lady 
Charles Innes Ker. At the Cremorne show there were no dachshunds exhibited, 
and five Danes. Now the former form large and interesting classes. At the last 
Paris show the class for Grand Danois contained, I think, twenty-two entries, and a 
splendid class it was. Surely it is time we English amateurs took this splendid and 
useful breed in hand, and do for it what we have done for many another which was 
never half so well worth the trouble. 

There is to me considerable pleasure to be derived from a belief that I am in 
possession of a dog who is capable of doing something more than hold his own with 
any dog of any other breed ; and I doubt not a desire to be in a similar position 
operates upon the minds of other Englishmen, and that it can be gratified at the 
sacrifice of some little trouble and expense, and will, I have no doubt. Should 
" Stonehenge " deem it necessary that this breed should meet with some considera- 
tion at his hands in the new edition of his work on dogs, I shall, in the interests of 
those who admire them, be very happy to give him further information, illustrations, 
and extracts ; or, should he be unable to find a better, and is desirous of personally 
studying the physical and mental attributes of a dog of this breed, my dog Satan is 
at his disposal for as long as he thinks proper to keep him. 

[In spite of Mr. Adcock's urgent pleading for this breed, I cannot consider it 
as one of " The Dogs of the British Islands." " STONEHENGE."] 



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